Introductory Note

AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY: SELECTED PUBLIC DOCUMENTS

Beginning with the year 1950, American Foreign Policy, a companion series to Foreign Relations of the United States, provides systematic coverage of the principal messages, addresses, statements, and reports made in a given period that indicate the scope, goals, and implementation of the foreign policy of the United States. For the immediately preceding years, 1945–1949 inclusive, the present series, Foreign Relations, will provide under this heading a brief indication of certain major documents in these categories. The present listing covers the year 1949. It does not purport to be complete, of course, and as a rule items dealing primarily with United States relations with particular countries will be noted in the compilations for those countries. Many of the items cited below are also referred to in appropriate compilations in the various volumes for 1949, which are organized as follows:

  • 1949,
    • volume I, National Security Affairs; Foreign Economic Policy
    • volume II, The United Nations; The Western Hemisphere
    • volume III, Council of Foreign Ministers; Germany and Austria
    • volume IV, Western Europe
    • volume V, Eastern Europe; The Soviet Union
    • volume VI, The Near East, South Asia, and Africa
    • volume VII, The Far East and Australasia (in two parts)
    • volume VIII, The Far East: China
    • volume IX, The Far East: China

I. Major Public Statements of American Foreign Policy

White House Statement Announcing Recognition of the Government of Korea. January 1, 1949. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1949 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1964) (hereinafter cited as Public Papers: Truman, 1949), p. 1.

CIO Interest in U.S. Actions in Indonesian Situation. Exchange of letters between the President of the Congress of Industrial Organizations and Acting Secretary of State Lovett. December 23, 1948; January 3, 1949; released to the press on January 6. Department of State Bulletin (hereinafter cited as Bulletin), January 16, 1949, p. 81.

Resignation of George C. Marshall as Secretary of State. Exchange of letters between General Marshall and the President, January 3, 1949. Ibid., p. 86.

[Page VIII]

Resignation of Robert A. Lovett as Under Secretary of State. Exchange of letters between Mr. Lovett and the President, January 3, 1949. Ibid., p. 86.

Annual Message of the President to the Congress on the State of the Union. January 5, 1949. (As delivered in person before a joint session.) Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 1 ff.

Announcement by the President of the Resignation of General Marshall and Mr. Lovett, Effective January 20, 1949. With additional comments by the President. January 7, 1949. Ibid., pp. 9 ff.

Announcement by the President of the Appointment of Dean Acheson as Secretary of State and James E. Webb as Under Secretary of State. With additional comments by the President. January 7, 1949. Ibid.

Special Message of the President to the Congress: The President’s Economic Report. January 7, 1949. Ibid., pp. 13 ff.

Letter From the President to the Chairmen, Senate Finance and House Ways and Means Committees, on Extending the Trade Agreements Act. January 8, 1949. Ibid., p. 27.

Annual Budget Message of the President to the Congress: Fiscal Year 1950. January 10, 1949. Ibid., pp. 44 ff.

The Situation in Indonesia. Statement by Philip C. Jessup, Deputy U.S. Representative in the U.N. Security Council. January 11, 1949. Bulletin, January 23, 1949, pp. 91 ff.

Special Message From the President to the Senate Transmitting Charter of the Organization of American States. January 13, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 97.

Special Message From the President to the Senate Transmitting Inter-American Convention on the Granting of Political Rights to Women. January 13, 1949. Ibid., pp. 97 ff.

Inaugural Address of the President. January 20, 1949. Ibid., pp. 112 ff.

Need for Trade Agreements Extension Act. Statement by Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, before the House Ways and Means Committee, January 24, 1949. Bulletin, February 6, 1949, pp. 168 ff.

“Point 4” Program for World Economic Progress Through Cooperative Technical Assistance. Extemporaneous remarks by the Secretary of State (Acheson) at a press conference concerning the President’s inaugural address. January 26, 1949. Ibid., pp. 155 ff.

Purpose of Proposed North Atlantic Treaty. Statement issued by the Secretary of State (Acheson). January 26, 1949. Ibid., p. 160.

“An American Answer to Chinese Communist Propaganda”: Address delivered in Shanghai by John M. Cabot, Consul General, American Embassy, Shanghai. January 26, 1949. Ibid., February 13, 1949, pp. 179 ff.

Special Message of the President to the Congress Concerning Relief to Palestine Refugees. January 27, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 117.

“The American Course in Foreign Affairs”: Address delivered in New York City by Charles E. Bohlen, Counselor of the Department of State. January 28, 1949. Bulletin, February 6, 1949, pp. 157 ff.

White House Statement Announcing Recognition of the Government of Transjordan. January 31, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 121.

White House Statement Announcing Recognition of the Government of Israel. January 31, 1949. Ibid.

Comments on Premier Stalin’s Answers to Questions Submitted by Kingsbury Smith. Remarks at a press conference by the Secretary of State (Acheson). February 2, 1949. Bulletin, February 13, 1949, pp. 192 ff.

[Page IX]

Growth of the Organization of American States. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson) on the occasion of the referral of the charter of the Organization of American States to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee for the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification. February 2, 1949. Ibid., February 6, 1949, pp. 198 ff.

European Recovery Program Gives New Faith in Vitality of Democratic System. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. February 8, 1949. Ibid., February 20, 1949, pp. 232 ff.

Trial of Jozsef Cardinal Mindszenty by the Hungarian Government. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Released to the press on February 9, 1949. Ibid., p. 230.

The Question of Forced Labor in Communist Countries. Statement before the United Nations Economic and Social Council by the U.S. Representative (Thorp). February 14, 1949. Ibid., February 27, 1949, pp. 248 ff.

“New International Frontiers in Human Rights”: Address by Durward V. Sandifer, Acting Director of the Office of United Nations Affairs, Department of State, before the National Citizens Conference on Civil Liberties, in Washington. February 14, 1949. Ibid., pp. 258 ff.

Extension of the European Recovery Program: 1949. Hearings Held in Executive Session Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States. Senate, Eighty-First Congress, First Session, on S. 833, To Amend the Economic Cooperation Act of 1948. (Executive Hearings Held on February 16, 18, 24, and 25; March 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, 1949; made public September 1974.) Historical Series. Committee print.

Peace Treaty Not Workable With Regard to Free Territory of Trieste. Statement in the United Nations Security Council by the U.S. Representative (Austin). February 17, 1949. Bulletin, March 6, 1949, p. 292.

“The United States Goal in Tomorrow’s World”: Address by the Ambassador at Large (Jessup) before the 11th Annual National Farm Institute in Des Moines, Iowa. February 18, 1949. Ibid., February 27, 1949, pp. 243 ff.

The Vandenberg Resolution and the North Atlantic Treaty. Hearings Held in Executive Session Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eightieth Congress, Second Session, on S. Res. 239, Reaffirming the Policy of the United States to Achieve International Peace and Security Through the United Nations and Indicating Certain Objectives To Be Pursued; and Eighty-First Congress, First Session, on Executive L, The North Atlantic Treaty. (Executive Hearings Held on May 11, 12, and 19, and June 3, 1948, and February 18, March 8, April 5, 12, 19, and 21, and June 2 and 6, 1949; made public August 1973.) Historical Series. Committee print.

Special Message of the President to the Congress Transmitting Bill Extending the Institute of Inter-American Affairs. February 21, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 141 ff.

“International Security Through the United Nations and the Atlantic Pact”: Address by the Ambassador at Large (Jessup) before the Yale Daily News annual dinner in New Haven, Connecticut. February 23, 1949. Bulletin, March 6, 1949, pp. 281 ff.

“A More Perfect Union”: Address by the U.S. Representative to the United Nations (Austin) before a joint session of the Vermont General Assembly. February 24, 1949. Ibid., pp. 278 ff.

Armistice Between Egypt and Israel. Statement by the President at a press conference. February 24, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 150.

[Page X]

Economic Development and Technical Cooperation. Statement in the United Nations Economic and Social Council by the U.S. Representative (Thorp). February 25, 1949. Bulletin, March 6, 1949, pp. 283 ff.

United States Supports Israel’s Application for Membership in United Nations. Statement before the Security Council by the U.S. Representative (Austin). March 3, 1949. Ibid., March 13, 1949, p. 311.

Relation of Strategic Trust Areas to the United Nations Security Council. Statement before the Security Council by the U.S. Representative (Austin). March 3, 1949. Ibid., pp. 309 ff.

Letter From the President Accepting Resignation of James V. Forrestal as Secretary of Defense. March 3, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 160. Citation Accompanying Distinguished Service Medal Awarded to Mr. Forrestal. March 28, 1949. Ibid., p. 188.

Memorandum From the President to the Chairman, National Security Resources Board, on Civil Defense Planning. March 3, 1949. Ibid., p. 162.

Special Message of the President to the Congress on Reorganization of the Department of State. March 4, 1949. Ibid., pp. 160 ff.

Special Message of the President to the Congress on Reorganization of the National Military Establishment. March 5, 1949. Ibid., pp. 163 ff.

“Our World Information Program”: Address by George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, before the New York Herald Tribune Student Forum, New York City. March 5, 1949. Bulletin, March 13, 1949, pp. 322 ff.

Economic Assistance to China and Korea: 1949–50. Hearings Held in Executive Session Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty-First Congress, First and Second Sessions, on S. 1063, A Bill To Provide Economic, Financial, and Other Aid to China; S. 2319, A Bill To Promote Peace and the General Welfare, National Interest, and Foreign Policy of the United States by Providing Aid to the Republic of Korea; S. 2845, A Bill To Enable the President to Obligate Funds Heretofore Appropriated for Assistance in Certain Areas of China Until June 30, 1950. (Executive Hearings Held on March 11, 15, 18, 22, 24, and 29; June 28, July 7 and 12, 1949; and January 24 and 31, 1950; made public January 1974.) Historical Series. Committee print.

“Bases of United States Foreign Policy”: Address by the Ambassador at Large (Jessup) before the National Conference on American Foreign Policy, in Washington. March 17, 1949. Bulletin, March 27, 1949, pp. 393 ff.

“The Meaning of the North Atlantic Pact”: Radio address by the Secretary of State (Acheson). March 18, 1949. Ibid., pp. 384 ff.

Fleet Admiral Nimitz Nominated as Kashmir Plebiscite Administrator. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). March 23, 1949. Ibid., April 3, 1949, p. 419.

“The North Atlantic Pact: A Historic Step in the Development of American Foreign Relations”: Address by Charles E. Bohlen, Counselor of the Department of State, before the Philadelphia Bulletin Forum. March 23, 1949. Ibid., pp. 428 ff.

Statement by the President Upon Signing Resolution for the Relief of Palestine Refugees. March 24, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 180.

“Influence of Inter-American Relations on U.S. Foreign Policy”: Address by Paul C. Daniels, Director for American Republic Affairs, Department of State, at the University of Wisconsin. March 30, 1949. Bulletin, April 10, 1949, pp. 460 ff.

[Page XI]

Report to the Congress by the United States Advisory Commission on Information. Released to the press On March 30, 1949. Ibid., pp. 464 ff.

Signing Ceremony of the North Atlantic Treaty, Departmental Auditorium, Washington. April 4, 1949. Ibid., pp. 471 ff.

Address by the President on the Occasion of the Signing of the North Atlantic Treaty. April 4, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 196 ff.

The Problem of Atomic Weapons. Remarks of the President to a Group of New Democratic Senators and Representatives. April 6, 1949. Ibid., pp. 199 ff.

Report of the Secretary of State (Acheson) to the President on the North Atlantic Treaty. April 7, 1949; released to the press on April 12. Bulletin, April 24, 1949, pp. 532 ff.

“The Atlantic Community and the United Nations”: Address by the Ambassador at Large (Jessup) before the Academy of Political Science in New York City. April 7, 1949. Ibid., April 17, 1949, pp. 486 ff.

Request for Military Assistance From Atlantic Pact Countries. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). April 8, 1949. Ibid., pp. 493 ff.

United States, United Kingdom, and France Reach Agreement on All Questions Relating to Germany. Communiqué following meeting of the three Foreign Ministers in Washington, with statement by Secretary of State Acheson, message to the Military Governors, and text of the Occupation Statute. Released to the press on April 8, 1949. Ibid., pp. 499 ff.

Agreement for Tripartite Controls for Western Germany. Text of agreement reached in Washington on April 8, 1949, on a trizonal fusion agreement prior to the entry into effect of the Occupation Statute. Released to the press on April 26, 1949. Ibid., May 8, 1949, pp. 589 ff.

Special Message of the President to the Senate Transmitting the North Atlantic Treaty. April 12, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 206 ff.

United States, United Kingdom, and France Reach Agreement on Revision of the Lists of Capital Equipment To Be Removed From Western Germany as Reparation. Statement released by the Department of State on April 13, 1949. Bulletin, April 24, 1949, pp. 524 ff.

Organization of the International Authority for the Ruhr. Occupation Statute as a Practicable Basis of Cooperation With Future German Government. Statements by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Released to the press on April 13, 1949. Ibid., pp. 525 ff.

United States, United Kingdom, and France Announce Agreement on Limitations on Certain Industries in Germany. Statement released by the Department of State and the Department of the Army on April 13, 1949. Ibid., pp. 526 ff.

“The Problem of Voting in the Security Council”: Address before the United Nations General Assembly by the U.S. Representative (Austin). April 13, 1949. Ibid., pp. 512 ff.

United States Answers Soviet Charges Against North Atlantic Treaty. Statement before the plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly by the U.S. Representative (Austin). April 14, 1949. Ibid., May 1, 1949, pp. 552 ff.

“Pan-American Day: A Symbol of Mutual Trust and Cooperation Among the Americas”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) at the Special Session of the Council of the Organization of American States, in Washington. April 14, 1949. Ibid., pp. 564 ff.

Suppression of Human Rights in Bulgaria and Hungary. Statement made in the Ad Hoc Political Committee of the United Nations General Assembly by Benjamin V. Cohen of the U.S. Delegation. April 18, 1949, Ibid., pp. 556 ff.

[Page XII]

Reply to the Soviet Union Regarding the Italian Colonies. Statement in Committee I (Political and Security) of the United Nations General Assembly by John Foster Dulles of the United States Delegation. April 23, 1949. Ibid., May 8, 1949, pp. 581 ff.

Steps Taken for Safety of Americans in Lower Yangtze Valley. Notice released by the U.S. Consulate General in Shanghai. April 25, 1949. Ibid., p. 607.

The North Atlantic Treaty and the Role of the Military Assistance Program. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. April 27, 1949. Ibid., pp. 594 ff.

“The Current Situation in Germany”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the American Society of Newspaper Publishers, in New York City. April 28, 1949. Ibid., pp. 585 ff.

Special Message of the President to the Congress Transmitting the Charter of the International Trade Organization. April 28, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 233 ff. Memorandum for the President from the Secretary of State (Acheson) on the Charter. Released to the press on April 28, 1949. Bulletin, May 8, 1949, pp. 602 ff. “Economic Policy and the ITO Charter”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the National Convention of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, in Washington, May 3, 1949. Ibid., May 15, 1949, pp. 623 ff.

“International Reclamations and the Peace Settlements”: Address by the Acting Legal Adviser of the Department of State (Tate) before the American Society of International Law. April 29, 1949. Ibid., pp. 627 ff.

“The Atmosphere of Neighborliness Between American States”: Address at the Fourth Conference of American States Members of the International Labor Organization, by the U.S. Delegate (Briggs). April 29, 1949. Ibid., June 12, 1949, pp. 752 ff.

United States Protests Soviet Jamming of Voice of America. Statement released to the press on May 2, 1949. Ibid., May 15, 1949, p. 638.

Statement by the President Upon Releasing General Lucius D. Clay Following the Agreement To Lift the Berlin Blockade. May 3, 1949. Citation Accompanying Distinguished Service Medal Awarded to General Clay. May 17, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 240, 253.

Progress in the Economic Commission for Europe. Statement to the fourth session of the Commission in Geneva by the U.S. Representative (Harriman). May 9, 1949. Bulletin, May 22, 1949, p. 651.

United States Supports Israel’s Application for Membership in United Nations. Statement by the U.S. Representative at the United Nations (Austin). May 11, 1949. Ibid., pp. 655 ff.

United States Policy on Spain. Remarks by the Secretary of State (Acheson) at a press conference. May 11, 1949. Ibid., pp. 660 ff.

Lifting of the Berlin Blockade. Remarks by the Secretary of State (Acheson) at a press conference. May 11, 1949. Ibid., p. 662.

United States Continues Support of Security Council’s Resolution on Indonesia. Statement before the plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly by the U.S. Representative (Austin). May 11, 1949. Ibid., May 29, 1949, pp. 687 ff.

Japanese Reparations and Level of Industry. Statement before the Far Eastern Commission by the U.S. Representative (McCoy). May 12, 1949. Ibid., May 22, 1949, pp. 667 ff.

Message of the President to the Congress Transmitting Third Annual Report on U.S. Participation in the United Nations. May 12, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 251.

[Page XIII]

General Assembly Adopts Draft Convention on International Transmission of News and Right of Correction. Statement in plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly by the Alternate U.S. Delegate (Canham). May 13, 1949. Bulletin, May 29, 1949, pp. 678 ff.

Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy. Statement broadcast over the Voice of America by Senator Brien McMahon, Chairman of the Joint Atomic Energy Committee of Congress. May 14, 1949. Ibid., June 5, 1949, pp. 726 ff.

Disposition of the Former Italian Colonies. Statement before the plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly by the U.S. Representative (Austin). May 17, 1949. Ibid., pp. 713 ff.

“Despite Our Differences, We Are Still the United Nations”: Statement by the U.S. Representative (Austin) at close of Third Session of the General Assembly. May 18, 1949. Ibid., May 29, 1949, p. 677.

Pacific Pact Corresponding to North Atlantic Pact Untimely. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Released to the press on May 18, 1949. Ibid., p. 696.

Nomination of John J. McCloy To Be U.S. High Commissioner for Germany and Chief of Mission Sent to Senate. Statement released to the press by the White House on May 18, 1949. Ibid., June 5, 1949, p. 730. See also Executive Orders 10062 and 10063, June 6 and 13, 1949, 14 Fed. Reg. 2965, 3221.

Review of the World Situation: 1949–1950. Hearings Held in Executive Session Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty-First Congress, First and Second Sessions, on the World Situation by Dean G. Acheson, Charles E. Bohlen, Gen. Omar Bradley, W. Walton Butterworth, Gen. J. Lawton Collins, Paul G. Hoffman, Philip C. Jessup, Louis Johnson, William McChesney Martin, John J. McCloy, Livingston Merchant, Frank Pace, Dean Rusk, John W. Snyder, and others. (Executive Hearings Held on May 19, June 22, September 20, and October 12, 1949, and January 10, 13, 25, and 26, March 29, May 1, July 24, September 11, November 28, December 9 and 22, 1950; made public June 1974.) Historical Series. Committee print.

“A Perspective on the Problems Facing the Council of Foreign Ministers”: Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). May 19, 1949. Bulletin, May 29, 1949, pp. 675 ff.

Significance of the International Wheat Agreement. Statement by Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, before the Subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. May 19, 1949. Ibid., pp. 699 ff.

The U.S. Military Assistance Program. Statement issued by the Department of State, and also printed as its publication 3507. May 22, 1949. Ibid., May 22, 1949, pp. 643 ff.

“Goals and Practical Problems of the Point-4 Program”: Address by John R. Steelman, Assistant to the President, before the Joint Luncheon of the Executives Club of Chicago and the Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry, at Chicago. May 27, 1949. Ibid., June 12, 1949, pp. 760 ff.

U.S. Notes to Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania Invoke Peace Treaty Clauses To Settle Disputes on Violating Human Freedoms. Statement released to the press on June 1, 1949, with texts of documents. Ibid., pp. 755 ff.

Address by the President at a Dinner in Honor of General George C. Marshall. June 5, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 275 ff.

North Atlantic Treaty. Report of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Excerpts from S. Exec. Rept. No. 8, 81st Cong., 1st Sess., June 6, 1949. Bulletin, June 19, 1949, pp. 787 ff.

[Page XIV]

Special Message of the President to the Congress Recommending Continuation of Economic Assistance to Korea. June 7, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 277 ff. Statement by the Acting Secretary of State (Webb) before the House Foreign Affairs Committee. June 8, 1949. Bulletin, June 19, 1949, pp. 783 ff.

United States–United Nations Cooperation in Point-4 Program. Statement by the Acting Secretary of State (Webb). June 8, 1949. Ibid., p. 774.

Accomplishments of Institute of Inter-American Affairs. Statement by Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. June 10, 1949. Ibid., pp. 795 ff.

“Iron Curtains”: Address by Mr. Thorp at commencement exercises of Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts. June 12, 1949. Ibid., pp. 797 ff.

The Soviet Union Refuses To Cooperate in Settling Disputes Under Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Romanian Peace Treaties. Statement by the Acting Secretary of State (Webb). June 15, 1949. Ibid., June 26, 1949, pp. 824 ff.

Special Message of the President to the Senate Transmitting Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. June 16, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 291 ff. Report of the Acting Secretary of State (Webb). June 16, 1949. Bulletin, July 4, 1949, pp. 844 ff.

“Force and Freedom”: Address by Selden Chapin, former Minister to Hungary, before the Catholic War Veterans, in Houston, Texas. June 17, 1949. Ibid., June 26, 1949, pp. 820 ff.

The Soviet Union Refuses To Fulfill Commitments on German Prisoners of War. Statement released to the press on June 17, 1949. Ibid., p. 824.

Message of the President to the Congress Transmitting Reorganization Plan 4 of 1949: National Security Council and National Security Resources Board. June 20, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 316 ff.

“Europe as a Bulwark of Peace”: Address by Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith, former Ambassador to the Soviet Union, at the Conference of Governors, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. June 20, 1949. Bulletin, July 4, 1949, pp. 872 ff.

The Paris Conference of the Council of Foreign Ministers. Communiqué released on June 21, 1949. Statement by President Truman, released on June 21. Statements by the Secretary of State (Acheson) on June 22 and 23. Ibid., pp. 857 ff.

The United States Will Not Support Membership in the United Nations of States Unwilling to Fulfill Charter Obligations. Statements before the Security Council by the U.S. Representative (Austin). June 21 and 24, 1949. Ibid., July 11, 1949, pp. 13 ff.

“Where Do We Stand on Point Four?” Address by George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, before the American Society of Engineering Education, at Troy, New York. June 23, 1949. Ibid., July 4, 1949, pp. 865 ff.

Special Message of the President to the Congress Recommending Point 4 Legislation. June 24, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 329 ff.

Change-Over to Civilian Control of Germany. Summary of major developments, released to the press on June 30, 1949. Charter of the Allied High Commission for Germany. Bulletin, July 11, 1949, pp. 22 ff.

The North Atlantic Treaty. Statements made before the Senate of the United States by Senator Tom Connally on July 5 and Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg on July 6, 1949. Excerpts in ibid., July 18, 1949, pp. 53 ff.

[Page XV]

Special Message of the President to the Congress: The President’s Midyear Economic Report. July 11, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 356 ff.

Publication of First Volume of Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918–1945, under the Joint Sponsorship of the American, British, and French Governments. Statement released by the Department of State on July 16, 1949. Bulletin, August 1, 1949, p. 158.

“American Leadership in a Great Crusade for Peace”: Address by the President in Chicago before the Imperial Council Session of the Shrine of North America. July 19, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 385 ff.

Basic Issues on Atomic Energy. Statement before a meeting of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission by the Deputy U.S. Representative (Osborn). July 20, 1949. Bulletin, August 22, 1949, pp. 247 ff.

Economic Development of Underdeveloped Countries. Statement before the United Nations Economic and Social Council, in Geneva, by the U.S. Representative (Thorp). July 21, 1949. Ibid., August 8, 1949, pp. 170 ff.

“The Inter-American System in the World Scene Today”: Excerpts from an address by Willard F. Barber, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for American Republic Affairs, at Colgate University. July 23, 1949. Ibid., August 1, 1949, pp. 149 ff.

Statement by the President Upon Ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty. July 25, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 395.

Special Message of the President to the Congress on the Need for a Military Aid Program. July 25, 1949. Ibid. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the House Foreign Affairs Committee. July 28, 1949. Bulletin, August 8, 1949, pp. 189 ff.

Statement by the President on Discussions With the United Kingdom and Canada Regarding Long Range Policy on Atomic Energy. July 28, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 402 ff.

Military Assistance Program: 1949. Joint Hearings Held in Executive Session Before the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Eighty-First Congress, First Session, on S. 2388, A Bill To Promote the Foreign Policy and Provide for the Defense and General Welfare of the United States by Furnishing Military Assistance To Foreign Nations. (Executive Hearings Held on July 29, August 2, 5, 10, 11, 12, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, and 31 and September 8, 9, and 12, 1949; Made Public August 1974.) Historical Series. Committee print.

Statement by the President Reviewing the Nation’s Atomic Energy Program. August 1, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 407.

United States Asks Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania To Refer Disputes to Peace Treaty Commissions. Statement released to the press on August 1, 1949. Bulletin, August 15, 1949, p. 238.

United States Rejects Soviet Charges on Italy’s Adherence to North Atlantic Treaty. Text of United States note to the Soviet Union, released to the press on August 1, 1949. Ibid.

Testimony Before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on Military Assistance. Statement read into the record on August 2, 1949, and released to the press on August 17. Statements on Aid to Italy, France, and Norway, by the Ambassadors to These Countries (Dunn, Bruce, and Bay). August 5, 1949. Ibid., August 29, 1949, pp. 295 ff.

Testimony on Military Assistance Program. Statement on Union of Western Europe by the Ambassador to the United Kingdom (Douglas). Statement on Military Aid to Greece by the Ambassador to Greece (Grady). August 2, 1949. Ibid., August 15, 1949, pp. 229 ff.

[Page XVI]

Publication of United States Relations With China, With Special Reference to the Period 1944–1949. Statement by the President at a press conference. August 4, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 408 ff. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Bulletin, August 15, 1949, pp. 236 ff.

“Soviet Reaction Shows Value of Voice of America”: Article by George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, in Washington Sunday Star, August 7, 1949. Bulletin, August 29, 1949, pp. 310 ff.

Practical Effects of Proposed Military Assistance. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the Armed Services Committee. August 8, 1949. Ibid., August 22, 1949, pp. 264 ff.

“Economic and Political Forces in Germany”: Address by the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany (McCloy). Broadcast on August 9, 1949. Ibid., pp. 270 ff.

Relation of Private Investment to Point 4 Program. Statement by the Under Secretary of State (Webb) before the Senate Banking and Currency Committee. August 9, 1949. Ibid., pp. 274 ff.

Statement by the President Upon Signing the National Security Act Amendments of 1949. August 10, 1049. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 417 ff.

Joint Statement by the President of the United States and the President of the Philippines (Quirino) Following Discussions in Washington. August 11, 1949. Ibid., p. 418.

“Harmony To Save Succeeding Generations From the Scourge of War”: Address by the U.S. Representative to the United Nations (Austin) at the Berkshire Music Festival at Lennox, Massachusetts. August 12, 1949. Bulletin, August 29, 1949, pp. 283 ff.

Answers by the Secretary of State (Acheson) to Questions on the Proposed Military Assistance Program by Representative John Davis Lodge. August 15, 1949. Ibid., September 26, 1949, pp. 476 ff.

The German Elections: A Victory for Moderation and Common Sense. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson), released to the press on August 17, 1949. Ibid., August 29, 1949, p. 303.

Japanese Participation in International Relations Encouraged. Statement issued by the Department of State on August 18, 1949. Ibid., p. 307.

The Caribbean Situation. United States Memorandum to the Inter-American Peace Committee. August 18, 1949. Ibid., September 26, 1949, pp. 450 ff.

Investment of American Private Capital Abroad. Statement by the Under Secretary of State (Webb) before the House Banking and Currency Committee. August 19, 1949. Ibid., August 29, 1949, pp. 305 ff.

“The International Situation”: Address by the Counselor of the Department of State (Kennan), broadcast on August 22, 1949. Ibid., September 5, 1949, pp. 323 ff.

United States Protests Siege of Consulate General at Shanghai. August 22, 1949. Ibid., September 19, 1949, pp. 440 ff.

“Voluntary Association Among Free Nations for Security and Liberty”: Address by the President in Miami at the Golden Jubilee Convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. August 22, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 431 ff.

“The Foreign Policy of a Free Democracy”: Address by the Ambassador at Large (Jessup), in Miami. August 24, 1949. Bulletin, September 5, 1949, pp. 345 ff.

Department of State Answers Criticisms of the Publication United States Relations With China. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Analysis of Sixteen Charges of “Dishonesty” in the White Paper. August 24, 1949. Bulletin, September 5, 1949, pp. 350 ff.

[Page XVII]

Statement by the President on the Coming Into Effect of the North Atlantic Treaty. August 24, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 438.

Statement by the President on the Appointment of Gordon R. Clapp as Chairman of an Economy Survey Mission to the Near East. August 26, 1949. Ibid., pp. 444 ff.

“International Economic Policy”: Address by the President in Philadelphia at the American Legion Convention. August 29, 1949. Ibid., pp. 446 ff.

Remarks of the President on a “War of Nerves” During the Past Three or Four Years. Press Conference on September 1, 1949. Ibid., p. 457.

“The Conquering March of an Idea: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights”: Address by the Ambassador at Large (Jessup) before the 72d Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association, in St. Louis, Missouri. September 6, 1949. Bulletin, September 19, 1949, pp. 432 ff.

“The Place of UNESCO in American Foreign Policy”: Article based on the remarks of George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, before the first plenary session of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, in Washington. September 9, 1949. Ibid., October 3, 1949, pp. 497 ff.

Tripartite Economic Conference Ends: United States, United Kingdom, and Canada Agree on Measures to Expand Dollar Earnings of Sterling Area. Communiqué issued at Washington on September 12, 1949, with statement issued by the Department of State. Ibid., September 26, 1949, pp. 473 ff.

Remarks by the President at the Joint Meeting of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. September 13, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 478 ff.

Joint Statements on Developments and Problems Facing the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Italy. Statements issued on September 13, 14, and 15, following a series of meetings of Foreign Ministers in Washington. Bulletin, September 26, 1949, pp. 467 ff.

“Fourth Anniversary of the United Nations”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the National Citizens’ Committee for United Nations Day. September 15, 1949. Ibid., pp. 455 ff.

First Meeting of the North Atlantic Council, in Washington. Communiqué issued on September 17, 1949. Ibid., pp. 469 ff.

“Waging Peace in the Americas”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the Pan American Society of the United States, in New York City. September 19, 1949. Ibid., pp. 462 ff.

Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania Accused of New Breach of Treaty Obligations. Statement by the Department of State. Released to the press on September 19, 1949. Ibid., October 3, 1949, pp. 514 ff.

Amendments to Immigration Act Opposed. The Secretary of State (Acheson) to Senator Patrick A. McCarran, Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, on Senate Bill S. 1832, July 15, 1949. Released on September 19, 1949. Ibid., pp. 516 ff.

“Clarity of UNESCO’s Central Purpose Needed in Peacemaking of United Nations”: Address by Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs George V. Allen, Chairman of the United States Delegation at the Fourth Session of the General Conference of UNESCO, at Paris. September 20, 1949. Ibid., October 10, 1949, pp. 536 ff.

“U.S. Position on Problems Confronting the Fourth General Assembly”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) Before the First Plenary Meeting of the Fourth Session of the U.N. General Assembly. September 21, 1949. Ibid., October 3, 1949, pp. 489 ff.

[Page XVIII]

Western Germany Begins New Phase of Self-Government. Statement by the Acting Secretary of State (Webb). Released to the press on September 21, 1949. Ibid., p. 512.

Statement by the President on Announcing the First Atomic Explosion in the Soviet Union. September 23, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, p. 485. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Released to the press on September 23. Bulletin, October 3, 1949, p. 487.

United States Policy in Indonesia. September 26, 1949. Ibid., September 26, 1949, pp. 447 ff.

Statement by the President Upon Signing the Trade Agreements Extension Act. September 26, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 486 ff.

The Position of Korea in International Affairs Today. Statement by Charles Fahy, U.S. Alternate Representative to the U.N. General Assembly, before the Ad Hoc Political Committee. September 29, 1949. Bulletin, October 24, 1949, pp. 625 ff.

U.S. Views on Question of Disposition of Former Italian Colonies. Statement by Ambassador Philip C. Jessup in Committee I of the U.N. General Assembly. September 30, 1949. Ibid., October 17, 1949, pp. 585 ff.

“Debate on Human Rights—Freedom Can Unite Us”: Statement by Benjamin V. Cohen, U.S. Alternate Representative to the General Assembly, before the Ad Hoc Political Committee. October 4, 1949, Ibid., October 24, 1949, pp. 617 ff.

Administration of Trade Agreements Program. Executive Order 10082. October 5, 1949. Ibid., October 17, 1949, pp. 593 ff.

Statement by the President Upon Signing the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. October 6, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 500 ff.

“Care and Resettlement of World’s Refugees”: Report on Meetings of the International Refugee Organization at Geneva, October 6–20, 1949. Bulletin, November 21, 1949, pp. 784 ff.

Democratic Advance of Western Germany; U.S. Rejects Soviet Interpretation of Events. Statement by the Acting Secretary of State (Webb). Released to the press on October 6, 1949. Ibid., October 17, 1949, pp. 590 ff.

The Protection of Foreign Interests in Germany. Memorandum by the United States on the Report prepared by the Inter-Governmental Group for the Safeguarding of Foreign Interests in Germany. October 7, 1949. Ibid., pp. 573 ff.

“The Stake of Business in American Foreign Policy”: Remarks by Dean Rusk, Deputy Under Secretary of State, before the Boston Conference on Distribution. October 10, 1949. Ibid., October 24, 1949, pp. 630 ff.

East German Government Established Through Soviet Fiat. Statement released by the Department of State to the press on October 12, 1949. Ibid., pp. 634 ff.

Remarks by the President at a Meeting With the Ambassadors to the Council of the Organization of American States. October 12, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 507 ff.

U.S. Urges System of Verification in Control of International Agreements. Statement by the U.S. Representative to the United Nations (Austin) before the Security Council. October 14, 1049. Bulletin, October 31, 1949, pp. 649 ff.

“Problems in American Foreign Policy”: Address delivered before the Alfred E. Smith Memorial Foundation in New York City, by the Secretary of State (Acheson). October 20, 1949. Ibid., pp. 668 ff.

The Problem of the Independence of Korea. Statement by Charles Fahy, U.S. Alternate Representative to the General Assembly, in the plenary session on Korea. October 20, 1949. Ibid., November 7, 1949, pp. 694 ff.

[Page XIX]

“The United Nations and American Security”: Address by Dean Rusk, Deputy Under Secretary of State, before the Commonwealth Club of California in San Francisco, California. October 21, 1949. Ibid., October 31, 1949, pp. 652 ff.

Address by the President at the Cornerstone Laying of the United Nations Building, New York City. October 24, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 526 ff.

“The Department of State: A Reflection of U.S. Leadership”: Address by John Peurifoy, Deputy Under Secretary of State, before the Colleton County Press Association in Walterboro, South Carolina. October 24, 1949. Bulletin, October 31, 1949, pp. 671 ff.

International Control of Atomic Energy. Statement by the Representatives of Canada, China, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for transmission to the General Assembly. October 24, 1949. Ibid., November 7, 1949, pp. 686 ff.

Discussion of the Greek Situation. Statement by Benjamin V. Cohen, U.S. Alternate Representative to the General Assembly, before Committee I. October 27, 1949. Ibid., November 21, 1949, pp. 779 ff.

Statement by the President Upon Signing the National Military Establishment Appropriation Act. October 29, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 538 ff.

The Technical Assistance Program: A Task for Generations. Summary of Remarks by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the Eleventh Constitutional Convention of the Congress of Industrial Organizations in Cleveland, Ohio. October 29, 1949. Bulletin, November 14, 1949, pp. 719 ff.

“The United States as an Importer in World Economy”: Address by the Secretary of State (Acheson) before the convention of the National Foreign Trade Council in New York City. November 2, 1949. Ibid., pp. 747 ff.

Indonesians Accorded Full Independence. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Released to the press on November 3, 1949. Ibid., pp. 752 ff.

No Response From Chinese on Release of Consul General Angus Ward and Staff; text of letter from Consul General O. Edmund Clubb in Peiping to General Chou En-lai. November 3, 1949. Ibid., November 21, 1949, pp. 759 ff.

“United States–United Kingdom ‘Essentials of Peace’; A Challenge to Soviet Sincerity”: Statement by the U.S. Representative at the United Nations (Austin) before Committee I. November 14, 1949. Ibid., November 28, 1949, pp. 801 ff.

“Freedom of the Press—An International Issue”: Article by Samuel DePalma. Ibid., November 14, 1949, pp. 724 ff.

Disposition of Former Italian Colonies: Statement by Ambassador Philip C. Jessup before the plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly. November 18, 1949. Ibid., December 5, 1949, pp. 842a ff.

Angus Ward Released by Communists; text of a personal message from the Secretary of State (Acheson) to the Foreign Ministers of all countries which have diplomatic or consular representatives in China. November 18, 1949; released by the Department of State on November 23, 1949. Bulletin, November 28, 1949, pp. 799 ff.

“‘Stop Communism’ is Not Enough; the Problems in the Near East, South Asia, and Africa”: Summary of Address by George C. McGhee, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs, before the National Convention of the Young Democratic Clubs of America at Chattanooga, Tennessee. November 19, 1949. Ibid., pp. 825 ff.

“Establishment of Soviet-Sponsored East German Republic”: Article by Henry B. Cox. Ibid., November 21, 1949, pp. 761 ff.

[Page XX]

ECOSOC Action on Social Issues”: Article by Savilla M. Simons. Ibid., pp. 765 ff.

“The Annecy Conference on Tariffs and Trade”: Article by Woodbury Willoughby. Ibid., pp. 774 ff.

Remarks by the President to the Delegates at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. November 22, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 573 ff.

The Chinese Situation in the United Nations. Statement by Ambassador Philip C. Jessup before Committee I of the U.N. General Assembly. November 28, 1949. Bulletin, December 12, 1949, pp. 897 ff.

North Atlantic Defense Community Communiqué. Released to the press in Paris on December 1, 1949. Ibid., December 19, 1949, p. 948.

“Propaganda: A Conscious Weapon of Diplomacy”: Address by George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, at Duke University, Durham, N.C. December 10, 1949. Ibid., pp. 941 ff.

Economic Cooperation Agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. December 15, 1949. Statement released by the Department of State, December 15, 1949. Ibid., December 26, 1949, pp. 982 ff.

Angus Ward Summarizes Mukden Experiences; telegram received from Consul General Angus Ward aboard the S.S. Lakeland Victory. Released to the press on December 15, 1949. Ibid., pp. 955 ff.

Letter from the President to Pope Pius XII, December 17, 1949; letter from Pius XII to the President, December 20, 1949. Both released on December 23, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 587 ff.

“The Office of High Commissioner for Refugees”: Article by George L. Warren. Bulletin, December 19, 1949, pp. 938 ff.

Status of Mutual Defense Assistance Program. Statement by the Secretary of State (Acheson). Released to the press on December 21, 1949. Bulletin, January 2, 1950, pp. 16 ff.

“Present Relations with India”: Address by Loy W. Henderson, U.S. Ambassador to India, before the Foreign Relations Society at New Delhi. December 23, 1949. Ibid., January 9, 1950, pp. 43 ff.

Statement by the President on the Occasion of the Independence of Indonesia. December 28, 1949. Public Papers: Truman, 1949, pp. 589 ff.

Joint Statement Following Discussions Between the President and the Shah of Iran. December 30, 1949. Ibid., pp. 590 ff.

Statement by the President on the United Nations Economic Survey Mission to the Middle East. December 30, 1949. Ibid., pp. 592 ff.

II. Appointments and Termination of Appointments of Major Officers of the Department of State During 1949

The following persons entered on duty on the dates indicated:

Dean G. Acheson, Secretary of State, January 21, 1949

James E. Webb, Under Secretary of State, January 28, 1949

Philip C. Jessup, Ambassador at Large, March 2, 1949

Dean Rusk, Assistant Secretary of State for United Nations Affairs, February 9, 1949; Deputy Under Secretary of State, May 26, 1949

John E. Peurifoy, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Administration, May 26, 1949

Ernest A. Gross, Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations, March 4, 1949

John D. Hickerson, Assistant Secretary of State for United Nations Affairs, August 8, 1949

[Page XXI]

George C. McGhee, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and African Affairs, June 28, 1949; for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs, October 3, 1949

Edward G. Miller, Jr., Assistant Secretary of State for American Republic Affairs, June 28, 1949; for Inter-American Affairs, October 3, 1949

George W. Perkins, Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, August 1, 1949

W. Walton Butterworth, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, September 29, 1949

Jack K. McFall, Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations, October 15, 1949

George F. Kennan, Counselor of the Department of State, August 4, 1949

Adrian S. Fisher, Legal Adviser of the Department of State, June 28, 1949

Appointments of the following persons terminated on the dates indicated:

George C. Marshall, Secretary of State, January 20, 1949

Robert A. Lovett, Under Secretary of State, January 20, 1949

Garrison Norton, Assistant Secretary of State for Transportation and Communications, February 15, 1949

Charles E. Saltzman, Assistant Secretary of State for Occupied Areas, May 26, 1949

George V. Allen, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, November 28, 1949

Ernest A. Gross, as Legal Adviser, March 3, 1949; as Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations, October 13, 1949

Charles E. Bohlen, Counselor of the Department of State, August 3, 1949

III. The Organization, Personnel, and Activities of the Department of State and the Foreign Service

For detailed information on the organization, personnel, and activities of the Department and the Foreign Service, see the Bulletin (issued weekly) and the following serial publications of the Department of State:

The Biographic Register.

Documents & State Papers (published monthly from April 1948 through June 1949 only).

Foreign Service List.

International Information and Education Exchange Program.

Report to the Congress on the Lend-Lease Operations, Transmitted by the President.

For documentation relating to the reorganization of the Department of State, effective October 3, 1949, see post, pp. 1 ff.

The names of the principal officers of the Department are also listed in the appropriate editions of the Congressional Directory and [Page XXII]the United States Government Manual. Information about principal diplomatic agents and Presidential appointees is given in United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778–1973, by Richardson Dougall and Mary Patricia Chapman (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1973), with supplement, 1973–1974.

For information on treaties and agreements, see

Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949. By Charles I. Bevans.

Treaties and Other International Acts Series (TIAS), published since 1946 as a sequel to the Department of State Treaty Series and Treaties in Force.

For information on developments in international law, see

Digest of International Law. By Marjorie M. Whiteman.

For detailed information on these publications as well as on numerous others of a more specialized character, see Publications of the Department of State, October 1, 1929 to January 1, 1953 (Washington, D.C., 1954), and Major Publications of the Department of State: An Annotated Bibliography (Washington, D.C., 1973).

IV. Participation of the United States in International Conferences and Organizations

In addition to the extensive documentation provided in this volume and in other volumes of Foreign Relations, there is systematic coverage of American participation in international conferences and organizations in the Bulletin, Documents & State Papers, and in the following other publications of the Department of State:

United States Participation in the United Nations. Annual reports by the President to the Congress.

List of International Conferences and Meetings, With Annotations.

Participation of the United States Government in International Conferences, Including the Composition of U.S. Delegations and Summaries of the Proceedings.

International Organizations in Which the United States Participates.

For detailed information on these publications, see the guides listed in the final paragraph of section III, above.