811.79658/2–2745: Telegram

The Minister in Sweden (Johnson) to the Secretary of State

746. From Cumming.

Following is text of draft ATC60 agreement and annex thereto which is the outcome of conversations with Foreign Office and Swedish technical experts during past 2 weeks:

Draft Agreement

The Swedish Government agrees to the operation by the Air Transport Command of unarmed military transport aircraft into, through, and away from Sweden.
The administrative and operational control of United States Aircraft utilizing the Bromma air base,61 or such other air bases as may be agreed upon, shall be vested in the Air Transport Command insofar as such control does not violate established Swedish civil air regulations applicable to air traffic and air drome control (and subject further to the provisions of Annex “A”.)
Air Transport Command aircraft may operate into, through, and away from Sweden with military crews and passengers in uniform. Air crews and passengers in uniform will, if required by the Swedish authorities, change to civilian clothes before leaving the limits of the [Page 750] Bromma base and such other Swedish air bases as may later be agreed upon for use by the Air Transport Command.
The Air Transport Command will determine and provide the minimum number of ground personnel necessary for the conduct of its operations. Such personnel, while permanently stationed in Sweden, will wear civilian clothes if required by the Swedish authorities.
The Air Transport Command will take all action necessary to assure procurement and delivery of all supplies necessary for its operations.
If requested by the Swedish Government, the Air Transport Command will arrange for the construction of weather observing stations required in Sweden for its operations and will operate such stations for the mutual benefit of the United States and Sweden, under the supervision of competent Swedish authority.
The Air Transport Command will arrange for the establishment of all communications facilities necessary to safe and efficient control of United States aircraft and will provide instruction in the installation, operation and maintenance of these facilities and a mutually agreed upon number of Swedish technicians. It is agreed that radio transmitting facilities installed for the Air Transport Command may be operated by Swedish technicians. It is also agreed that the Swedish Government will give priority to the operational requirements of the Air Transport Command in the use and operation of air and ground communications equipment, installed by or for the Air Transport Command. It is further agreed that the Swedish Government will not originate for transmission, by such equipment, messages pertaining to Air Transport Command operations outside of Swedish territory except with the prior consent of competent United States authority.
Cryptographing and decryptographing of administrative, operational and weather communications will be accomplished in an American Legation annex situated at Riksby (Bromma airport).
The communications equipment, navigational aids, weather stations and equipment installed by or for the Air Transport Command will not be removed as long as the Air Transport Command is operating in Sweden. Upon such equipment becoming surplus the United States authorities will discuss the transfer to Sweden of title to such equipment, subject to the pertinent provisions of pertinent American law.
It should be understood that when American civil air carriers operate into Sweden all facilities and equipment provided by the government of the United States, and which may later become the property of the Swedish Government, will be made available for use by American carriers on terms as favorable as those enjoyed by any national air carrier.
Subject to the obtaining by the Swedish Government of the necessary authorization from the Icelandic Government for the operation of Swedish aircraft into Iceland, the United States will permit Swedish use of the United States air base facilities at Meeks Field, Iceland including landing rights and access to weather and operational information insofar as this will not interfere with United States security or military requirements.
The Swedish Government will furnish appropriate guarantees that any classified information, technique or equipment which it may [Page 751] acquire as a result of any action taken under this agreement will not be transmitted or made known to any other country, Allied, Axis or neutral, without the prior consent of the United States Government.
This agreement shall remain in force for 12 months and will automatically continue in force for successive 12 months periods subject to termination by either Government upon 90 days notice prior to the end of any 12 months period other than the first.

Annex A

Local (flight) control shall be managed by Swedish officers. The Air Transport Command shall have an American control officer or pilot in the control towers, at such airports as may be agreed upon for Air Transport Command operations, as soon as an Air Transport Command aircraft crosses the Swedish frontier. He will advise the Swedish control officer concerning Air Transport Command traffic in the air and should be a Swedish (Norwegian or Danish) speaking officer, if possible. When radio telephony is used he shall convey orders and messages from the Swedish control officer to the ATC aircraft.
Radio communications between ATC aircraft and the ground shall preferably take place by radio telegraphy according to the Q code or other agreed upon codes, when the aircraft is flying outside of the airport traffic control.
Existing Swedish regulations regarding the circumstances under which takeoffs and landings may be prohibited shall be also applicable to aircraft operated by the ATC. The Swedish civil aviation authority shall, however, give sympathetic consideration to requests for the promulgation of special regulations regarding the operation of aircraft operated by the ATC.
Other regulations which are generally applicable to traffic over Swedish territory shall be observed by aircraft operated by the ATC.
All navigational aids which the ATC may place at Swedish disposal shall be put under Swedish control but aircraft operated by the ATC shall be given priority in the use of such navigational aids.
It is agreed that the volume of radio traffic handled in the American Legation annex at Riksby will be kept to the minimum necessary for the conduct of ATC operations in order that Swedish communication facilities will not be overburdened.”
We preferred paragraph B of draft agreement without annex, leaving operational details to be worked out vocally on basis of experience. Swedes, however, wished the paragraph amplified which we believe has been accomplished without compromising principles of operational control originally desired. In fact there are some advantages in spelling out in a written document operational principles which might otherwise later be the cause of disagreement between American and Swedish operational offices.
Draft agreement and annex are approved by the Minister, General Kessler,62 Colonel Gutru63 and Major Wilder.
Text of agreement and annex will today or tomorrow be further discussed by the Foreign Office with Swedish technicians and will be laid before the Government for final decision Friday or Saturday morning, March 2 or 3. Accordingly I would appreciate receiving approval comments urgently.
Please pass to War Department and Army Air Forces. [Cumming.]
  1. Air Transport Command.
  2. Located at Riksby, a Stockholm suburb.
  3. Brig. Gen. Alfred A. Kessler, Jr., United States Military Attaché and Attaché for Air in Sweden.
  4. Col. George Henry Gutru, chief of European Theater Section, European Branch, Operations Plans Division A/C Plans, Headquarters AAF.