II. The preparation of surrender terms for Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Finland
[The conclusive negotiations of surrender terms for Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Finland were held outside the European Advisory Commission. Hence, it was decided that documentation concerning the role of the European Advisory Commission in the preparation of these surrender terms should not be presented here.
According to the terms of reference of the European Advisory Commission, agreed upon at the Tripartite Conference of Foreign Ministers at Moscow, October 18–November 1, 1943, “… the Commission will study and make joint recommendations to the three Governments upon European questions connected with termination of hostilities which the three Governments may consider appropriate to refer to it.” (See Annex 2 to the Secret Protocol of the Moscow Foreign Ministers Conference, signed November 1, 1943, Foreign Relations 1943, volume I, page 756.) It was the position of the United States Government that the armistice terms for Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Finland were proper subjects for consideration by the European Advisory Commission.
In the case of Hungary, the United States and the United Kingdom sought during August and September 1944 to initiate consideration in the European Advisory Commission of Hungarian armistice terms (see memorandum from the British Embassy, August 11; instruction 4433, August 15, to London; memorandum to the British Embassy, August 15; telegram 7991, September 25, from London; and telegram 7929, September 28, to London, volume III, pages 882, 883, 887, 890, and 893, respectively). However, the armistice negotiations in fact took place in Moscow, entirely outside the Commission. For correspondence regarding the negotiations by the Allies of an armistice with the Hungarian Government, signed at Moscow, January 20, 1945, see ibid., pages 847 ff.
In the case of Rumania, the Soviet Government was unwilling to undertake in the European Advisory Commission any consideration of the terms of surrender for Rumania (see letter from the Director of the Office of European Affairs to Ambassador Winant, February 2; telegram 1268, February 15, from London; and telegram 1939, March 9, from London, volume IV, pages 136, 145, and 149, respectively). For correspondence regarding the negotiations leading to the signing of an armistice with Rumania at Moscow, 5 a.m., September 13 (as of September 12), 1944, see volume IV, pages 133 ff.[Page 40]
Until the end of August, the Soviet Union was unwilling to take up in the Commission the question of the Bulgarian surrender terms (see telegram 486, March 4, to Moscow; telegram 1666, March 4, to London; telegram 1942, March 9, from London; telegram 2023, March 13, from London; telegram 2035, March 17, to London; telegram 619, March 17, to Moscow; telegram 924, March 19, from Moscow; telegram 3147, April 19, to London; instruction 4268, July 5, to London; telegram 5533, July 13, from London; despatch 16837, July 13, from London; and telegram 7028, August 29, from London, volume III, pages 308, 311, 313, 315, 316, 321, 340, 345, 346, and 377, respectively). However, on September 9 the Soviet Government informed the European Advisory Commission of its readiness to discuss Bulgarian surrender terms in the Commission (see letter from the Soviet Ambassador in the United Kingdom to Ambassador Winant dated September 9, ibid., page 405), and from that time forward through October the Commission devoted much of its attention to the preparation of Bulgarian armistice terms on the basis of drafts proposed by the Delegations. For correspondence regarding the negotiations leading to the signing of the armistice with Bulgaria at Moscow, October 28, 1944, see ibid., pages 300 ff.
In the case of Finland, the United States had no objection to a consideration by the European Advisory Commission of the question of surrender terms for Finland, but since the United States was not at war with Finland, it was not anticipated that the United States Representative would participate in the Commission’s formulation of such surrender terms (see telegram 4570, June 9, to London, and telegram 5031, June 24, from London, ibid., pages 608 and 609, respectively). In fact, no discussion of the Finnish surrender terms was ever conducted by the Commission. For correspondence regarding the United States interest in the Allied armistice with Finland, September 19, 1944, see ibid., pages 608 ff.]