Working Draft of the Protocol of Proceedings Revised by the Foreign Ministers on February 11, 1945 1
Summary of Conclusions.
Protocol of Proceedings of Crimea Conference
The following conclusions were arrived at—
i. world organisation
It was decided:
- that a United Nations Conference on the proposed world organisation should be summoned for Wednesday, 25th April, 1945, and should be held in the United States of America.
- the Nations to be invited to this Conference should
- the United Nations as they existed on the 8th February, 1945; and
- such of the Associated Nations as have declared war on the common enemy by 1st March, 1945. (For this purpose by the term “Associated Nation” was meant the eight Associated Nations and Turkey2). When the Conference on World Organisation is held, the delegates of the United Kingdom and United States of America will support a proposal to admit to original membership two Soviet Socialist Republics, i. e. the Ukraine and White Russia.
- that the United States Government on behalf of the Three Powers should consult the Government of China and the French Provisional Government in regard to the decisions taken at the present Conference concerning the proposed World Organisation.
- that the text of the invitation to be issued to all the nations which would take part in the United Nations Conference should be as follows:
“The Government of the United States of America, on behalf of itself and of the Governments of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Republic of China and of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, invite the Government of ——— to send representatives to a Conference of the United Nations to be held on 25th April, 1945, or soon thereafter, at San Francisco in the United States of America to prepare a Charter for a General International Organisation for the maintenance of international peace and security.[Page 935]
The above named governments suggest that the Conference consider as affording a basis for such a Charter the Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organisation, which were made public last October as a result of the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, and which have now been supplemented by the following provisions for Section C of Chapter VI:
- 1. Each member of the Security Council should have one vote.
- 2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters should be made by an affirmative vote of seven members.
- 3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters should be made by an affirmative vote of seven members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VIII, Section A and under the second sentence of paragraph 1 of Chapter VIII, Section C, a party to a dispute should abstain from voting”.
Further information as to arrangements will be transmitted subsequently.
In the event that the Government of ——— desires in advance of the Conference to present views or comments concerning the proposals, the Government of the United States of America will be pleased to transmit such views and comments to the other participating Governments”.
It was agreed that the five Nations which will have permanent seats on the Security Council should consult each other prior to the United Nations Conference on the question of territorial trusteeship.
The acceptance of this recommendation is subject to its being made clear that territorial trusteeship will only apply to (a) existing mandates of the League of Nations; (b) territories detached from the enemy as a result of the present war; (c) any other territory which might voluntarily be placed under trusteeship; and (d) no discussion of actual territories is contemplated at the forthcoming United Nations Conference, or in the preliminary consultations and it will be a matter for subsequent agreement which territories within the above categories will be placed under trusteeship.
ii. declaration on liberated europe
The following declaration has been approved:
“The Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States of America have consulted with each other in the common interests of the peoples of their countries and those of liberated Europe. They jointly declare their mutual agreement to concert during the temporary period of instability in liberated Europe the policies of their three governments in assisting the peoples liberated from the domination of Nazi Germany and the peoples of the former Axis satellite states of Europe to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems.
The establishment of order in Europe and the re-building of national economic life must be achieved by processes which will enable the [Page 936]liberated peoples to destroy the last vestiges of Nazism and Fascism and to create democratic institutions of their own choice. This is a principle of the Atlantic Charter—the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live—the restoration of sovereign rights and self-government to those peoples who have been forcibly deprived of them by the aggressor nations.
To foster the conditions in which the liberated peoples may exercise these rights, the three governments will jointly assist the people in any European liberated state or former Axis satellite state in Europe where in their judgment conditions require (a) to establish conditions of internal peace; (b) to carry out emergency measures for the relief of distressed peoples; (c) to form interim governmental authorities broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population and pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections of governments responsive to the will of the people; and (d) to facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections.
The three governments will consult the other United Nations and provisional authorities or other governments in Europe when matters of direct interest to them are under consideration.
When, in the opinion of the three governments, conditions in any European liberated state or any former Axis satellite state in Europe make such action necessary, they will immediately consult together on the measures necessary to discharge the joint responsibilities set forth in this declaration.
By this declaration we reaffirm our faith in the principles of the Atlantic Charter, our pledge in the Declaration by the United Nations, and our determination to build in co-operation with other peace-loving nations world order under law, dedicated to peace, security, freedom and general well-being of all mankind.
In issuing this declaration, the Three Powers express the hope that the Provisional Government of the French Republic may be associated with them in the procedure suggested.”
iii. dismemberment of germany
It was agreed that Article 12 (a) of the Surrender Terms for Germany should be amended to read as follows:
“The United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall possess supreme authority with respect to Germany. In the exercise of such authority they will take such steps, including the complete disarmament, demilitarisation and the dismemberment of Germany as they deem requisite for future peace and security.”
The study of the procedure for the dismemberment of Germany was referred to a Committee, consisting of Mr. Eden (Chairman), Mr. Winant and Mr. Gousev. This body would consider the desirability of associating with it a French representative.
iv. zone of occupation for the french and control commission for germany
It was agreed that a zone in Germany, to be occupied by the French Forces, should be allocated to France. This zone would be formed [Page 937]out of the British and American zones and its extent would be settled by the British and Americans in consultation with the French Provisional Government.
It was also agreed that the French Provisional Government should be invited to become a member of the Allied Control Commission for Germany.
The following protocol has been approved: 3
It was agreed that a Reparations Commission should be set up in Moscow. This Commission will comprise one representative from the U. S. A., U. S. S. R., and U. K., each representative being assisted by such expert advisers as may be necessary. The Commission should begin its work as soon as possible.
It was agreed that the following should be the basic principles of exaction of reparations from Germany for study and recommendation by the Moscow Reparations Commission.
- 1. Reparations are to be received in the first instance by those countries which have borne the main burden of the war and have suffered the heaviest losses and have organised victory over the enemy.
- 2. Setting aside for the moment the use of German
labour by way of reparations, this question to be
considered at a later date, reparations in kind are to
be exacted from Germany in the two following forms:
- Removal in a single payment in the end of the war from the national wealth of Germany located on the territory of Germany herself as well as outside her territory (equipment, machine-tools, ships, rolling stock, German investment abroad, shares of industrial, transport, shipping and other enterprises in Germany, etc.) these removals to be carried out chiefly for the purpose of military and economic disarmament of Germany.
- These removals are to be completed within two years of the end of the war.
- Annual deliveries of commodities during 10 years after the end of the war.
- 3. Germany is to pay compensation in kind for the losses caused by her to the Allied Nations during the war and the Moscow Reparations Commission shall have the task of considering the amount of reparations to be paid.
vi. major war criminals
The Conference agreed that the question of the major war criminals should be the subject of enquiry by the three Foreign Secretaries for report in due course after the close of the Conference.
The following Declaration on Poland was agreed by the Conference:
“A new situation has been created in Poland as a result of her complete liberation by the Red Army. This calls for the establishment of a Polish Provisional Government which can be more broadly based than was possible before the recent liberation of Western Poland. The Provisional Government which is now functioning in Poland should therefore be reorganised on a broader democratic basis with the inclusion of democratic leaders from Poland itself and from Poles abroad. This new Government should then be called the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity.
M. Molotov, Mr. Harriman and Sir A. Clark Kerr are authorised as a Commission to consult in the first instance in Moscow with members of the present Provisional Government and with other Polish democratic leaders from within Poland and from abroad, with a view to the reorganisation of the present Government along the above lines. This Polish Provisional Government of National Unity shall be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot. In these elections all democratic and anti-Nazi parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward candidates.
When a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity has been properly formed in conformity with the above, the Government of the U. S. S. R., which now maintains diplomatic relations with the present Provisional Government of Poland, and the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the U. S. A. will establish diplomatic relations with the new Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, and will exchange Ambassadors by whose reports the respective Governments will be kept informed about the situation in Poland.
The three Heads of Government consider that the Eastern frontier of Poland should follow the Curzon Line with digressions from it in some regions of five to eight kilometres in favour of Poland. It is They recognised that Poland must receive substantial accessions of territory in the North and West. They feel that the opinion of the new Polish Provisional Government of National Unity should be sought in due course on the extent of these accessions and that the final delimitation of the Western frontier of Poland should thereafter await the Peace Conference.”
It was agreed to recommend to Marshal Tito and to Dr. Subasic:
- that the Tito-Subasic Agreement should immediately be put into effect and a new Government formed on the basis of the Agreement.
- that as soon as the new Government has been formed it
- that the National Liberation Committee will be extended to include members of the last Yugoslav Skupstina who have not compromised themselves by collaboration with the enemy, thus forming a body to be known as a temporary Parliament and
- that legislative acts passed by the National Liberation Committee will be subject to subsequent ratification by a Constituent Assembly;
and that this statement should be published in the communique of the Conference.
ix. italo-yugoslav frontier
Notes on these subjects were put in by the British delegation and the American and Soviet delegations agreed to consider them and give their views later.
x. yugoslav-bulgarian relations
There was an exchange of views among the Foreign Ministers Secretaries on the question of the desirability of a Yugoslav-Bulgarian pact of alliance. The question at issue was whether a state still under an armistice regime could be allowed to enter into a treaty with another state. Mr. Eden suggested that the Bulgarian and Yugoslav Governments should be informed of the views of the Three Powers. that this could not be approved. Mr. Stettinius suggested that the British and American Ambassadors should discuss the matter further with M. Molotov in Moscow. M. Molotov promised to consider the matter and to give his views on the following day. agreed with the proposal of Mr. Stettinius .
xi. south eastern europe
The British Delegation put in notes for the consideration of their colleagues on the following subjects:
- the Control Commission in Bulgaria
- Greek claims upon Bulgaria, more particularly with reference to reparations.
- Oil equipment in Roumania.
Mr. Eden and Mr. Stettinius drew attention to the importance of observing the Tripartite Treaty and the Tehran Declaration of 1st December, 1943, particularly in so far as concerned requests for oil concessions in Persia.[Page 940]
xiii. meetings of the three foreign secretaries
The Conference agreed that permanent machinery should be set up for consultation between the three Foreign Secretaries; they should meet as often as necessary, probably about every three or four months.
These meetings will be held in rotation in the three capitals, the first meeting being held in London.
xiv. the montreux convention and the straits
It was agreed that at the next meeting of the three Foreign Secretaries to be held in London, they should consider what changes should be made in the arrangements for the Straits laid down in proposals which Sov Govt will make in regard the Montreux Convention and report thereon to the three Governments. The Turkish Government should be informed that this matter is under consideration and should be given an assurance that their independence and integrity is in no way affected. at the proper moment.
- The source text is a mimeographed document which has the penciled initials “A. H.” in the upper right-hand corner of the first page. The document contains various penciled alterations, most if not all of which appear to have been made by the hand of Alger Hiss. The insertions are here printed in italics. For the text as signed, see post, pp. 975– 982.↩
- Marginal notation: “& Saudi Arabia?”↩
- In the source text the following paragraphs of this section are crossed out, in line with the decision (see ante, p. 933) to substitute therefor the reparations protocol (post, pp. 978– 979).↩