FACC Files

Policy Paper Approved by the Foreign Assistance Correlation Committee 1

secret

MAP D–D/1

Objectives of the Military Assistance Program

general statement

Military objectives are derived from U.S. national policy which may be briefly stated as the intent of the United States, in order to fully safeguard its own security, to assist all free nations in the protection of their sovereignty.

The general military concept on which the Military Assistance Program is founded is derived from the following broad strategic estimate, which recognizes that the United States will, by the nature of its form of government and lack of aggressive intent, be forced initially on the defensive in the event that the strengthening of Allied military power, at a sufficiently early date, fails to deter enemy aggression.

It is the long-range United States military objective to be able to prevent the loss or destruction of Western European and Middle East nations and by securing the natural approaches to the enemy sources of power to facilitate conduct of offensive operations. The short-range military objective is to improve to the maximum extent practicable, and at the earliest date practicable, the capability of Western European nations to provide for their own defense and to increase the capabilities of the Middle Eastern Countries to impose a delay on enemy operations directed toward their areas.

The Scandinavian countries have a special significance in that they border on the Atlantic and their geographical position is astride a direct natural approach leading to the primary sources of Soviet power; similarly, Italy and Turkey are important for their strategic locations astride a natural sea approach to areas from which air power [Page 315]may be projected toward an important segment of the industrial capacity of Soviet areas. Together with Scandinavia, Germany, Austria, and Italy, the Brussels Treaty Powers constitute the present bulwark of Western civilization.

A further factor in the concept of the Military Assistance Program is that an improvement in the internal security situation accrues as a result of military assistance and hence increases the ability of the recipient countries to oppose the “cold war” techniques presently being used by the Soviets.

the brussels treaty powers

(United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg)

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objectives of the United States towards the Brussels Treaty Powers is to assist them in the development of their defensive capabilities, to act as a deterrent to outside aggression and, if aggression nevertheless occurs, to enable the Brussels Treaty Powers to resist strongly the overrunning or destruction of home territories.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

In the face of the existing situation in Europe, it is obviously impossible to achieve these long-range objectives in one year. Hence, the objective of the FY 50 MAP is to take a first step toward the ultimate aims. Specifically, this program provides for bringing ground units which will be in existence in FY 50 to the highest practicable state of combat efficiency; provides maintenance for these forces to enable them to fight for a limited period in the defense of their home territories; provides additional maintenance for these forces at peace-time rates of consumption, so that they will not lose their combat effectiveness; provides limited training equipment for units which can be mobilized between M and M+3; provides limited naval forces to improve the capability of the Brussels Treaty Powers to defend their harbors, protect and keep free of mines their coastal sea lines of communication and, in the case of France, to improve her capability in conjunction with the Allies of defending the sea line of communication from southern France to Algeria.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to meet net deficiencies of the Army with respect to the approximate equivalent of 12 ground force divisions and a limited number of regimental size combat units and supporting units; the Navy with respect to mine-sweeping vessels and equipment and patrol vessels; the Air Force with respect to air defense and medium bomb aircraft and maintenance equipment for training aircraft.

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norway

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objectives in Norway include assistance in the development of sufficient military strength to enable her to deter outside aggression and, in the event aggression nevertheless occurs, to ensure sufficient force to enable her to provide the most effective defense of vital portions of her home territory.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The FY 50 MAP is designed specifically to bring Norway’s existing land, air, and coastal defense forces to the highest practicable state of combat efficiency in order that they may defend, at least for a limited period, vital portions of their home territory; provide limited protection for their coastal sea lines of communication, and to assist the Allies in the control of the water route between the Baltic and the North Seas.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to meet net deficiencies of the Army with respect to the approximate equivalent of 1 ground force division; the Navy with respect to patrol craft, radar equipment and mines; the Air Force with respect to reconnaissance aircraft and transport aircraft, communications equipment and maintenance equipment.

denmark

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objectives in Denmark include assistance in the development of sufficient military strength to enable her to deter outside aggression and, in the event aggression nevertheless occurs, to ensure sufficient force to enable her to provide the most effective defense of vital portions of her home territory.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The FY 50 MAP is designed specifically to bring Denmark’s existing land, air, and coastal defense forces to the highest practicable state of combat efficiency in order that they may defend, at least for a limited period, vital portions of their home territory; provide limited protection for their coastal sea lines of communication, and to assist the Allies in the control of the water route between the Baltic and the North Seas.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to meet net deficiencies of the Army with respect to the equivalent of approximately one-half of a ground force division; the Navy with respect to patrol craft, radar equipment and mines; the Air Force with respect [Page 317]to fighter aircraft and training aircraft with maintenance equipment and communications equipment.

italy

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objectives in Italy include assistance in the development of sufficient military strength to enable her to resist strongly external aggression against her home territory (it is recognized that the forces which might be generated are specifically limited by the existing treaty), and to contribute to Allied control of contiguous areas.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The specific objective of the current program is to improve the operational efficiency of existing Italian air and ground units; to improve her capability for harbor defense and the control of her coastal sea lines of communication; and to increase the capability of the Carabineri to cope with internal disorder. The equipment proposed for the Italian forces is within that authorized by the Italian peace treaty.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to meet net deficiencies of the Army with respect to the approximate equivalent of 10 Ground Force divisions, and provide small arms for the Carabineri; the Navy with respect to small combat and patrol craft, radar and mines; the Air Force with respect to maintenance spares for U.S. type aircraft now in the possession of Italy.

turkey

(1) Military Objectives

To assist the Turks in developing sufficient military strength to deter outside aggression and, in the event aggression nevertheless occurs, to enable them to control the Turkish Straits, and protect their sovereign interests in the Middle East.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The objective of the FY 50 MAP is to maintain and enhance the significant progress already made toward the long-range goal. Specifically: to increase the modernization and the combat effectiveness of existing Turkish Army forces including extension of existing tactical and technical training facilities, to improve the capability of Turkish naval forces to maintain their interests in the Turkish Straits and the Black Sea, and to increase Turkish air defense capabilities;

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of complete equipment, maintenance and spares, with respect to the approximate equivalent of 2 Armored Divisions and supporting units, and to fill the net deficiencies of the approximate [Page 318]equivalent of 5 Ground Force divisions and supporting units, to include tactical and technical training facilities; the Navy with respect to submarines and maintenance equipment for the upkeep of existing naval forces; the Air Force with respect to maintenance spares for U.S. type aircraft now in possession of Turkey, medical supplies and equipment, and communications equipment.

greece

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objective in Greece is the development of sufficient military strength to establish and maintain internal security.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The specific objective is the provision of sufficient military aid to prevent dissident elements from achieving dominance and to make maximum practicable progress toward the long-range objective. It must be recognized that the United States national objectives in Greece are fundamentally political.

However, the strategic importance of Greece might be materially enhanced in the event of Yugoslavian defection from the USSR and thus require a review of the military position in that area.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of arms and ammunition, equipment, maintenance spares and general supplies to support the Greek Army, Navy, and Air Force in its military effort against the dissident elements in Greece.

iran

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objectives in Iran include the development of an Iranian military force which will discourage external aggression and which will ensure internal security. In the event of aggression, this force should be of such magnitude that it can contribute to the delay of such an aggressive force.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The specific objectives of the FY 50 MAP are to improve the combat effectiveness of the existing units of the Iranian Army, and to enhance the efficiency of the Iranian Gendarmerie in the maintenance of internal security.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment and maintenance spares to balance assistance provided under the previous program (FY 49).

austria

(1) Political Objective

The political objective of Military Assistance Program is to provide a means of security in Austria after the withdrawal of the four-power [Page 319]occupation forces, ninety days subsequent to the coming into force of a peace treaty. Steps must be taken to create an Austrian constabulary regiment and to provide for the basic planning required for the establishment of the armed security force permitted by the Treaty. Military Assistance Program will be used to reduce the time lag between the withdrawal of the occupation forces and the organization and operation of the Austrian security forces to prevent any vacuum which might be used to advantage by the Communists.

Aside from the long range military objectives, Military Assistance Program is necessary in Austria to prevent in the future any Communist subversive tactics, the infiltration of subversive agents or minor guerilla activity originating in the neighboring satellite states. Moreover, Military Assistance Program is necessary in providing the Austrian Government with a sense of security in continuing its successful opposition to the Communists in knowing that it will have a means of safeguarding internal order after the Treaty becomes effective and that the withdrawal of the Western occupation forces will not create any political advantage for Communist activity.

(2) Military Objectives

In consonance with the United States policy to establish a free and independent Austrian State, the long-range military objective is the provision of sufficient military assistance to enable her to maintain internal security in the face of subversive tactics by dissident elements and to enable her to contribute to denying an aggressive force the use of avenues of approach through the important passes lying within her territory.

(3) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

In order to expedite the withdrawal of United States occupation forces from Austria, the objective of the current program is the provision of security forces capable of maintaining internal order and of providing local protection of the frontiers.

(4) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to enable the establishment of an Austrian Constabulary Regiment.

korea

(1) Political Objectives

The primary political objective of the U.S. with respect to Korea is to strengthen the democratically-elected Government of the Republic of Korea to the point where it can (1) successfully contain the threat of expanding Communist influence and control arising out of the existence in north Korea of an aggressive Soviet-dominated regime, [Page 320]and (2) serve as a nucleus for the eventual unification of the entire country on a democratic basis. In view of the fact that the effective maintenance of the armed forces upon which that Government must depend for its security following the withdrawal of U.S. occupation forces is and will continue for the foreseeable future to be wholly dependent upon U.S. aid, it is clear that the foregoing objective cannot be attained without a continuing program of military assistance to Korea.

(2) Military Objectives

The long-range military objective in Korea is the development of sufficient military strength to enable her to maintain internal security.

(3) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The military objective with respect to the legally constituted South Korean Government is to provide sufficient equipment and supplies to continue to maintain their internal security forces to a degree which will enable the government to build and maintain internal security and which will allow the withdrawal of American forces by 30 June 1949.

(3 [4]) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to meet net deficiencies of the Army with respect to the approximate equivalent of 3 ground force divisions, and a Korean Coast Guard.

the philippines

(1) Military Objectives

The long-range military objective in the Philippines is the development of sufficient military strength to enable her to maintain internal security.

(2) Objectives of the FY 50 MAP

The specific objective of the FY 50 MAP is the provision of limited amounts of equipment to improve the existing capability of the Philippine Government to deal with dissident element inspired internal disorders and to maintain control of their archipelagic waterways.

(3) Equipment Furnished to Meet the FY 50 Objectives

The provision of equipment, maintenance and spares to meet net deficiencies of the present Philippine Army and Constabulary and the provision of maintenance spares for patrol vessels and aircraft previously transferred.

  1. This document, approved by FACC on May 25, was included in Part D of the MAP Hearing Book.