740.00119 EAC/7–144: Telegram

The Ambassador in the United Kingdom ( Winant ) to the Secretary of State

5205. Comea 65. As one of the questions to be disposed of before the submission of surrender terms for Germany to the three Governments (my 4655, June 10, 5 p.m., Comea 61), we have been discussing in informal meetings of the Commission a draft protocol between the Governments of the USA, USSR and UK on the occupation of Germany (excluding Austria). This protocol defined the boundaries of the zones of occupation in Germany proper on the basis of the lines suggested by the British and the Russians and accepted by ourselves (Department’s 3499, May 1, 11 p.m., Eacom 18)—the respective countries occupying the northwestern and southwestern zones being left blank; “Greater Berlin” was named as the special area to be under joint occupation. The protocol stated that the occupying forces in each zone will be under a Commander-in-Chief designated by the Government of the country whose forces occupy that zone and provided that each of the three powers may, at its discretion, include among the forces assigned to occupation duties under the command of its Commander-in-Chief, auxiliary contingents from the forces of any other Allied power which has participated in military operations against Germany.

Today the Russian delegation submitted for the consideration of the Commission an amended text which added to the earlier draft protocol, a delimitation of three zones of occupation within Greater Berlin itself and an outline regarding the joint administration of Greater Berlin. The text of these proposals is as follows:

“The Berlin area, by which expression, is understood the territory, of ‘Greater Berlin’ as defined by the law of the 27 April, 1920, will be occupied by the armed forces of the USSR, UK and USA. For this purpose the territory of ‘Greater Berlin’ will be divided into three zones:

Northeastern part of the city (districts of Pankow, Prenzlauerberg, Mitte, Weissensee, Friedrichshafen, Lichtenberg, Treptow, Koepenick) will be occupied by the forces of the USSR;

Northwestern part of the city (districts of Reinickendorf, Wedding, Tiergarten, Charlottenburg, Spandau, Wilmersdorf) will be occupied by the forces of blank;

Southern part of the city (districts of Zehlendorf, Steglitz, Schoeneberg, Kreutzberg, Tempelhof, Neukoeln) will be occupied by the forces of blank.

The central aerodrome of Berlin, Tempelhof, will be used by the USSR, UK and USA on equal terms.

(a)
An inter-Allied governing authority (Komendatura) will be established to administer ‘Greater Berlin’, consisting of three commandants—one [Page 238] from each of the Allied powers. The head of the inter-Allied governing authority will be the Chief Commandant, whose duties will be carried out in rotation by each of the three commandants.
Each of the three commandants shall hold office as Chief Commandant for a period not exceeding 15 to 20 days.
(b)
The necessary technical machinery, staffed by personnel of the three Allied powers, will be set up at the offices of the inter-Allied governing authority, and its form will, in general, correspond to the structure of the municipal organizations of ‘Greater Berlin’. The inter-Allied governing authority will communicate direct or through this machinery with the municipal organizations of Berlin.
(c)
The inter-Allied governing authority for the administration of ‘Greater Berlin’ parallel with its functions of administering the city, will also exercise day-to-day supervision over the activities of the municipal organizations of Berlin controlling the various departments of the city’s daily life.
(d)
The Allied forces stationed in the territory of ‘Greater Berlin’ will also be responsible for the maintenance of public order in the respective zones of ‘Greater Berlin’ and for the protection both of the inter-Allied governing authority administering ‘Greater Berlin’ and of all other agencies which may be set up by the Allies in that city.”

Strang indicated to us that he would probably have to consult other departments of the British Government, in particular the military, before he would be able to give any definite decisions regarding the Russian proposals concerning Berlin. At the informal meeting of the EAC this afternoon, his delegation asked the following questions to which are appended Gousev’s replies:

(1)
Might it not be better from the viewpoint of sound administration if the Chief Commandant were to remain in office for one month instead of 15 to 20 days? Gousev replied that the government would be exercised by the three commandants, one of whom would be the principal for a time, but that the other two would also have active functions. He said it would not be advisable to specify a long term of office for the Chief Commandant since the main purpose is to control German agencies and organs. Assuming only supervision and control, frequent change of the Chief Commandant would not affect efficiency of administration since it was envisaged that the Government would be a board or collegium.
(2)
What is the principle which will determine when the collegium or board will communicate direct or through the machinery indicated in paragraph (b) above with the municipal organizations of Berlin? Gousev replied that in cases of urgency the Chief Commandant will act direct, in other words at his discretion.
(3)
Who will be responsible for the maintenance of public order in the respective zones in Greater Berlin? Will it be the German police under the supervision of the collegium or board, in which case the Allied forces would be called in when the situation got out of hand and the police could not manage it, or would there be no German police, the Allied Forces doing all their work? Gousev replied that the Allied Forces will be responsible for the maintenance of public order [Page 239] but that the means of enforcing responsibility is not stated. He said it would seem evident that German police can be used.

In order that our Air Force might be given access to the Staaken airfield, I presented an additional paragraph as follows which the Russians indicated might be acceptable: “The Staaken aerodrome, which for purposes of administration will be included in the Greater Berlin area, will be used by blank.”

I believe that our delegation is in much the same indefinite position of error as the British find themselves at this stage with respect to the Russian proposals regarding Berlin. We have already taken steps to obtain the preliminary views of the American military authorities in SHAEF84 and ETOUSA85 who will be concerned from the viewpoint of operations. I know our authorities in Washington will also be interested and I should like to receive such comments as they have to offer. I hope these may be furnished me without delay and before the next meeting of the EAC on Wednesday.86 I feel that whether or not the decision is taken to incorporate the Russian proposals regarding Berlin within this protocol, clearance of these questions would place us in a favorable position to insist that the Russians present immediately their material on general control machinery for Germany.

Winant
  1. Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force.
  2. European Theatre of Operations, U.S. Army.
  3. July 5.