Directive by President Roosevelt to Mr. Robert D. Murphy 60

1. Upon the occupation of French North Africa by American Military Forces you will act as the Operating Executive head of the Civil Affairs Section and Advisor for Civil Affairs under General Eisenhower. Prior to the arrival of Military Forces in the Area, you will have the status of the Personal Representative of the President.

2. You will work in close cooperation with General Eisenhower, United States Army, Allied Commander in Chief, European Theatre, in the preparation and execution of plans of a civil and political nature for the occupation of French North Africa by American Military Forces. In the performance of this task you will retain your present status of Foreign Service Officer, Class I, assigned as Counselor of Embassy, Vichy. All communication between the President and you and between General Eisenhower and you will be carried out through such channels as General Eisenhower and you may arrange.

3. You will at an early date contact personally and through your Psychological Warfare and other assistants those French nationals whom you consider reliable, and give them the following information:

Information having been received from a reliable source that the Germans and Italians are planning an intervention in French North Africa, the United States contemplates sending at an early date [Page 380] a sufficient number of American troops to land in that area with the purpose of preventing occupation by the Axis and of preserving French sovereignty in Algeria, and the French administrations in Morocco and Tunisia.

No change in the existing French Civil Administrations is contemplated by the United States.

Any resistance to an American landing will of course have to be put down by force of arms.

The American forces will hope for and will welcome French assistance.

The American forces will provide equipment as rapidly as possible for those French troops who join in denying access to French North Africa to our common enemies.

Money, in addition to that provided by French sources, will be made available for additional expense incurred through cooperation with American forces.

The American Government will guarantee salaries and allowances, death benefits and pensions of those French and other military, naval and civilian officials who join with the American expeditionary forces.

The proposed expedition will be American, under American command, and it will not include any of the forces of General de Gaulle.

After the necessary preparation is made by French patriots in French North Africa, which should be accomplished with the utmost expedition, at least twenty-four hours’ notice will be given to our friends of the time of landings, and in your discretion of the approximate places.

4. Upon the receipt of the following message in code which will be despatched through at least two channels to insure delivery “Allotments approved effective _____(date)_____”_ you may in your discretion inform our friendly officials that landings by American troops will be made on that date as planned at approximate localities which are known to you. The date should be repeated in the message to avoid error.

5. As Political Advisor to General Eisenhower you will prepare and submit to the President for approval:

Recommendations regarding policies to be followed by the American Government in the area, including economic supply and financial support, and such additional matters as you may deem appropriate.
Drafts of proclamations to be issued to the inhabitants of the areas to be entered by Allied forces and recommendations regarding the means of transmitting them.
Drafts of proclamations or messages to be addressed by the President to the French State and to officials in French North [Page 381] Africa to which in your opinion they should be despatched, together with recommendations regarding the method of transmission.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
  1. Copy of this directive was sent to the Department by the White House on June 16, 1943. William L. Langer in his book Our Vichy Gamble states that President Roosevelt enjoined Murphy not to discuss plans for the North African campaign with the Department of State or with any but authorized Army or Navy officers. (Our Vichy Gamble, New York, 1947, p. 311.)