The Navy Department to the Department of State 92
The Navy Department has received the following information from the Commander, Seventh Fleet concerning the situation in Manchuria as of 4 December 1945.
General Tu Li-Ming, head of the Chinese Nationalist Army in Manchuria, and whose headquarters are at Chinchow (Latitude 41 degrees, North longitude 122 degrees east) reports that his Army in its advance from Shanhaikwan to Chinchow met little Communist resistance. This advance included the capture of the significant port of Hulutao in Manchuria.
The Nationalist Army has now arrived at the railroad junction at Kupangtzu, 130 miles southwest of Mukden and 30 miles northeast of Chinchow. General Tu indicated that even though his progress be slowed down by unsatisfactory transportation, he could proceed to Mukden with virtually no interference, but that he would not do so until he was sure that the city had been vacated by the Russians.
In order to make his advance to Mukden less difficult, General Tu is in great need of 475 vehicles for placing the cargo on U. S. ships at Hongay; part of his unit, the last group included in an authorized movement, is scheduled to arrive on 23 December at Hulutao. The General is also in dire need of the 25 tons of ammunition which came in Chinese planes from Peking to Chinchow.
General Tu is now planning the immediate capture by one regiment of Yingkow and an advance on other fronts.
In contrast to the Communists of North China, those of Central Manchuria are disorganized and poorly indoctrinated in the principles of Communism, only half-heartedly following Mao Tse-Tung. Chang [Page 1052] Hsueh-Siu, younger brother of Marshal Chang Hsueh-Liang, is at the head of the Communist Army, which is supposedly composed of 40,000 troops. General Tu believes his attempts at negotiation with Chang Hsueh-Siu will result in the latter’s joining him instead of fighting him.
There is much evidence to the effect that rolling stock and heavy industrial equipment have been removed from Manchuria by the Russians. It is estimated that they took 450 coal cars from Hulutao, 150 locomotives from South Manchuria, and all useable trucks and automobiles. It is also believed that they removed all equipment from a large chemical plant in Chinchow which was engaged in extracting kerosene from coal. The Russians have already made many enemies among the Chinese in Manchuria by their ruthlessness. In the area occupied by the Russians the Chinese Communists have carried on the civil administration under Russian supervision.
On 10 November 1945 the Russians withdrew from the Chinchow-Hulutao-Yingkow area, leaving the Communists in command until 25 November, when the Nationalists arrived. Before the Communists left they sabotaged communication buildings and facilities and razed warehouses and a large chemical plant. It is believed they also planned to destroy a large cotton mill.
General Tu reports that 4,000 armed Japanese troops 100 miles east of Mukden, and another group of 15,000 100 miles southeast of Mukden had escaped to the hills with arms in preference to surrendering to the Russians. General Tu, who hopes to repatriate them to Japan as soon as possible through Yingkow or Hulutao, is conferring with their leaders and has hopes of their early surrender. He also wants to repatriate through Hulutao 45,000 Japanese civilians in the Chin-chow-Hulutao area. It is his opinion that most of the Japanese holding industrial jobs in Manchuria can soon be replaced by Chinese.
The large power plant located 100 miles northeast of Chinchow at Pusin is still furnishing power for southern Manchuria and is believed to be under Russian control. It is quite possible that the railroad between Chinchow and Mukden may be destroyed at any time. At the present time, however, it is in fair condition with the exception of one bridge about 30 miles southwest of Mukden which has supposedly been destroyed. The lack of rolling stock has made use of the railroad difficult.
Except for the absence of motor cars, Chinchow appears to be normally active. Civilian activities do not appear to be hindered by the military authorities. On 3 December a 3400–foot airfield was put in operation in Chinchow. According to the Japanese manager of a large cotton mill, the Russians did not destroy the machinery in the mill because the Communists wanted to continue the manufacture of [Page 1053] their uniforms. Those Japanese employed on the railroads and in the mill are still living in the houses they lived in while the Japanese were in control.
Rear Admiral, U. S. N.
- Sent by Rear Adm. John L. McCrea of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations to the Chief of the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation (Lyon).↩