Marshall Mission Files, Lot 54–D270

Minutes of Meeting Between General Chang Chih-chung and General Marshall at House 28, Chungking, February 5, 1946, 10 a.m.

Also present: Colonel Caughey,
Colonel Pee,
Mr. Shepley.

General Chang stated that he had had two talks with General Chou and that he would give a résumé of these talks to General Marshall:

General Chou expressed his view that reorganization could be conducted in two phases during the first of which the government would be reduced to 90 divisions and the Communists force to 20 and during the second of which integration would take place.
General Chang expressed to General Chou General Marshall’s views on redeployment to which General Chou raised no objection.
Regarding the number of Communists divisions, General Chang informed General Chou that he was not in a position to force the Communists to reduce only to 20 divisions but he hoped General Chou would consider favorably a reduction within a previously agreed ratio of 1 to 6, or 15 Communists as compared to 90 Nationalist divisions.
Regarding a separation of the army from politics, General Chou suggested that active members of the armed forces should have active political membership but should not participate in party activities whereas General Chang was of the opinion that active army personnel should be dismissed from political parties.

At this point General Chang outlined the present system within the Kuomintang Party: 1000 selected party representatives in all provinces elect 460 members for the Central Committee; 25 of these are elected to the so-called Executive Committee which meets every two weeks to discuss party matters; 5 of these 25 are high ranking army officers; these same 5 are also members of the Supreme National Defense Council. The Communist Party is organized along similar lines. General Chang stated that General Chou was of the opinion that separation of army officers from party members should await the next meeting of the two parties. General Marshall indicated that there probably would have to be a compromise and handed Colonel Pee a memorandum containing his suggested compromise: [Page 210]

“An officer of the army while on active duty will not be permitted to hold any position in a political party, nor will he be permitted to accept membership in any committee of a political party.”

General Marshall stated that extension of this idea into more drastic terms at this particular time might create difficulties since complete severing of party relationship would probably not be accepted. General Marshall informed General Chang that his entire plan was based on the principle of separating the army from politics and although not stated in so many words in the plan, each article adhered to this general principle. General Chang was of the opinion that probably no written clause was necessary in the plan but that the question would be presented to the PCC at a later date.

General Chang stated that General Chou had no objection to the article regarding the militia although he stated he had not mentioned militia strengths to General Chou.
General Chang stated that he and General Chou were in agreement regarding the demobilization of puppet troops.
General Chou indicated to General Chang that the Communists would desire to retain one Pacification Headquarters in Communist territory in order to carry out demobilization and other military affairs.

General Chang then informed General Marshall that during the war National Headquarters had been placed in the field to control the activities of two or three armies; that these same headquarters were still in existence but were known as Pacification Headquarters in time of peace. It was agreed between General Marshall and General Chang that these pacification headquarters would probably have to remain at the outset of reorganization but it would be extremely desirable and important to have the service areas established at an early date to take over similar functions.

General Chang then indicated that he and General Chou had agreed that since General Chou must clear certain of these matters with Yenan it would be two or three days before they could again meet after which they would meet with General Marshall to set a date for the meeting of the Military Sub-Committee.

After stressing that the entire problem of reorganization must be handled in an orderly and business-like manner General Marshall then indicated his plan for proceeding with the problem.

Determine the number of divisions, both National and Communist, which should be in existence at the end of 12 months; determine how many Communist divisions should be in the ultimate 60 division program; determine the rapidity with which National and Communist forces can be demobilized; reach general agreement as to phasing of integration: draw up a plan containing these and other [Page 211] broad principles; have the plan approved by the Generalissimo and Chairman Mao Tze Tung.
After this plan is approved, prepare detailed plans for approval of the Generalissimo and Chairman Mao Tze Tung, which would include at least the following essential elements:

Provision for demobilized officers and enlisted men (build up G.S.C.,87 I.G.’s,88 and Service Area Directors);

Provide for the selection, proper storage and redistribution of military equipment and munitions;

Specific schedule for order and dates for demobilization;

The order in which units will be re-equipped;

Procedure for organizing service areas;

Directives for Service Area Directors;

Reduction and final elimination of Pacification Headquarters.

General Marshall then stated that he was having a small group of U. S. officers come to Chungking to assist in the preparation of these detailed plans. These officers, after the detailed plans had been prepared and approved, would then be transferred to the Executive Headquarters to establish a new section which, through the use of the Executive Headquarters and its field teams, would carry out the entire agreement.

In closing General Chang stated that the National Government would not engulf General Marshall in any plan which might be embarrassing to him. He further stated that the use of the Executive Headquarters for implementation of the plan is very logical and that he felt sure both he and General Chou would approve wholeheartedly.

  1. General Staff Corps.
  2. Inspectorate General.