List of Papers

(Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.)

AFGHANISTAN

Provisional Agreement Regarding Friendship, Diplomatic and Consular Representation Between the United States and Afghanistan, Signed at Paris, March 26, 1936

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Feb. 13 (1198) To the Chargé in France
Instructions to express regret relative to Afghan inability to enter into a most-favored-nation commercial agreement, and to suggest one pertaining to friendship and diplomatic and consular representation; transmittal of draft text.
1
Feb. 26 (2570) From the Ambassador in France
Memorandum of conversation between the Counselor of Embassy and the Afghan Chargé (text printed) during which the Counselor presented Department’s views and proposed text of agreement.
4
Mar. 10 (182) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information from Afghan Chargé that his Government approves the agreement and is sending full powers for signature.
5
Mar. 23 (98) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Authorization to sign the agreement after making minor textual changes.
6
Mar. 26 (257) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Signature of agreement with the suggested textual alterations.
7
(Note: Citation to text of agreement.) 7

EGYPT

Discussions Between the United States and Egypt Regarding Trade Agreements Program

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Jan. 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Trade Agreements
Egyptian Minister’s inquiry in respect to the prospects of a trade agreement with the United States; reply that United States is interested in agreements with all countries, but cannot take up question with Egypt at present.
8
Feb. 3 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Assistant Secretary’s conversation with the Egyptian Minister, who pointed out Egypt’s interest in furthering closer commercial and agricultural relations with United States.
8
May 19 From the Minister in Egypt
Discussion of political and economic situation in Egypt, for consideration in connection with U. S. trade agreements program.
9
[Page VI]1936 June 10 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Trade Agreements
Conversation with the Egyptian Minister, who, before his departure for Egypt, wished to ascertain prospects for a trade agreement; encouragement, short of absolute commitments, given him.
11

Insistence by the United States on Its Right To Nominate Judges for Appointment to the Mixed Courts in Egypt

Date and number Subject Page
1936 June 17 (33) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Resignation of Judge Crabitès as member of Mixed Courts, effective November 1.
12
June 23 (35) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Advice from Acting Judicial Adviser Payne that Egypt might revert to the procedure followed before 1910 when a candidate for a position on the Mixed Courts was selected by that Government and the name submitted to interested Government for approval.
13
June 25 (19) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Instructions to use best endeavors to secure Egyptian Government’s adherence to recent procedure in the matter of Mixed Courts appointments.
13
June 29 (701) From the Minister in Egypt
Acting Judicial Adviser’s assurance of support of U. S. wishes; information that Judge Julian M. Wright, of the Mixed Courts at Cairo, has recommended the appointment of Mr. Lovering Hill, now practicing law in Paris.
14
July 8 (40) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Payne’s suggestion for deferment of selection until return of Judicial Adviser Booth; division in Ministry of Justice on method of selection; belief that U. S. interests would not suffer because of delay.
15
July 9 (25) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Disposition not to press selection of Judge Crabitès’ successor unless Council of Ministers’ consideration is likely in the near future.
15
Sept. 25 (53) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Opposition of Minister of Justice to requesting a list of candidates, and his desire to appoint Hill; Booth’s suggestion of possible informal arrangement whereby a U. S. list, including Hill’s name, could be submitted.
16
Sept. 28 (55) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Objection of Minister of Justice to either formal or informal request for list.
16
Sept. 30 (37) To the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Reiteration of U. S. position on appointment procedure; acceptability, however, of an informal request for list of nominations from the Minister of Justice.
17
[Page VII]1936 Oct. 19 (58) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Explanation of U. S. position to the Judicial Adviser; subsequent conversation with the Minister of Justice, who requested the submission of name or names of candidates.
18
Nov. 21 (65) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Egyptian Government’s desire that nominations for Mixed Courts vacancy be expedited.
18
Nov. 27 (67) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Request for reply to No. 65 of November 21, in order to give assurances to the Egyptian authorities.
19
Nov. 27 (43) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Hope of submitting list in near future; inquiry regarding likelihood of Egyptian authorities putting forward Hill’s name as a counterproposal if it is omitted from U. S. list.
19
Nov. 28 (68) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Negative reply to inquiry in Department’s No. 43 of November 27.
19
1937 Jan. 6 (3) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Submission of name of Benjamin Howe Conner.
(Footnote: No additional names submitted.)
20
Mar. 25 (32) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Advice from the Foreign Ministry of appointment of Conner as American judge at Cairo.
20

Inquiry With Respect to the Safeguarding of Religious Liberties in Egypt

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Mar. 10 (551) From the Minister in Egypt
Transmittal of communication from the President of the University of Cairo regarding informal representations made by the Egypt Inter-Mission Council to the High Commissioner looking toward safeguarding of the rights of Christian minorities in connection with proposed treaty being negotiated between the British and Egyptian Governments.
20
Mar. 26 (1178) To the Chargé in the United Kingdom
Authorization to make informal inquiry at Foreign Office as to whether the present situation is such that the question of safeguarding religious liberties in Egypt might be included in the current British-Egyptian negotiations.
24
Apr. 7 (2106) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Informal information from appropriate British official that negotiations with Egypt had not gone beyond the question of the disposition of armed forces in Egypt.
25
Nov. 27 (1501) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Authorization, in view of urging by missionary interests, to inquire of the Foreign Office whether it is proposed to request Egypt to furnish guarantees of religious liberty at the time of proposed admission of that country into the League of Nations.
25
[Page VIII]1936 Dec. 9 (2705) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Information from Foreign Office that the High Commissioner in Cairo would have a fairly free hand in presenting missionaries’ case; Foreign Office hope that Egyptian Government would make a voluntary declaration regarding religious liberties prior to admission to the League.
26
Dec. 11 (864) From the Minister in Egypt
Conversation with High Commissioner, who stated that his Government favored a voluntary declaration by Egypt similar to that of Iraq before admittance to League membership, and that he was taking the matter up with the Prime Minister.
27
(Note: Egypt’s promise of freedom of worship in an exchange of letters dated May 8, 1937.) 28

Preliminary Negotiations in Regard to Convening a Conference for the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Nov. 19 (63) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Approval by Parliament of the Anglo-Egyptian treaty signed August 26; information from High Commissioner that both he and Egyptian Government desired early convening of Capitulations Conference.
28
Dec. 5 (72) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Belief that it might be advisable for Department to approach the British Government informally with suggestion that Egyptian invitation to Conference should be accompanied by Egyptian general proposals, thereby avoiding later delay for study of the complicated problems.
29
Dec. 5 (46) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Authorization to express hope to Egyptian Government that U. S. Government may, prior to meeting of Conference, be given ample opportunity to study the proposals which are to be put forward.
29
Dec. 7 (73) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Belief that Great Britain should take the lead in raising question of proposals being made when invitations are issued; deferment of action on Department’s No. 46, December 5, awaiting further views of Department.
30
Dec. 7 (74) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Egyptian intention to allow at least two months between issuance of invitations and convening of Conference, and plan to include program with invitations.
31
Dec. 7 (48) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Information that Department’s No. 46 was sent prior to decoding of Minister’s No. 72, and that No. 46 was repeated to the London Embassy with instructions to bring the matter informally to the attention of the Foreign Office.
31
Dec. 11 (49) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Telegram from Embassy in London (text printed) reporting results of conversations with the Foreign Office; instructions to discuss matter with Egyptian authorities.
31
[Page IX]1936 Dec. 14 (75) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Egyptian Government’s plans to issue Conference invitations with incomplete program; Conference date still uncertain.
33
Dec. 28 (78) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Unofficial information that Capitulations Conference will be held April 19 at Montreux, Switzerland.
33

ETHIOPIA

Ethiopian-Italian Conflict

i. general background

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Jan. 1 (1) From the Chargé in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office of Italian use of asphyxiating and tear gases against Ethiopian troops in violation of Washington Treaty of February 6, 1922.
34
Jan. 7 (14) From the Chargé in Ethiopia (tel.)
Description of military action and evaluation of morale and effectiveness of opposing forces; opinion that time is still playing into the hands of the Ethiopians, but that much will depend on international situation.
34
Jan. 20 (16) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Summary of contents of a letter from Mussolini to the President of the International Committee of the Red Cross; belief of Red Cross officials that the letter indicates Italian disposition to respect commitments under the Geneva and Hague Conventions.
39
Jan. 29 To Mr. Kepler Hoyt
Interpretation of article 11 (text printed) of Red Cross Convention of 1929 in reply to an inquiry as to why the United States did not protest the bombing of a Seventh Day Adventist hospital in Ethiopia.
40
Jan. 29 (54) From the Chargé in Ethiopia (tel.)
Report on military activities near Makale.
42
Feb. 12 (87) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Analysis of military situation, including consideration of the increasing difficulties encountered by the Italians, the growing self-confidence of the Ethiopians, and the constant accusations of violation of rules and customs of war by both belligerents.
42
Feb. 21 (1565) From the Ambassador in Italy
Information relative to results of Italian offensive in northern Ethiopia.
48
Mar. 2 (127) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Unofficial admission of serious fighting in the North; official denial of rumors that Emperor is ill or wounded or that he intends to leave the country.
49
Mar. 18 (162) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Ethiopian Government’s denial that negotiations with Italy are about to take place; expression of devotion to Emperor and Ethiopian cause by Azebo Galla tribesmen; Italian use of gas bombs at Korem.
49
[Page X]1936 Mar. 20 (169) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Announcement by Ethiopian Government that on March 18 Korem was subjected to intensive bombing with a new type of gas.
49
Mar. 20 (170) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Receipt of aide-mémoire from Foreign Office protesting violation by Italy of Hague Convention No. 4 of 1907 and Geneva Protocol of 1925, and appealing to the United States as a signatory to take measures it may deem proper.
50
Mar. 24 (176) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that the Governor of Addis Ababa has published a notice calling upon Ethiopians to remain hospitable and courteous to foreigners who live in Ethiopia as friends.
50
Mar. 27 (101) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
U. S. position with regard to enforcement of either the Protocol of 1925 or the Hague Convention of 1907.
50
Apr. 4 (197) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Italian bombing of flying field outside of Addis Ababa; no signs of panic in city.
51
Apr. 4 (198) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Report that four natives in Addis Ababa were accidentally killed when Italian planes bombed flying field. Calmness of American colony. Unofficial report of planes over Diré Dawa.
51
Apr. 7 (28) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Authorization to remind Suvich, the Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, of his assurances that Italy would refrain from bombardment of open cities. Expression of hope that Italian military authorities would be advised of location of additional institutions in Ethiopia having American character or personnel.
52
Apr. 8 (98) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Foreign Office spokesman’s denial of Italian use of poison gas in Ethiopia.
52
Apr. 8 (100) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Reasons for not reminding Suvich of assurances previously given relative to non-bombardment of certain cities.
52
Apr. 9 (133) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.).
Summary of telegram No. 100, April 8, from the Ambassador in Italy.
53
Apr. 12 (210) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Detailed analysis of military situation, based on unofficial sources both native and foreign; comments and interpretations.
53
Apr. 13 (211) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Flight of ten Italian planes over Addis Ababa.
60
Apr. 16 (213) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
From Military Attaché for Assistant Chief of Staff, G–2: Advice that all northern Ethiopian armies have been defeated; that Addis Ababa populace is still ignorant of military situation.
60
[Page XI]1936 Apr. 18 (219) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Denial of alleged United Press report that all Americans have been ordered to take refuge in British Legation.
60
Apr. 18 (221) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Decision of Emperor to remain in the field; preparation of Empress and high officials to leave Addis Ababa; expectation that Italian troops will occupy capital shortly; request for advice relative to relations with occupying forces.
61
Apr. 19 (225) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Unofficial reports of movements in the field; failure of high Ethiopian officials to reach decision on departure; no contemplation of resistance in capital.
61
Apr. 22 (231) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Arrival of Crown Prince from Dessie; postponement of departure of Ethiopian Government since occupation of Addis Ababa is less imminent.
62
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 30] (253) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Report that the Emperor has been in close touch with officials in Addis Ababa; also that Italians are about 75 miles from the capital.
62
May 1 (257) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Rumors that Emperor and Crown Prince are still in capital and that Ethiopians will make stand 10 miles away; attempt of Diplomatic Corps to discourage fighting near Addis Ababa.
63
May 1 (259) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Presentation of letter of credence and conversation with the Emperor; Emperor’s view of international situation as related to events in Ethiopia, and Minister’s comments thereon.
63
May 2 (133) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia
Further information on presence of Emperor in capital and Minister’s conversation with him.
65
May 3 (118) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Newspaper reports of Emperor’s departure from Djibouti and of situation in Addis Ababa; Badoglio’s imminent entry into Addis Ababa.
66
May 3 (119) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Information that, in view of situation in Addis Ababa, the French Ambassador is asking the Italian Government to expedite entrance of Italian troops in order to restore order.
66
May 4 (121) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Reasons for delay in entry of Italian troops into Addis Ababa; impression in Rome that capture of Addis Ababa may be announced any moment.
67
May 5 (129) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Official information that Italian troops have reached outskirts of Addis Ababa and will enter city May 6.
67
[Page XII]1936 May 5 (135) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia
Two press statements by the Empress of Ethiopia and one by her daughter (texts printed), in which they described the unequal struggle with Italy and pleaded for outside assistance; Minister’s résumé of the international ramifications of the struggle, and opinion thereon.
68
May 6 (133) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office that order has been established in Addis Ababa with all military powers vested in Marshal Badoglio; and that chiefs of missions there would have the de facto status of consuls.
73
May 7 (135) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Newspaper report that order has been restored in Addis Ababa and that all undesirable elements are being eliminated.
73
May 7 (305) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that Harrar is expected to be in Italian hands soon.
74
May 8 (315) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Departure of Ethiopian authorities from Harrar before arrival of Italians; attempt of British Consul there to protect foreign nationals.
74
May 9 (322) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice from British Minister relative to departure of Emperor from Djibouti to Palestine; request for colleagues’ views on Ethiopian question.
75
May 11 From the Consul General at Jerusalem (tel.)
Understanding that the Emperor’s wish to visit London before laying his case before the League of Nations is not supported by the Foreign Office.
75
May 12 (139) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia
Comments on London Times editorial relative to departure of the Emperor, and on the Emperor’s own statement to the press (text printed) before his departure.
76
May 17 (350) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Fear of brigandage and rapine in sections of Ethiopia which have not yet been brought under Italian control.
76
June 22 (226) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Observations (text printed) submitted by the Assistant Military Attaché, who has been on a 2 months’ tour of Ethiopia.
77
July 21 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs to the Secretary of State
Submittal of a copy of the final report of the Military Attaché at Addis Ababa, with a summary and quotations indicative of its contents.
78
July 23 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Conversation with John H. Spencer, an American citizen and for several months adviser to the Ethiopian Foreign Office, who revealed the attempts at Italo-Ethiopian contacts before the departure of the Emperor, and the abortive project for his return.
80
[Page XIII]1936 July 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Conversation with John H. Spencer, who told of secret Anglo-Ethiopian negotiations which led to the establishment of the Anglo-Ethiopian Boundary Commission; observations as to the possible relation of those negotiations to the Wal Wal incident.
82
Oct. 12 (585) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Renewal of Italian efforts for pacification after freight train was derailed by Ethiopians on eve of arrival of Italian Ministers of Colonies and Public Works.
83
Oct. 20 (600) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Reported routing of large Ethiopian forces by Italian troops in a pitched battle in Sidamo.
84
Oct. 23 (608) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Open rebellion of Dejazmateh Wanda Wassan, who had previously simulated submission to the Italian authorities; confiscation or destruction of all his properties by the Italians.
84
Oct. 27 (615) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Italian defeat of Ethiopians under Dejavaz Fikre Mariam about 35 miles from Addis Ababa; entry of Italian column into Lekemti.
85

ii. efforts of the league of nations and of france and the united kingdom to end hostilities, January–may 9, 1936

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Jan. 7 (2) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Circulation by the Secretary General of Ethiopian request that League through the Committee of Thirteen appoint a commission to investigate alleged illegal methods of warfare by the two belligerents.
85
Jan. 9 (19) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Opinion of Foreign Office official that there would be little or no action at Geneva pending the ultimate framing of U. S. neutrality legislation; and that, owing to Mussolini’s difficulties in Ethiopia, he could envisage a solution only through some change in regime.
86
Jan. 9 (10) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Information that Foreign Secretary appears to favor negotiated peace; and that fleet movements in the Mediterranean are first manifestations of Anglo-French naval cooperation.
87
Jan. 11 (2) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Reinforcement of British military units in Egypt; establishment of divisional headquarters in Alexandria for forces in western desert.
87
Jan. 13 (23) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Cessation of editorials criticizing President Roosevelt’s address to Congress; statements of Foreign Office spokesman relative to an oil embargo, and to U. S. neutrality policy.
88
[Page XIV]1936 Jan. 17 (26) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Foreign Office official’s expectation of very little in the way of diplomatic development, and his unconcern about movements of the British fleet. Naval Attaché’s report on high degree of efficiency of the Italian fleet.
89
Jan. 17 (9) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Evaluation of various elements in the international picture relative to the Italo-Ethiopian problem, and attempt to assess possible future action by organs of the League.
89
Jan. 17 (10) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Advice of reports and rumors indicating Italy’s perilous situation in the confict with Ethiopia, with comments thereon.
91
Jan. 18 (27) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Comments on a speech by the Foreign Secretary, January 17; belief that the menace of Germany is the main preoccupation of responsible services of the Government.
92
Jan. 20 (15) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Circulation by League Secretariat of an Italian communication continuing allegations of Ethiopian atrocities and use of dumdum bullets. Red Cross officials’ belief that these matters are regulated by the Hague Convention and are outside their competence.
94
Jan. 21 (19) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Secretariat’s circulation of a note from Ethiopia dated January 20 reiterating chief elements of her position, and stating that any settlement must conform to principles laid down in the October 5th report of the Committee of Thirteen.
94
Jan. 21 (20) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Inconclusive discussion by the Committee of Thirteen on various aspects of the Italo-Ethiopian affair: Ethiopian request for financial assistance; request of Ethiopia for a Commission of Inquiry respecting illegal warfare; questions of conciliation and sanctions; and League’s position in the entire matter.
95
Jan. 23 (363) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Summary of views of various delegates in respect to the diverse aspects of the Italo-Ethiopian matter before the League, with emphasis on question of oil sanctions, the delegates’ interest in course of U. S. neutrality legislation, and the influence of German rearmament.
97
Jan. 29 (2499) From the Ambassador in France
Information concerning the origins of the Hoare–Laval plan and the “leak” that led to its premature disclosure, which, with other factors, made the proposals totally unacceptable.
100
Jan. 31 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Request of the Italian Ambassador for any possible sidelights on European affairs; Under Secretary’s mention of criticism in England of Mussolini but not of the Italian people, and his impression of German rearmament. Ambassador’s reference to various efforts of Italian-Americans to influence members of Congress with respect to neutrality legislation, and his denial of any connection with the matter.
102
[Page XV]1936 Feb. 5 (95) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Opinion of two officials of the French Foreign Office on oil sanctions against Italy.
104
Feb. 5 (46) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Conversation with Suvich, Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs, who said the international situation had elements of danger but that it would drift along until the various representatives at Geneva got tired of the sanctions program, and a proposal would be made which could result in a peaceful settlement.
104
Feb. 6 (52) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Information from member of British delegation regarding probable content of report to be submitted by the subcommittee of experts considering the question of an oil embargo; impression that no embargo will be applied.
105
Feb. 6 (54) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Latin American concern over new trend in the oil sanctions question; evidences of London’s desire for imposition of oil embargo against Italy; relation of Italian payment for Rumanian oil to project for oil sanctions.
106
Feb. 8 (58) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Further information on the oil embargo question, including some figures used in the deliberations of the Petroleum Subcommittee.
108
Feb. 13 (61) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Summary of chief elements of the report of the Committee of Experts on oil embargo, issued February 13.
109
Feb. 13 (63) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Alternatives of action by Committee of Eighteen on oil question, as enumerated by head of British delegation sent to meetings of Experts Committees; Consul’s observation, based on character of alternatives, that there is no present intention to effect an embargo.
111
Feb. 24 (73) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Summary of chief points in Eden’s speech of February 24 on foreign affairs, which included a reaffirmation of policy of collective action at Geneva, and stress on necessity for seeking cooperation of non-League powers to parallel Geneva policy.
112
Mar. 2 (67) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Suvich’s pleasure on receipt of news from Geneva of adoption of French Foreign Minister’s proposal to refer the whole matter to the Committee of Thirteen in preference to Eden’s proposal for an oil embargo. Opinion that a definite peace movement is taking shape.
113
Mar. 3 (74) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Adoption by the Committee of Thirteen of a resolution (text printed) calling on both belligerents to open negotiations with a view to prompt cessation of hostilities and restoration of peace.
114
[Page XVI]1936 Mar. 8 (77) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Indication in newspapers that although Italy’s reply signifies continuing desire for peace, there is no alteration in her fundamental position, which includes demand that Ethiopia must be regarded as the aggressor.
114
Mar. 9 (81) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Information that the Italian reply addressed to the Chairman of the Committee of Thirteen “agrees in principle to the opening of negotiations.”
115
Mar. 9 (85) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Acceptance of the proposal of the Committee of Thirteen by the Emperor of Ethiopia.
115
Mar. 25 (151) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Indication, in informal remarks of Chairman of the Committee of Thirteen, that owing to her military plans Italy would view with disfavor any action by the Committee in next 3 weeks.
115
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 30] (166) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Ethiopian Government’s issuance of communiqué (excerpt printed) reiterating intention to stop hostilities only after assurances that negotiations will take place within the framework of the League.
116
Apr. 7 (185) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Information of official confirmation of complete routs of Ethiopians on northern front; of departure of Eden for Geneva with no definite program other than cooperation with League; of French urging that Emperor sue for peace directly with the Italians.
116
Apr. 8 (101) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Position of various Latin American countries in respect to sanctions; understanding that Italian representative is attempting to get the Latin American League states to adopt a common front against sanctions.
117
Apr. 10 (208) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Ethiopian determination to negotiate only through the League, in spite of an intimation from Geneva of uselessness of insistence on letter and spirit of Covenant in negotiating with Italy.
118
Apr. 10 (136) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from Geneva that the British will press for increased sanctions, in the event that conciliation does not show immediate results.
118
Apr. 11 (114) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Account of several conversations, including one with British representative, who indicated reasons for British position and activities in the League regarding sanctions.
119
Apr. 14 (201) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Acknowledgment by Foreign Office official that the Cabinet considers economic sanctions ineffectual in terminating conflict; his understanding that Mussolini is anxious for an early settlement because of certain European developments.
120
[Page XVII]1936 Apr. 15 (308) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Conversation of the Counselor of the Embassy with an official of the Foreign Office relative to France’s position regarding the Ethiopian matter and German rearmament.
120
Apr. 16 (120) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Italian conditions of negotiation as disclosed to Committee of Thirteen by Italian delegate.
121
Apr. 16 (121) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Résumé of developments in a meeting of the Committee of Thirteen, which considered the Italian conditions; decision to discuss with Ethiopia possible modification of its terms for negotiation.
122
Apr. 17 (124) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Further information on the Committee meeting in general, and on the British position in particular.
124
Apr. 17 (125) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Ethiopian rejection of Italian terms for negotiation; decision of Committee of Thirteen to refer the matter to the Council in view of failure of conciliation.
125
Apr. 20 (132) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Analysis of character of recent Anglo-French rapprochement, and its significance in Ethiopian situation and in European matters.
126
Apr. 20 (367) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Review of diplomatic background of Council session and factors inducing the British to modify their attitude to meet the French.
127
May 7 (254) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Parliamentary session of May 6, in which Eden admitted League’s failure and the desirability of its reorganization, and Sir Austen Chamberlain appealed for removal of sanctions; quotation from press comments reflecting partisan divergencies.
129

iii. annexation of ethiopia by italy, may 9, 1936; reaction of the league of nations and of france and the united kingdom

Date and number Subject Page
1936 May 11 (389) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Departure of Paul-Boncour, French representative on League Council, for Geneva with intent to cooperate with England’s policy but to take no initiative in lifting sanctions against Italy; reaction of public and press to Italy’s annexation of Ethiopia.
130
May 12 (166) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
British position of nonrecognition of Italian annexation of Ethiopia until League’s recognition.
131
[Page XVIII]1936 May 12 (168) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Résumé of Council meeting at which a British resolution was adopted, with reservations by some states, adjourning the discussion of Italian annexation of Ethiopia until June 15, but maintaining sanctions in force. Departure of Italian delegation from Geneva.
131
May 12 (2185) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Transmittal of two letters of a series appearing in the Times dealing with causes and results of the failure of the League of Nations in relation to its future.
133
May 13 (154) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Summary of Gayda’s interpretation, in the Giornale, of Italian feeling toward the League of Nations.
133
May 14 (403) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Foreign Office official’s view on confusing status of Ethiopia, which he regards as without precedent; also his belief that Mussolini has no present intention of withdrawing from the League.
134
May 15 (173) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Receipt by the Secretariat of a proposal by Chile that sanctions measures be discontinued.
135
May 15 (177) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Analysis of the situation of European nations, which must now decide whether to make a final effort to salvage collective security or to seek to achieve their national necessities by other means. Advice that there has been a recrudescence of talk concerning a Mediterranean pact.
136
May 16 (180) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Status of question of a Mediterranean pact to include Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey; attitude of various countries toward pact, and key position of Great Britain.
138
May 22 (176) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Discussion of damage to Italy’s economic situation and to her pride by the continuation of sanctions; explanation of the viewpoint of the Government and the Italian people.
139
May 28 (197) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Recent developments in connection with the projected Mediterranean pact; influence of sanctions on Italian participation in the pact and in Straits Conference.
141
May 29 (288) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Newspaper correspondent’s account of an interview with Mussolini. Eden’s conversation with the Italian Ambassador relative to present relations with Italy.
142
May 29 (182) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Mussolini’s intention to send delegation to Straits Conference but not to Council meeting unless situation changes regarding sanctions and status of the Negus. Discussion of Italian military preparedness and mood of Mussolini and of the Italian people.
143
[Page XIX]1936 May 30 (202) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Conversation with Argentine delegate, who has received instructions to sound out other delegates on the convoking of the League Assembly in the Italo-Ethiopian dispute; reaction of various powers, and problems connected with convocation of the Assembly.
145
June 1 (183) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Gayda’s editorial relative to the Argentine proposal and the continuation of sanctions; his assertion that Italy remained completely aloof from Geneva.
147
June 2 (119) From the Ambassador in Argentina (tel.)
Information from Foreign Minister that the British and French Governments had expressed a desire to postpone discussion of Ethiopian matter until September or October, and that the British had taken a negative attitude toward his suggestion that Italy be expelled from League.
148
June 2 (292) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Delay in Anglo-French conversations relative to a common policy in regard to sanctions and the League of Nations, due partly to the coming into power of the new Blum Government in France.
149
June 3 (206) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Argentine formal request for convocation of Assembly, and indication that its purpose will be consideration of the questions of annexation of Ethiopia and sanctions.
150
June 5 Memorandum by the Chief of the Office of Arms and Munitions Control
Conversation with Mr. Felix Morley, editor of The Washington Post, in which he recounted recent conversations in England with Eden and members of the Labor Party.
151
June 5 (460) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office concerning possible action of the Assembly meeting to be called as a result of Argentine initiative; views of the press and of the Foreign Office as to the motives underlying Argentine initiative.
152
June 6 (299) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Trends in British policy on Anglo-Italian issues and the League, as revealed in conversations of Foreign Secretary Eden with the French and Italian Ambassadors.
153
June 6 (218) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Conversation with Argentine representative, who indicated Argentina’s policy on sanctions and its desire for strong endorsement of the principle of nonrecognition.
154
June 9 (302) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
British views prior to meeting of League Council and Assembly, with indication of intent to vote for abolition of sanctions; fear by observers of policy of drift at Geneva.
155
[Page XX]1936 June 10 (223) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Argentine representative’s full account of his Government’s policy in requesting convocation of the Assembly, and his assessment of the attitudes of other Latin American countries. Estimate of reaction in Geneva to Argentine initiative.
155
June 12 (230) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Anxiety of Balkan representatives over delay in consummation of a Mediterranean pact; attitudes of Great Britain and Italy toward pact.
158
June 18 (315) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Chief points of Eden’s foreign policy speech in the House of Commons; opposition of Labor Party to Government’s position on sanctions and rearmament.
158
June 19 (220) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Italian reaction to Eden’s speech; advice of British efforts to dissuade Argentina from insisting upon nonrecognition of Italian sovereignty in Ethiopia; Italy’s intention to give assurances to League relative to Africa.
160
June 24 (246) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Argentina’s attitude toward “new” and “old” sanctions; Consul’s opinion on probable course of events in Assembly meeting relative to sanctions, nonrecognition, and League reform.
160
June 24 (247) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Information from Ethiopian Government financial adviser that the Emperor is proceeding to Geneva, where two representatives will present his country’s case to Assembly along lines taken previously; belief that this will mark the last official appearance of Ethiopians at Geneva.
162
June 24 (249) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Argentina’s nonrecognition policy as explained by the Argentine representative, who also stated he had reason to believe that there existed conflict between Washington and Buenos Aires over the matter.
163
June 25 (250) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Substance of instructions received by the various Latin American representatives at Geneva as to the positions they will take on the principal issues.
164
June 26 (253) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Résumé of positions of “neutral” states on subjects to come up before the Assembly.
164
June 26 (255) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Cuban Minister’s receipt of instructions to support Argentine position; advice that he is requesting a certain modification in the instructions.
166
June 27 (443) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Observations based on recent conversations with Ministers of Great Britain, France, and Germany, each of whom commented on international developments related to Ethiopian conflict and expressed opinions on possible future events in view of collapse of attempts at collective security.
166
[Page XXI]1936 June 29 (263) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Disorientation in Latin American policies in Geneva due to uncertainty of Argentine position arising from difference of opinion between the Senate and Foreign Minister Saavedra Lamas; Chilean initiative for League reform, and extent of support therefor.
171
June 29 (264) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Account of conversation with a member of the British delegation concerning bases of British policy on the present issues at Geneva.
172
June 30 (242) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Summary of a communication (shown confidentially to the Chargé at the Foreign Office), to be presented to Assembly at Geneva, setting forth Italy’s position in the Ethiopian matter.
173
June 30 (267) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Diplomatic conversations between European great powers and Italy and Argentina looking toward reconciliation of positions; British effort to prevent Ethiopian Emperor from participating in Assembly.
174
June 30 (268) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Reasons for Argentina’s difficulties in prosecuting its initiative; Foreign Minister’s intention later to advocate lifting of sanctions against Italy “on juridical grounds.” Comments on American-European issue.
175
June 30 (271) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Opening of Assembly; reading of Italian statement by the President; Argentine presentation of case for nonrecognition principle; Ethiopian Emperor’s arraignment of League’s position.
177
July 1 (273) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Short summaries of positions of Colombia, Panama, and France as stated in Assembly.
178
July 1 (276) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Short summaries of positions of the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, and the Soviet Union as stated in Assembly; reference to emerging general attitudes of opposition toward the Argentine initiative and policy of nonrecognition.
179
July 3 (280) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Ethiopia’s formal stand that Government remains in full de facto and de jure existence, and introduction of two draft resolutions, one pertaining to nonrecognition and the other to a loan.
180
July 3 (284) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Mexico’s withdrawal from Bureau of the Assembly, and notice to President that it has ceased to participate in the consideration of the Italo-Ethiopian dispute; Bureau’s efforts to draft a three-point resolution.
180
[Page XXII]1936 July 4 (286) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Highlights of draft report submitted by the Bureau to the Assembly, including statement “that various circumstances have prevented full application of the Covenant;” criticism of report by various countries. Advice that date of next Assembly was set for September 21.
181
July 5 (287) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Discussion of various aspects of the recent Assembly meetings, and observations on the feeling of pessimism reflected in the public utterances, private conversations, and general atmosphere of the meetings.
182
July 6 (290) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Information from Emperor’s political adviser relative to question of Emperor’s return to Ethiopia, and military situation there; adviser’s belief that status of Ethiopia vis-à-vis the League would be settled by Credentials Committee at the September Assembly.
184
July 6 (291) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Steps taken by the Coordination Committee toward abrogating sanctions; position of Argentina and other countries.
185
July 10 (257) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Press reports of British decision to withdraw home fleet from the Mediterranean and French communication terminating the Anglo-French mutual assistance accord in that sea.
186
July 11 (593) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Foreign Office explanation relative to termination of the Anglo-French mutual assistance accord in the Mediterranean.
187
(Note: Information as to unsuccessful attempt at the September Assembly to exclude Ethiopian delegation by refusing to recognize its credentials, and subsequent position taken by the Emperor of Ethiopia.) 188

iv. united states neutrality; extension of neutrality legislation; revocation of the neutrality proclamations; unfavorable attitude of the united states toward proposed visit of the emperor of ethiopia to the united states

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Feb. 14 (54) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Information, from unofficial source, of Italian Government’s intention to transfer perhaps 90 percent of Italian foreign holdings from sanctionist countries to United States; warning of possible dumping if market shows signs of breaking.
188
Feb. 18 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Western European Affairs
Conversation with the British Ambassador concerning a point of language in the neutrality resolution pending in Congress to extend the resolution of August 31, 1935.
189
[Page XXIII]1936 Mar. 3 (68) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Chief points of a statement by Mussolini relative to Italian victory in Ethiopia, U. S. neutrality legislation, Danubian question, and the Naval Conference.
191
Mar. 3 To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Information that on February 29 the President signed the new Neutrality Act and issued revised Arms Embargo Proclamation; also that he issued a statement on U. S. policy concerning commercial transactions with belligerents.
(Footnote: The same, mutatis mutandis, to Minister Resident in Ethiopia; repeated as circular to diplomatic representatives in France, Italy, Switzerland, and to the Consul at Geneva.)
192
Apr. 6 To President Roosevelt
Transmittal of draft proclamation to supersede Proclamation of September 25, 1935, enumerating categories of arms, ammunition, and implements of war.
192
May 9 (141) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Observations on the problems of (1) question whether a state of war is regarded as still existing between Ethiopia and Italy, and (2) present status of the Ethiopian Government. Inquiry as to Department’s position on these matters.
193
May 9 (211) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that Department is considering question of revocation of arms embargo proclamation and desires Minister’s opinion, based on an investigation of military situation in Ethiopia, as to whether it may be said that the war has ended.
194
May 15 (161) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Administrative measures for Ethiopia as reported in the Italian press.
195
May 16 (43) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Advice that the problems mentioned in Chargé’s No. 141, May 9, are being studied; preliminary comments on possible method of dealing with them.
195
May 17 (352) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Description of military situation in Ethiopia, and suggestion that Department defer action mentioned in its No. 211 of May 9 until situation is clarified.
196
May 18 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Belief that, in view of reports from abroad and other considerations, the United States should continue to take no action toward proclaiming the “state of war” at an end.
197
May 18 (171) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Survey of military and political situation in Ethiopia, submitted as of possible relevance in connection with Department’s study of question of continued application of the neutrality proclamations.
198
[Page XXIV]1936 May 20 (173) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Newspaper reports that rumor of Ethiopian troop movement toward Addis Ababa is false, and that Ras Imru, commanding a few hundred warriors, is becoming less hostile.
(Footnote: Repeated by Department to Minister Resident in Ethiopia.)
200
May 23 (177) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Information from Addis Ababa that territorial occupation is going forward methodically.
201
May 26 (178) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Advice of legislation converting into law decrees declaring Italian sovereignty over Ethiopia; and of news reports concerning Italian civil and military measures in establishing control over the territory.
201
June 1 (184) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Passage of law by Council of Ministers providing for the organization and administration of Italian East Africa; summary of its provisions.
202
June 2 (189) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Observations of Assistant Naval Attaché, upon his return from East Africa, on the progress of Italian pacification of Ethiopia and establishment of civil administration.
(Footnote: Substance of telegram sent by Department to Minister Resident in Ethiopia.)
204
June 4 (266) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request for information on military situation, particularly as to extent to which Italian control has been established over Ethiopian territory.
205
June 5 (395) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that situation since latter part of May has remained practically unchanged; correction of certain erroneous statements in telegrams from Italy repeated by Department, especially those in respect to extent of pacification.
205
June 12 (206) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Review of situation in Ethiopia and conclusion that a state of war may be considered no longer to exist; two reasons in favor of revocation of the arms embargo proclamation.
206
June 12 To President Roosevelt
Summary of reports of Minister Resident in Ethiopia on military situation there; suggestion, based on the uncertainties of the situation, that no action revoking arms embargo proclamation of October 5, 1935, be taken until further report can be made.
208
June 16 (279) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request for further expression of views on Ethiopian situation before definite action is taken with respect to revocation of the proclamation of October 5, 1935.
209
[Page XXV]1936 June 18 (428) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Estimate that 40 percent of country is not even nominally under Italian control; and suggestion, for specified reasons, that revocation of Proclamation not be carried out in haste.
210
June 19 Memorandum by the Legal Adviser
Quotation (text printed) from Oppenheim’s treatise on International Law, to the effect that guerilla warfare is not real war; possibility that guerilla warfare may be carried on for some time in Ethiopia.
(Footnote: Information that this memorandum evidently was supposed to accompany a letter of June 19 to President Roosevelt, not printed.)
211
June 20 (71) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
President Roosevelt’s issuance of proclamations (for publication June 21), revoking those of October 5, 1935, and February 29, 1936, together with statement of reasons for revocation.
(Footnote: Similar telegram to Minister Resident in Ethiopia.)
212
July 31 (384) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Receipt of reliable information that the Emperor of Ethiopia contemplates applying for permission to enter the United States; understanding that he will endeavor to raise funds.
213
Aug. 1 From the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs to the Secretary of State
Telephone conversation with the Ambassador in the United Kingdom, who was instructed to make every appropriate effort to dissuade the Emperor from seeking permission to visit the United States at this time.
213
Aug. 4 (310) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Request for information on nature of replies to be made to American firms seeking assistance in connection with trade transactions upon which revocation of the President’s proclamations may have a bearing.
214
Aug. 5 (389) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Action taken to discourage a U. S. visit of the Ethiopian Emperor or of Dr. W. C. Martin, the Ethiopian Minister in the United Kingdom.
214
Aug. 6 (105) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Instructions in reply to Chargé’s request contained in telegram No. 310 of August 4.
215
Aug. 10 (391) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Unsuccessful attempt to dissuade Dr. Martin from his intention to apply for permission to visit the United States to raise money to continue armed struggle against Italy.
216
Sept. 1 (320) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Instruction to bring to Dr. Martin’s attention the Department’s opinion that his visit would be contrary to the spirit of the neutrality laws; confidential information, however, that Department would not consider it advisable to refuse visa in case of insistence.
216
[Page XXVI]1936 Sept. 10 (333) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Conversation with the Reverend William Chase, Superintendent of International Reform Federation, who stated that his London representative had invited the Emperor to visit the United States, and inquired whether permission had been refused; Secretary’s explanation of the situation.
217
Sept. 11 (429) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Call of Edward Page Gaston, apparently the London representative of Dr. Chase, relative to a visa for the Emperor; Ambassador’s efforts to explain futility of a visit by the Emperor.
217
Nov. 20 (416) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Information from Foreign Minister Ciano that Emperor is still planning to visit the United States for propaganda purposes; advice that Ciano has furnished a list of persons and associations in the United States who are said to be sponsoring the trip.
218
Nov. 23 (415) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Summary of information received from the Ambassador in Italy, and request that Department and Embassy at Rome be furnished any information obtainable respecting visit.
218
Nov. 26 (571) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
No further information regarding proposed visit.
(Sent also to Italy.)
219

v. attitude of the united states toward recognition of italian annexation of ethiopia

Date and number Subject Page
1936 May 6 (134) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Discussion of possible procedures which the Italian Government might adopt in order to consolidate its occupation of Ethiopian territory; views of French and British Ambassadors.
219
May 7 Memorandum by the Legal Adviser
Detailed consideration of questions which may arise if Mussolini actually takes over Ethiopia; analysis of precedent found in previous comparable situations.
222
May 8 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Argentine Ambassador, who was asked unofficially and informally to sound out his Government as to what it had in mind with respect to the interpretation and the application of the Argentine Peace Pact to the forcible Italian occupation of Ethiopia.
225
May 9 Italian Royal Decree—Law No. 754 of May 9, 1936
Text of decree declaring sovereignty of Italy over Ethiopia and indicating the general form of government planned.
226
May 10 (144) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Reason for nonacceptance of informal invitation of Foreign Office to attend ceremonies attendant on announcements pertaining to Ethiopia; advice that Military and Naval Attachés were present.
227
[Page XXVII]1936 May 11 (147) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Advice that the juridical status of Ethiopia is not clearly defined; that apparently the nature of the new entity and its relation to Italy will have to be defined by administrative acts. Italian hope that U. S. attitude in the Ethiopian matter will be favorable.
227
May 11 From the Italian Ambassador
Formal notification of Italian annexation of Ethiopia.
229
May 12 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Oral remarks of the Italian Ambassador upon his presentation of the memorandum dated May 11 (supra).
229
May 12 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Italian Ambassador, who was told, in reply to his inquiry, that the United States had not yet decided what course it would adopt relative to Ethiopia.
230
May 13 (1188) From the Colombian Chargé
Colombian invitation to United States to make a joint reply, or at least a uniform one, to the Italian notification of annexation of Ethiopia, indicating nonrecognition in line with the Declaration of American States of August 3, 1932, and the Anti-War Pact of 1933.
231
May 13 (47) From the Chargé in Honduras (tel.)
Advice that Honduran Foreign Minister has received an invitation from Colombia to make uniform reply to Italian notification, and that he would appreciate an indication of U. S. attitude before replying.
231
May 13 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman, of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs, of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Counselor’s inquiry as to whom he could see relative to instructions from his Government to ascertain U. S. attitude toward the Italian notification of annexation of Ethiopia; Mr. Dooman’s promise to endeavor to ascertain appropriate person.
232
May 14 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman, of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs, of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Dooman’s indication that he had been directed to make oral reply to the Counselor’s inquiry of May 13; statement read to Yoshizawa (text printed) indicating that the Government is observing developments and will deal with practical questions as they arise.
233
May 14 (124) From the Minister in Nicaragua (tel.)
Desire of Foreign Office to learn U. S. attitude in Ethiopian matter in order to make uniform reply to Colombian telegram on the subject.
233
May 14 (70) To the Minister in Nicaragua (tel.)
Instructions to inform Nicaraguan Government that the Department has refrained from replying to the Italian annexation notice for the time being, and is studying the situation.
(Footnote: Substantially same telegram to Chargé in Honduras.)
234
[Page XXVIII]1936 May 15 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Chinese Ambassador, who inquired as to U. S. reply to the Italian notification of Ethiopian annexation.
234
May 15 (1685) From the Chargé in Italy
Translations of news items (texts printed) in the Italian press of May 9 and 12 reporting interviews granted by Ambassador Long with reference to Italy.
235
May 21 (128) From the Ambassador in Brazil (tel.)
Foreign Office request for information as to character of U. S. reply to Italian announcement of annexation of Ethiopia.
236
May 21 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Western European Affairs
Inquiry by Counselor of Italian Embassy as to attitude of the United States toward Colombia’s suggestion; reply that U. S. Government is in no position to give an expression on the subject at this time.
236
May 22 (72) To the Ambassador in Brazil (tel.)
Instructions for reply to the Foreign Minister’s inquiry relative to the Italian notification.
238
May 31 (382) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Résumé of the provisions of a decree issued by the Governor General specifying types of legal procedure applicable to various groups of people in Ethiopia.
238
June 1 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Opinion that the Governor General’s decree would be an invasion of the extraterritorial rights accorded American nationals by article 3 (text printed) of the U. S.-Ethiopian treaty of June 27, 1914; opinion that position of other countries on the decree should be ascertained.
239
June 2 (262) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request that the Minister keep Department informed of any instructions his colleagues may seek or receive concerning Governor General’s decree.
240
June 8 (404) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information that colleagues have thus far received no replies to their requests for instructions; that the German Chargé has temporarily suspended consular court activities; and that no American cases are pending in consular or special courts.
240
June 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Discussion of U. S. position in previous cases of termination of its extraterritorial jurisdiction; conclusion that no final decision can be made as to the question of extraterritorial jurisdiction in Ethiopia until one has been made with respect to recognition of Italian annexation.
240
[Page XXIX]1936 June 9 (269) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice from Rome that Italians did not expect immediate recognition of annexation of Ethiopia but were willing to progress gradually from present situation to de facto and then to de jure recognition; ways in which foreign governments might raise the point.
242
June 13 (67) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Italian Ambassador’s request for an agrément to appointment of Suvich as Ambassador in Washington. Ambassador’s inquiry as to whether appointment of a successor to him would raise any difficulty; reply, in view of understanding that inquiry referred to addition of title of “Emperor” in letters of credence, that Department was not in a position to consider any new phase involved in such a proposed appointment.
242
June 15 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Suggestion to Italian Ambassador, after conversation with President Roosevelt, that new American Ambassador be accredited to “His Majesty the King of Italy, etc., etc.”, or to “His Majesty the King of Italy and possessions beyond the seas.”
243
June 16 (214) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Discussions in diplomatic circles in Rome relative to addition of title of “Emperor” to that of “King” in letters of credence, and general belief that the two titles would be required by Italian authorities.
243
June 17 (69) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Instructions for a discussion with the Foreign Office in connection with the appointment of Ambassadors, and relative to use of titles in the letters of credence.
244
June 18 (217) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Foreign Office statement that no decision has yet been reached in the matter of titles in letters of credence, and assurance that Italian Government has no intention of involving question of recognition of sovereignty over Ethiopia in the matter of titles.
245
June 19 (70) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Belief that there would be no difficulty in Italy’s acceptance of letters of credence without additional title, but preference for settlement of matter before final consent to agrément of the Italian appointee.
245
June 20 (221) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Understanding from Foreign Office that Italian Government will accept letters of credence addressed to the “King of Italy,” but will add “Emperor of Ethiopia” in credentials of Italian representatives.
246
June 23 (284) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Résumé of situation relative to titles and question of recognition of Italian sovereignty over Ethiopia in connection with the exchange of Ambassadors with Italy. Advice that the President has given his approval to appointment of Suvich as new Italian Ambassador at Washington.
246
[Page XXX]1936 June 25 (438) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Departure of British, Belgian, and German Ministers and of Japanese Chargé seen as move in the direction of diplomatic withdrawal, since Italians are not granting visas to substitutes.
247
Aug. 1 (99) To the Chargé in Germany (tel.)
Request for any information obtainable relative to the significance of German reduction of its representation at Addis Ababa from a Legation to a Consulate General.
248
Aug. 5 (243) From the Chargé in Germany (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office that reduction in rank of German representation in Addis Ababa constitutes de facto recognition of the situation in Ethiopia; German willingness to accord de jure recognition if and when desirable.
248
Oct. 29 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Western European Affairs
Oral explanation given various Ministers who called to inquire as to circumstances of the exchange of new Ambassadors with Italy, recently consummated.
249
Nov. 2 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Reply in the negative to an inquiry by the Italian Ambassador, in view of American press comment, as to whether any “understanding” existed between the United States and Latin American countries with respect to recognition of the Italian conquest.
249
Nov. 2 (63) From the Chargé in Costa Rica (tel.)
Information from Ministry of Foreign Affairs that new Italian Minister is on way to San José and may present credentials implying Italian sovereignty over Ethiopia; Foreign Ministry’s desire to know U. S. position on the problem.
250
Nov. 5 (46) To the Chargé in Costa Rica (tel.)
U. S. attitude on the matter of credentials, for oral communication to the Foreign Minister.
251
Dec. 7 (512) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Conversation with the British Ambassador, who discussed the situation with regard to British representation in Addis Ababa.
251
Dec. 22 (543) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Advice of official communiqué announcing British and French decisions to replace their Legations in Addis Ababa with Consulates General, and of newspaper comment that the move constitutes recognition of a de facto situation.
252
Dec. 23 From the British Embassy
Notification of substitution of a Consulate General for the British Legation at Addis Ababa, and of certain diplomatic assurances asked for and received from Italy; citations to precedents, and acknowledgment that the action involves de facto recognition.
252
[Page XXXI]

vi. Protection of the legation staff in addis ababa, and of American missionaries in ethiopia

Date and number Subject Page
1936 May 2 (261) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Departure of Government and beginning of looting in the town.
254
May 2 (263) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Evidences of great disorder in Addis Ababa.
254
May 2 (265) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Further evidences of disorder, with incessant firing on all sides; Legation’s provision of shelter and food to 36 refugees.
255
May 2 (266) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
No apparent imminent danger to American missions; thus far no foreigners reported among victims of disorder.
255
May 2 (267) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information that fire is spreading, but not in direction of the Legation; that thousands of natives have been quietly evacuating the city.
255
May 2 (176) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Appreciation of Minister’s reports, and instructions to impress upon American nationals the importance of avoiding unnecessary risks and of committing no act that would involve their Government.
256
May 3 (269) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Cooperation of the British in the removal of several persons to the British Legation.
256
May 3 (274) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice relative to Sudan Interior Mission at Furi and American Mission at Gullali; removal of more persons to British Legation.
257
May 3 (179) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Approval of preliminary plans to evacuate entire U. S. Legation to British Legation if necessary.
257
May 3 (276) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Decision to evacuate only women and children from U. S. Legation; details of evacuation and situation in Legation.
258
May 4 (279) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Repulse of a band of marauders who attacked the Legation.
258
May 4 (37) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Instructions to inquire of Italian Government what steps it is taking to meet its responsibility to protect lives of foreigners in Ethiopian capital.
(Text transmitted to Minister Resident in Ethiopia.)
259
May 4 (282) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice of inability of messengers to reach British Legation; request that Department communicate via London with British Minister in Ethiopia, indicating that with a small amount of assistance the U. S. Legation could be held.
260
May 4 (182) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether Minister can communicate with British Legation by radio.
260
[Page XXXII]1936 May 4 (283) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Worsening of the situation at the Legation.
260
May 4 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Steps taken to reestablish communication between British and American Legations in Addis Ababa.
261
May 4 (284) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Desire to save Legation if at all possible; completion of inter-Legation radio communications prevented by sudden outbreak of disturbances.
261
May 4 (285) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Apparent inability of British Legation to get in touch with American Legation; perhaps slight improvement in situation.
262
May 4 (245) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office that British Legation in Addis Ababa has telegraphed that it is unable to spare any men or guns for defense of American Legation.
262
May 4 (246) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Offer of Foreign Office to telegraph British Legation to send another armed convoy to evacuate entire American Legation; request for instructions.
262
May 4 (146) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Acceptance of British offer to instruct Legation in Addis Ababa relative to evacuation. Information repeated to U. S. Minister Resident in Ethiopia.
263
May 4 (187) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Conflicting reports from Rome as to progress of Italian troops, but general expectation that Badoglio will arrive at Addis Ababa May 5.
263
May 4 (190) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Extent of assistance offered by the British; instructions to have no hesitancy in leaving as soon as British convoy arrives.
263
May 5 (287) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Disinclination to evacuate Legation if report in Department’s telegram No. 187, May 4, is even approximately correct; no word from British Legation.
263
May 5 (288) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Little change in situation since dispatch of telegram No. 287.
264
May 5 From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Safe evacuation of U. S. Legation.
264
May 5 (125) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Inquiry at Foreign Office as to steps taken to protect foreigners in Addis Ababa, with emphasis on Italian responsibilities resulting from situation which they have created; reply that troops are expected to enter the city in matter of hours. Italian attitude on the matter of responsibility for the situation.
264
May 5 (148) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Instructions to express appreciation to Foreign Office for assistance to American Legation.
265
[Page XXXIII]1936 May 5 (289) From the Consul at Addis Ababa (tel.)
Evacuation of entire Legation at 9:30 a.m.; arrival of Italians at 4 p.m.; Consul’s reoccupation of undamaged Legation at 5 p.m.; Minister to remain at British Legation overnight.
266
May 5 (292) From the Consul at Addis Ababa (tel.)
Repulse of evening attack on Legation; dispatch of heavily armed car to city headquarters to request armed guard for Legation.
266
May 6 (293) From the Consul at Addis Ababa (tel.)
Arrival of Italian guard.
266
May 6 (296) From the Consul at Addis Ababa (tel.)
Departure of Italian guard.
267
May 6 (199) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Reassurance that action in leaving Legation was quite in accordance with instructions.
267
(Note: Information on U. S. Congressional interest relative to the protection of the Legation.) 267
May 14 (339) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Efforts being made to assure safety of American citizens in the interior.
267
May 14 (227) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from one of U. S. representatives in Europe that the Italians have requested withdrawal of British Legation guard, and that the British intend to replace their diplomatic mission with a consular office.
268
May 27 (374) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Noncompliance of British and French Governments with Italian request to withdraw Legation guards, in view of unsettled local situation.
268
July 6 (455) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Impression that Italians are exceedingly nervous regarding the local situation and their ability to hold Addis Ababa during the rainy season.
269
July 8 (459) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
No train movements since July 5; unofficial information of destruction of part of railway line by Ethiopian band.
269
July 8 From the Consul at Cairo (tel.)
Restoration of communications with Sudan Interior Mission at Jimma and at Agaro; report that missionaries are safe.
269
July 14 (308) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request for views and comments relating to the safeguarding of the Legation in the event of Italian inability to give adequate protection.
270
July 16 (476) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Situation relative to protection of the Legation, and specific suggestions, including the temporary subleasing of the Belgian Legation, now unoccupied.
270
[Page XXXIV]1936 July 20 (24) To the Ambassador in Belgium (tel.)
Instructions to inquire upon what terms, if any, the Belgian Government would be willing to sublease Legation building in Addis Ababa.
273
July 21 (316) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Comments on Minister’s explanations relative to protection of Legation; inquiry as to (1) whether defensive strength would not be greatly increased by a few machine guns, and (2) whether a shipment of arms previously made by the Department has arrived.
273
July 22 (56) From the Chargé in Belgium (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office explaining why the Belgian Government cannot sublease Legation quarters at Addis Ababa.
274
July 24 (27) To the Chargé in Belgium (tel.)
Instructions to discuss matter of sublease with Foreign Office again, explaining its importance as a temporary defense measure.
274
July 27 (497) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel).
Lodging of stray bullet in wall of Chancery during rifle fire in neighborhood.
275
July 27 (324) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Willingness of Belgian Government to permit U. S. Legation to occupy building of Belgian Legation for 3 months subject to certain conditions. Request for comments.
275
July 29 (499) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that a small battle has been raging near Belgian and British Legations for 26 hours; opinion that it would be unwise to move into Belgian Legation at this time since both Legations are exposed to stray shots.
276
July 30 (501) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from Italian authorities that Ethiopian bands involved in battle have been driven off, and that all necessary measures have been taken for adequate protection of American Legation and institutions.
276
July 30 (327) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Expression of strong feeling that Minister should move into Belgian Legation at earliest possible moment; emphasis on safety of Legation personnel and American nationals.
276
July 31 (502) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Opinion that Belgian Legation would offer no advantages over American at the present moment; assurance that no unnecessary risks will be taken.
277
Aug. 4 (508) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information that Department’s shipment of arms has been held up in French Somaliland; suggestion that matter might be expedited through Paris.
278
Aug. 4 (329) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Continued concern for safety of Legation, and inquiry relative to certain details.
278
[Page XXXV]1936 Aug. 7 (295) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Instructions to make urgent representations in connection with shipment of arms held up in French Somaliland, in view of importance of the arms for protection of Legation in Ethiopia; explanation of situation, and assumption that position of Governor of French Somaliland is based on treaty of August 21, 1930.
279
Aug. 13 (337) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from U. S. Ambassador in France that action has been taken by the Government to instruct Governor of French Somaliland to forward arms to Legation in Ethiopia.
280
Aug. 14 (338) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Suggestion of French Foreign Office that Minister take up with Italian high command the question of avoiding any difficulty over the arms shipment into Ethiopia.
280
Aug. 28 (535) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Assurances from Italian authorities 6 weeks ago, and again recently, that they had no objections to the shipment. Advice that shipment has not yet been received.
280
Aug. 28 (533) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Renewal of activities of Ethiopian armed forces, August 26 and 27, in vicinity of capital; continuance of Italian reconnoitering and bombing of environs of Addis Ababa; receipt of 10 Italian rifles and ammunition upon request.
280
Aug. 28 (536) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Defeat of some 1500 Ethiopians who attacked local airdrome night of August 26.
281
Aug. 29 (538) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
More serious nature of the August 26–27 fighting than impression previously conveyed. Minister’s warning to members of Sudan Interior Mission of danger, and Italian assurance that all possible protection would be given.
281
Sept. 11 (350) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Telegram from Ambassador in London (paraphrase printed) reporting British decision to transfer Consul at Gore to Gambela; instructions to the Ambassador (text printed) to request Foreign Office to ask its Consul to explain danger at Gore to American nationals and urge them to leave.
282
Sept. 14 (555) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from British Minister that he has urged delay in evacuation of Gore in order to facilitate evacuation from Jimma. Messages sent to Jimma and Soddu urging Americans to leave if they do not consider journey too hazardous.
283
Sept. 17 (356) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Telegram from the Ambassador in London (paraphrase printed) reporting Foreign Office statement that the Consul at Gore has assumed protection of all foreigners, as well as British subjects, in that region insofar as possible.
284
Dec. 29 (704) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Description of an attack on a house near the Legation, illustrating the state of insecurity which still prevails.
285
[Page XXXVI]

vii. relations between the american minister resident in ethiopia and the italian military commanders

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Apr. 20 (153) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Disinclination to issue special instructions as to Minister’s relations with Italian military authorities in the event they occupy Addis Ababa, pending their arrival and announcement of their plans.
285
May 6 (298) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Substance of a note verbale received from member of Marshal Badoglio’s staff announcing appointment of a military and civil government for Addis Ababa, defining rights of members of the Legation, and expressing hope of cooperation in the special circumstances.
286
May 7 (311) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Remarks of Captain Alessandrini, who delivered the note verbale, on the matter of cooperation. Meeting of Diplomatic Corps and agreement on procedure.
287
May 9 (209) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from French Ambassador concerning his Government’s instructions to the Minister in Ethiopia, and concerning action of the French Ambassador in Italy in connection with Italian occupation of Ethiopia.
288
May 10 (327) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request for instructions for reply to Italian note verbale; intended course of action in dealing with the Italian authorities.
288
May 12 (217) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Instructions for answering note verbale; approval of intended course in dealing with Italian authorities, and statement that Minister’s foremost present duty is the protection of American nationals and interests.
289
May 14 (342) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Call on Marshal Badoglio, during which the Minister expressed concern over the safety of Americans in the interior, and Badoglio promised that he would attempt to establish communication with the southern provinces as soon as possible.
289
May 20 (362) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Forthcoming departure of Marshal Badoglio; arrival of Marshal Graziani to assume supreme command.
289
May 26 (372) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Account of imprisonment of Chief Radioman Tanner by Italian authorities after incident in a bar.
290
May 27 (376) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Receipt of official notification from Governor of Addis Ababa that foreigners and natives must give Fascist salute to Governor General, to Italian flag, or to Fascist emblem.
290
May 27 (377) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether foreigners residing in Italy or Germany are expected to give respective national salutes. Opinion that removal of hats for national or regimental colors is desirable, but intention not to advise Americans to give Fascist salute.
290
[Page XXXVII]1936 May 28 (254) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Approval of Minister’s intended procedure pending further consideration; quotation of German notice of August 23, 1933, covering question of foreigners giving Nazi salute.
291
May 29 (256) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Telegram from Embassy in Rome (text printed) stating there is no regulation requiring foreigners in Italy to give Fascist salute; Department’s deferment of definite instructions pending Minister’s conference with colleagues.
291
June 3 (389) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Minister’s refusal to accept an Italian order for the expulsion of Tanner, and his explanation of the situation; Graziani’s agreement to cancel expulsion order.
292
June 6 (398) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Diplomatic Corps’ discussion of the decree regarding Fascist salute; information that the British and French Ambassadors in Rome have protested the decree, and have been assured that local authorities would be instructed not to enforce it in regard to foreigners.
293
June 6 (399) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Decision of Diplomatic Corps to inform respective Governments that since Badoglio’s departure the high command has tended to ignore chiefs of missions in their official capacity and to address them without giving titles.
293
June 7 (403) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Account of informal conversation with Graziani relative to welfare of American missionaries and other American citizens in Ethiopia; opinion that Graziani’s utmost courtesy was result of instructions from Rome.
294
June 9 (270) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Approval of Minister’s attitude in conversation with Graziani, and suggestions as to future course; inquiry as to title used by Diplomatic Corps in addressing Marshals Badoglio and Graziani.
295
June 12 (418) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information that none of chiefs of mission used title of “Viceroy” in addressing Badoglio; and that Minister has used “Commander in Chief” when referring to Graziani.
295
June 15 (278) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Approval of Minister’s practice in addressing Graziani only as Commander in Chief.
296
July 6 (453) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice of decree regulating private radio stations; information from Graziani that Legations would be permitted to use their stations provisionally as private individuals.
296
July 6 (454) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Account of lengthy discussion with Graziani relative to the radio station decree and the stationing of Italian guards at the Legation, which finally led to the temporary compromise settlement reported in No. 453, July 6.
296
[Page XXXVIII]1936 July 7 (298) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Approval of Minister’s action with understanding that other Legations possessing radio stations receive no more favorable treatment.
298
July 8 (461) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Receipt of written order from Marshal Graziani that radio stations of the four Legations possessing them will be closed for 15 days; compliance with request, but authorization obtained to receive messages.
298
July 10 (466) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Sealing of French and German radios, and attempt to seal British radio.
299
July 10 From the British Embassy
British desire for U. S. cooperation in representations to Italy with a view to assuring full immunity of the Legations in practice, even though their status may not be recognized in principle.
299
July 10 (83) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Description of situation in Ethiopia growing out of the radio decree; instructions to bring matter to attention of Foreign Office in order to insure immunity of U. S. Legation in practice without discussion of its diplomatic status, and to urge modification of the radio restrictions.
300
July 10 (304) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice of communication to Ambassador at Rome; and instructions to cooperate with other Legations toward certain specified ends.
301
July 11 (261) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Representations to Foreign Minister Ciano, who felt the necessity of consulting with Minister for Colonies before replying; Ciano’s discussion of reasons for the radio decree.
301
July 14 (473) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Agreement with colleagues that they have already done what they can, and that if permission is not granted for the use of radios after the 15 days expire, further representations should be made in Rome.
302
July 15 (267) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Information from Minister of Foreign Affairs that Italian authorities are trying to arrive at some working arrangement relative to the Legation radio at Addis Ababa.
302
July 17 (271) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Informal statement from the Foreign Office (text printed) indicating that former foreign legation officials in Addis Ababa are to be treated as private individuals with special privileges; that the ex-legations may use the government radio; and that continuance of radio restrictions will depend upon circumstances.
303
July 22 (485) From the Minister Resident in Italy (tel.)
Advice of continuation of radio restrictions until further notice.
303
[Page XXXIX]1936 July 24 (93) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Telegram from Addis Ababa (text printed) summarizing radio decree dated July 21; instructions to request clarification by Foreign Office of the meaning of the decree and to urge early steps to bring about unrestricted communication between U. S. Government and its representative at Addis Ababa.
304
July 25 (290) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Compliance with instructions, and information from Foreign Office that an inquiry will be addressed to the Ministry of Colonies and a reply may be expected within a few days.
304
July 27 (95) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Telegram from the Minister in Addis Ababa (text printed) advising that in an interview with Graziani, the latter stated he personally had no objection to solution in sense desired by Department; instructions regarding utilization of this information in any further conversations at Foreign Office.
305
July 28 (493) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Graziani’s authorization of unlimited use of cipher by the Minister.
305
July 28 (498) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request that telegram No. 493, July 28, be considered as confidential, since the same privilege has not been extended to other Legations.
305
July 29 (326) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Unlikelihood that exclusive cipher concession can be kept confidential; observations concerning the situation.
306
July 29 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Conversation with British Ambassador, in which he was told frankly of Graziani’s concession relative to use of cipher and of possible usefulness of the concession to the British; concurrence of Ambassador in Department’s viewpoint.
307
Aug. 3 (506) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Official information that cipher communications are again permitted to Legations.
308
Aug 3 (507) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Background of special permission to use code messages as reported in No. 493, July 28.
308
Aug. 3 (100) To the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Advice of the information from Addis Ababa relative to the extending of cipher permission to other Legations; and disinclination of Department to press for use of own radio station at this time.
309
Sept. 13 (551) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Minister’s personal letter of protest to Graziani against the execution of nine Ethiopian “rebels” near the Legation, and request that officer responsible for selection of the place of execution be reprimanded.
310
[Page XL]1936 Sept. 14 (554) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Apology of Graziani and information that officer responsible was reprimanded and punished.
310
Sept. 14 (353) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Expression of surprise at strong written protest of Minister sent without consulting Department; reminder that he should refrain from any act that might aggravate situation.
311
Sept. 15 (557) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Considerations in extenuation of the letter of protest to Graziani.
311
1937 Feb. 18 (44) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Italian Governor’s call relative to enforcement of the municipal ordinance pertaining to the Fascist salute, and Minister’s explanation of his earlier advice to American citizens in this connection. Suggestion that a hint in Rome would cause the matter to be dropped.
312
Feb. 23 (54) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from Governor that the clause of municipal ordinance to which Minister objected would not be enforced.
313

viii. restriction by the italians upon trade and commerce in ethiopia

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Sept. 26 (360) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Request for comprehensive report on Italian trade regulations in Ethiopia and effect of such measures on American trade.
314
Sept. 29 (565) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Report as requested, indicating that, despite promises of fair treatment to trade of all countries, regulations and arbitrary decisions of various kinds discriminate against non-Italian trade.
314
Oct. 7 (367) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Instructions to keep Department informed of local importing difficulties in connection with American products; information that, although Department does not desire to raise general question of obstructions against American trade at present, it has no objection to Minister’s informal assistance in individual cases.
315
Oct. 10 (581) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Listing of specific cases of obstructions to American trade, and information of attempt to be of assistance to importers unofficially.
316
Oct. 23 (9) To the Ambassador in France
Instructions to ascertain what action, if any, the French Government is taking in respect to the matter of obstructions to the importation of goods of non-Italian origin into Ethiopia.
316
Nov. 2 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Discussion with the Italian Ambassador regarding non-fulfillment of policy of “fair treatment” to foreign trade with Ethiopia, enunciated in Italian statement read at the League Assembly on June 30.
317
[Page XLI]1936 Dec. 15 (189) From the Ambassador in France
Information from Foreign Office concerning obstructions to French trade in Ethiopia, and indicating that no démarche in the matter has been made to Italy.
318

ix. repressive measures by the italian authorities against foreign missionary activities in ethiopia

Date and number Subject Page
1936 May 14 (340) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Attempt of Italians to take over Seventh Day Adventist Mission hospital despite contract with Ethiopian Government; suggestion that Department send for L. H. Christian, of the General Conference, who is familiar with legal aspects of the mission’s tenancy.
319
Oct. 15 (193) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia
Activity of the Roman Catholic Church in Ethiopia following the Italian conquest, and probable effect on American and other Protestant missionary activities.
319
Nov. 21 (209) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia
Questionnaire (text printed) concerning Italian attitude toward missionary activities in Ethiopia, submitted to Italian authorities by Mr. James L. Rohrbaugh, formerly with the Sudan Interior Mission. Minister’s comment on the Italian replies, which gave certain assurances to the missions.
321
Dec. 2 (665) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Italian decision to expropriate entire Sudan Interior Mission property in Addis Ababa; intention to confer with British colleague, since mission is Anglo-American, and suggestion that Department inform mission’s headquarters.
323
Dec. 6 (670) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Further information pertaining to the decree, dated November 27, for requisitioning of the property of the mission; reservation of all rights on behalf of the American interests involved; opinion that until United States recognizes Italian sovereignty in Ethiopia, it cannot recognize political seizure of American property.
323
Dec. 8 (398) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Instructions to avoid raising question as to recognition of Italian Government in Ethiopia; Department’s efforts to secure information from mission headquarters; inquiry as to whether Minister considers that representations at Rome would be useful.
325
Dec. 9 (674) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Affirmative reply to question regarding usefulness of representations at Rome.
325
Dec. 10 (178) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Summary of situation created by the requisitioning of property of the Sudan Interior Mission, and instructions to take matter up with appropriate authorities and request postponement of requisition proceedings.
325
[Page XLII]1936 Dec. 14 (679) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information from British Legation that representations have also been made by London to the Italian Government.
326
Dec. 18 (537) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Receipt by the British Ambassador of instructions to protest requisition of Sudan Mission property.
326
Dec. 22 (690) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Conversation with Marshal Graziani regarding situation involving missionaries. Advice that no attempt has been made to apply decree of November 27.
327
Dec. 23 (692) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that substance of Graziani interview has been communicated to British colleague.
329
Dec. 23 (693) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Gist of a telegram from Italian Minister of Colonies, shown to U. S. Minister by Graziani, probably by mistake, which directed the Marshal to eliminate all missionaries as soon as possible because they are hostile to Italy.
329
Dec. 28 (700) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Report on inquiries being made relative to missionary properties at Sayo and Gore; understanding that several missions, with no American citizens, have been occupied by the Italian military.
330

x. consideration by the united states government of withdrawing its representatives from ethiopia

Date and number Subject Page
1936 July 7 (299) To the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Advice that the question arises as to advisability of withdrawing U. S. representatives from Ethiopia; request for latest information, therefore, regarding American nationals in Ethiopia and status of other Missions in Addis Ababa; desire also for Minister’s views as to desirability of his withdrawal.
330
July 9 (463) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information as requested pertaining to American nationals.
331
July 9 (464) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Information as requested pertaining to status of other Missions.
331
July 10 (468) From the Minister Resident in Ethiopia (tel.)
Minister’s reasons for believing it desirable to remain at his post.
331
Nov. 4 (441) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether the time is not propitious for announcement of Minister Engert’s withdrawal from Addis Ababa, leaving affairs in the hands of a subordinate consular officer.
333
Nov. 5 (146) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Desire of Department that Minister remain in Addis Ababa to assist in protection of American missionaries; possibility of change of Mission to consular status after Engert’s departure on leave of absence in the spring.
333
[Page XLIII]1936 Nov. 6 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Discussion with the Secretary and Assistant Secretary regarding representation in Ethiopia, with the prevailing view that Mr. Engert should be replaced as soon as possible by a consular officer.
333
Nov. 18 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Discussion with the Chief of the Division of Western European Affairs, regarding difficulties of change in representation without precipitating question of recognition of Italian conquest of Ethiopia.
334
Nov. 19 (154) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Outline of a plan whereby a new consular officer would take charge of U. S. interests, and inquiry as to whether Italian authorities might insist upon an exequatur, thus bringing up problem of recognition.
335
Nov. 27 (491) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Information that Italian authorities gave visas to British consular officers transferred to Ethiopia stating that they would be treated as “distinguished visitors”; that without exequaturs they have no official status.
336
Nov. 28 (166) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Decision to assign Morris Hughes, recently at Tokyo, to Addis Ababa in consular capacity to replace present representation there; request for recommendations as to best procedure to be followed in making arrangements.
336
Nov. 30 (498) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Reply to Department’s No. 166, November 28, after discussion with the Foreign Office.
337
Dec. 1 (167) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Instructions to advise Foreign Office of Hughes’ assignment to Addis Ababa in consular capacity.
337
Dec. 2 (501) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether Foreign Minister Ciano is to be informed that Engert is to be transferred elsewhere.
338
Dec. 2 (170) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Authorization to say that it is Department’s present intention to transfer Engert in the not distant future.
338
Dec. 3 (506) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Advice that Foreign Office has been informed in accordance with instructions; Ciano’s desire to issue a statement (text printed), but will await Department’s approval.
338
Dec. 3 (171) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Instructions to inform Ciano that transfer of Hughes is regarded as a purely routine administrative matter and that statement cannot be approved; and suggestions for explanation to Ciano of nature of action.
338
[Page XLIV]1936 Dec. 8 (514) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Information of difficulty in connection with visa of Hughes’ passport in that it gives his assignment as “to the Legation at Addis Ababa” instead of “to Addis Ababa,” to which Italian authorities agreed.
339
Dec. 9 (176) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Solution of matter by issuance of new passport to Hughes as “Consul of the United States of America at Addis Ababa.”
339
Dec. 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Inquiry by an official of the British Embassy as to U. S. plans for withdrawal of diplomatic representation at Addis Ababa; explanation of Hughes’ assignment and emphasis on its nonpolitical nature.
340
Dec. 24 (550) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether some announcement should be made that U. S. Legation at Addis Ababa will shortly be transformed into a consulate.
341
Dec. 28 (194) To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Desire not to have any formal announcement at this time, but to have change in representation become known in a routine manner when Engert departs, probably toward the end of February.
341

IRAN

Expression of Regret by the United States for Arrest of the Iranian Minister; Withdrawal of Iranian Representatives From the United States in Protest Against Articles Appearing in the American Press

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Dec. 3 (42) From the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Receipt of strong representations from Iranian Government relative to alleged arrest, forcible detention, and arraignment of Minister Djalal on a charge of speeding, and request for suitable explanation.
342
Dec. 4 (33) To the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Instructions to inform Iranian Government that information desired should properly be sought through its representative in Washington.
342
Dec. 6 To the Iranian Minister
Advice of apology from the Governor of Maryland and of action taken against the offending officers. Expression of regret over the incident, and explanation of U. S. attitude on the observance of laws of the country to which diplomatic officers are accredited.
342
Dec. 7 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Iranian Minister’s expression of satisfaction with apologies, but concern over the impression conveyed in respect to his observance of the law of the country; his request that U. S. Legation in Iran be informed in this matter.
343
[Page XLV]1935 Dec. 12 (167) To the Minister in Iran
Transmittal of documents covering the entire history of the Minister’s case for the Legation’s files and of press release concerning the case, a copy of which may be furnished to the Foreign Minister.
345
1936 Jan. 2 (1) From the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Appearance of editorial in press taking exception to alleged undignified and frivolous manner in which the Djalal incident has been treated by the American press, and suggesting possible dissolving of the Legation in Washington.
345
Jan. 7 (2) From the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Advice of bitter press attacks upon U. S. Government for failure to obtain public retraction from American newspapers; suggestion that actual facts concerning arrest be furnished Legation.
(Footnote: Information from Djalal that he is returning to Iran shortly under instructions, and that the First Secretary of Legation will act as Chargé.)
346
Jan. 7 (1) To the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Explanation that facts have been sent and should arrive shortly; instructions as to position to be taken if approached by the Iranian Government.
346
Jan. 20 (11) To the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
From Bullitt: Instructions to assure the Iranian Chargé of U. S. friendly sentiments toward the Shah and his Government, and to explain to him the nature of the American press treatment of the Djalal incident.
347
Jan. 21 (4) To the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Authorization to furnish Foreign Minister copies of the depositions in the Djalal case in order to dispel the Iranian Government’s misgivings and misinterpretation of the affair.
348
Jan. 29 (11) From the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Satisfactory conference with Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs, who promised to recommend to the Council of Ministers that the matter now be regarded as closed; advice that the Foreign Office, however, still expects the depositions upon their arrival.
349
Feb. 1 (13) From the Minister in Iran (tel.)
Transmittal of depositions to the Foreign Office.
350
Mar. 14 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Iranian Chargé regarding a New York Mirror article referring to the Shah as a former stable hand.
350
Mar. 17 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Iranian Chargé in connection with threat of his Government to “revise their political relations with the United States” unless the latter took steps to cause the Mirror to retract its statement. Later discussion with representative of publisher.
351
[Page XLVI]1936 Mar. 17 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Talk with Iranian Chargé who was informed that although there was no legal basis for action against the Mirror, another approach was being used; but that this measure was not to be regarded as a precedent.
353
Mar. 19 (11) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Résumé of the Mirror matter for the Chargé’s information, and instructions not to initiate discussion of the matter in Teheran.
354
Mar. 26 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Receipt of information that the Mirror has published a correction; conversation with the Iranian Chargé who expressed appreciation for the Department’s assistance in the matter.
355
Mar. 26 (12) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Transmittal of correction published in the Mirror (text printed).
355
Mar. 29 (26) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Information that Iranian Government has recalled all its representatives in the United States because of dissatisfaction with the Mirror correction.
356
Mar. 30 (15) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Description of circumstances surrounding the closing of the Iranian Legation and Chargé’s departure; instructions to ascertain informally if the Shah would receive a special envoy.
356
Mar. 30 (27) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Comments on action of Iran, and opinion that if U. S. representatives in Iran are not withdrawn, it is possible they will later be sent out by the Iranian Government.
357
Mar. 31 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Information from the Iranian Chargé that closing of Iranian Legation would not in any way affect status of U. S. Legation in Teheran; conclusion that action of Iran cannot be regarded as severance of diplomatic relations.
358
Apr. 6 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Information from the Turkish Ambassador that the Iranian Government had requested the Turkish Government to take over the interests of Iran in the United States.
358
Apr. 6 (30) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Favorable attitude of two officials of the Foreign Office in respect to a special envoy.
359
Apr. 16 (31) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s favorable reception of idea of U. S. special mission, but desire for further information on four points.
359
Apr. 24 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Notification from the Turkish Embassy that Turkish Consul in New York and Czech Consul in Chicago will perform consular duties on behalf of Iranian Government.
360
[Page XLVII]1936 Apr. 30 (22) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Abandonment of proposed special mission in view of a suggestion by the former Iranian Foreign Minister, Kazemi, to U. S. Minister Hornibrook that steps be taken to amend the U. S. Constitution so as to restrict the freedom of the press.
361
May 9 (33) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Discussion of Foreign Office disappointment over U. S. decision not to send a special mission; suggestion that it would be useful to explain decision on basis of partial misunderstanding of Kazemi’s suggestion.
361
May 15 (24) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Instructions to impress on Foreign Office that there was no misunderstanding of Kazemi’s suggestion.
363
May 17 (34) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Conversation with Chief of the Third Political Division, who stated that unless American press articles offensive to the Shah cease at once, Iran would sever all diplomatic and economic relations with the United States; observations on matter of special mission.
364
May 18 (25) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Instructions to request of the Foreign Minister a written statement of the Government’s position on the oral statement made by the Chief of the Third Political Division.
365
May 19 (35) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s hesitancy about stating Government’s position in writing, but promise to consider the matter.
365
May 20 (26) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Desire that Chargé send a personal letter (text printed) to the Foreign Minister requesting a written statement of his Government’s intentions; reasons for suggesting this method of communication.
366
May 21 (36) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Delivery of personal letter to Foreign Minister.
366
June 9 (41) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Iranian decision not to state position in writing.
367
July 25 (860) From the Chargé in Iran
Account of a lengthy conversation with Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Soheily, who made representations regarding an article in the Brooklyn Eagle, and requested that Department make an investigation to determine cause of such derogatory remarks.
367
July 29 From Mr. William H. Hornibrook to the Chargé in Iran
Detailed account of the conversation with Kazemi on the eve of Minister Hornibrook’s departure from Iran during which the former suggested U. S. Constitutional changes.
371
Aug. 7 (48) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Advice of recent floods and earthquakes; suggestion that a direct telegram of sympathy be sent from the President to the Shah.
373
[Page XLVIII]1936 Aug. 8 (34) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Message sent by the President to the Shah (text printed). Advice that the Turkish Ambassador has suggested to his Government that the Turkish Ambassador in Teheran be authorized to explain informally to the Shah the U. S. situation respecting freedom of the press.
373
Sept. 14 (255) To the Chargé in Iran
Reply to despatch No. 860 of July 25, with assurances to be conveyed to Under Secretary Soheily that no agencies are working in this country to weaken U. S.-Iranian ties of friendship.
374

Inquiries by the United States Regarding the Nondelivery of Second Class Mail From the United States in Iran

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Apr. 15 (766) From the Chargé in Iran
Information that second-class mail of American origin is being withheld from delivery; reasons for feeling that it would be unwise to make official protest at present.
375
May 15 (795) From the Chargé in Iran
Report on informal efforts to secure delivery of American second-class mail.
377
June 5 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond A. Hare of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Information from Mr. Stewart M. Weber, of the International Postal Service Division of the Post Office Department that he knew of no precedent for the blanket prohibition of all printed matter.
378
June 11 (823) From the Chargé in Iran
Advice that delivery of certain types of second-class mail has been renewed, apparently due to numerous protests by individuals to post office and police officials.
379
June 22 To the Postmaster General
Request for any observations the Post Office Department might care to make regarding the situation created by Iranian prohibition of delivery of American second-class mail.
380
July 2 From the Acting Postmaster General
Advice that under the Universal Postal Convention of 1934, the Postal Administration of Iran has a right to consider the publications in question as prohibited.
381
Aug. 21 From the Acting Postmaster General
Further comment that it is the usual practice in the International Postal Union for one country to give notice to the other of objectionable matter so that it may be excluded from the mails; opinion that action of the Iranian Postal Administration was not justified.
381
Sept. 8 To the Acting Postmaster General
Desirability of the Post Office Department’s taking up the postal matter in a routine manner with the Iranian Postal Administration.
382
[Page XLIX]1936 Nov. 4 (44) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Request for report on any important developments in view of the interest of American publishers.
383
Nov. 12 (59) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Advice that there are no new developments, and suggestions of further informal inquiry.
383
Nov. 14 (46) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Nonobjection to informal and personal inquiry, but instructions to avoid suggestion of any concessions.
384
Nov. 17 (938) From the Chargé in Iran
Account of informal and personal inquiry at the Foreign Office, with emphasis on protests of subscribers and publishers; promise of Foreign Office official to make informal inquiries of the postal authorities.
384

Attitude of the Department of State Toward the Closing of the Lutheran Mission at Mehabad (Saujbulak) by the Iranian Government

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Mar. 24 (24) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Advice that local governor has ordered Lutheran missionaries at Saujbulak to leave; that Foreign Minister has been asked to delay action pending a full investigation.
385
Mar. 25 (25) From the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Foreign Office indication of reasons for the expulsion order. Doubt that the order results from any general policy to rid the country of missionaries. Request for instructions.
386
Mar. 27 (13) To the Chargé in Iran (tel.)
Observations for guidance, and indication that definite instructions must await further information.
386
May 1 (781) From the Chargé in Iran
Background material, from Rev. Henry Mueller of the Lutheran mission, on origins of work among the Kurds and possibility of transferring mission to Iraq. Comments as to Iranian attitude on Kurdish nationalism.
387
June 29 (835) From the Chargé in Iran
Account of conversation with Mueller and his assistant concerning question of disposal of the mission property.
389
Aug. 21 (245) To the Chargé in Iran
Approval in the main of Chargé’s handling of the mission question, but instructions to avoid further expression of opinion on obligations created by the closing of the mission.
390

Proposed Extradition Treaty Between the United States and Iran

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Mar. 20 (271) To the Chargé in Persia
Transmittal of draft of a proposed treaty of extradition, with instructions to urge its acceptance.
391
Apr. 17 (16) From the Minister in Persia (tel.)
Readiness of Persian Government to negotiate.
392
[Page L]1935 Dec. 12 (648) From the Minister in Iran
Information from Iranian official that his Government would prefer to negotiate along lines of projects adopted by the International Conference for the Unification of Penal Laws; transmittal of Conference draft.
392
1936 Jan. 23 (182) To the Minister in Iran
List of objections to draft submitted by Iran; hope for early Iranian suggestions for revision of draft submitted by the Department.
393
Feb. 4 (184) To the Minister in Iran
Review of previous correspondence, and conclusion that Iran should submit such changes as it desires in the Department’s draft.
(Footnote: Information that Iran submitted no changes, and was equally unresponsive to U. S. inquiries made in 1937 and 1938.)
394

Representations by the United States Regarding Discrimination Against American Trade Resulting From the German-Iranian Convention for the Regulation of Payments of October 30, 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Mar. 6 (737) From the Minister in Iran
Advice of apparent discrimination against American trade arising from terms of article 17 of the German-Iranian Convention of October 30, 1935, and of protests which have been made by certain other Legations on behalf of their Governments.
395
July 20 (233) To the Chargé in Iran
Authorization to make written representations to the Iranian Government; suggestion that due consideration be given to results of protests of other countries.
398
Dec. 9 (947) From the Chargé in Iran
Note to the Foreign Minister (text printed), and explanation of reasons for delay in presenting the note; comment on protests and attitudes of other countries.
399

IRAQ

Preliminary Negotiations Between the United States and Iraq for a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, a Treaty of General Relations, and a Treaty of Naturalization

Date and number Subject Page
1933 July 25 (43) From the American Minister Resident in Iraq to the Acting Iraqi Minister for Foreign Affairs
Transmittal of a draft Treaty of General Relations, with explanations and comments regarding certain of its provisions.
401
1936 Feb. [12] (1596) From the Acting Iraqi Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Minister Resident in Iraq
Explanation of the long delay in replying to the Minister’s note, and suggestion that division of draft into several categories would be conducive to an earlier conclusion of the matter.
403
[Page LI]1936 May 14 (208) To the Minister Resident in Iraq
Readiness of Department to negotiate three separate treaties commencing with one of commerce and navigation; instructions to ascertain views of Iraq. Advice that the Department must insist on an article providing for unconditional most-favored-nation treatment in the commercial treaty.
404
June 24 (15) From the Minister Resident in Iraq (tel.)
Willingness of Iraq to negotiate a commercial treaty on basis of unconditional most-favored-nation principle, with reservation as to countries formerly in Ottoman Empire in Asia, and to accept U. S. reservations as to Cuba, Philippines, and Panama Canal Zone.
404
June 29 (14) To the Minister Resident in Iraq (tel.)
Acceptance of bases of negotiation, and advice that draft treaty will be prepared in Washington.
405

LIBERIA

European Suggestions for Imposing a Mandate Upon Liberia; British Recognition of Barclay Government and Improvement in Liberia’s International Position

Date and number Subject Page
1936 July 16 (23) From the Minister in Liberia (tel.)
Persistent rumors of growing feeling in England that Liberia should be mandated to Germany in exchange for her former African colonies.
406
Oct. 6 (23) To the Chargé in Liberia
Transmittal of news items purporting to be based on an editorial in The African Morning Post regarding alleged Polish aims in Africa; request for comments.
406
Nov. 26 (40) From the Chargé in Liberia (tel.)
Summary of a conference with President Barclay, who gave information concerning the matter of alleged Polish aims in Liberia.
406
Dec. 11 Memorandum by Mr. Hugh S. Cumming, Jr., of the Division of Western European Affairs
Review of propaganda to make Liberia a German mandate. Belief that it would be of practical benefit to Liberia to (1) attempt to secure British recognition of the Barclay regime, and (2) dispatch an American warship for a friendly visit to Liberia.
407
Dec. 15 (44) From the Minister in Liberia (tel.)
Information that Great Britain will recognize Liberia on December 16.
409
Dec. 15 Memorandum by Mr. Hugh S. Cumming, Jr., of the Division of Western European Affairs
Telephone call to British Embassy recalling British refusal to recognize Liberia in 1935 owing to the Kru matter, which has since been settled, and mentioning rumors of recognition; British acknowledgment of intention to recognize Liberia.
409
[Page LII]1936 Dec. 19 (68) From the Minister in Liberia
British Chargé’s presentation of letter of credence, thus establishing normal diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Liberia. Comments on attitude of Liberian people.
410
(Note: Citation to text of Department’s statement of December 17.) 411

MOROCCO

Objection of the United States to Proposed Modification of the Customs Regime in the French Zone of Morocco

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Jan. 16 (22) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Information from the Foreign Office on British attitude toward the projected establishment of a regime of quotas in French Morocco; indication that Foreign Office would welcome a reply to its aide-mémoire of September 18, 1935.
412
Feb. 6 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Trade Agreements
Reasons why United States should not acquiesce in proposed Moroccan quota on textiles; belief that reply to British aide-mémoire should reaffirm U. S. position on the quota system as being inherently discriminatory, but should indicate willingness to agree to moderate tariff increases in Morocco.
413
Feb. 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Western European Affairs
Conversation with the Netherland Minister, who brought up the matter of dahirs issued in the French and Spanish Zones of Morocco affecting importations from abroad; information given to him concerning U. S. continuing protests against treaty violations in Morocco and U. S. general attitude as to customs changes.
414
Mar. 6 (1138) From the Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at Tangier
Advice that a note has been sent to the French Resident General pointing out that a dahir dated January 2 on trade in carpets and rugs is contrary to a basic provision of the Act of Algeciras. Information on protests of other countries.
416
Apr. 6 (894) To the Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at Tangier
Approval of Agent’s action, and instructions for a second note to the Resident General including a statement that the Department cannot recognize the validity of the dahir.
417
Apr. 27 To the British Embassy
Reply to British aide-mémoire of September 18, 1935, stating U. S. position in opposition to a quota system in Morocco, but indicating willingness to consider a possible modification of the Moroccan tariff rates.
417
[Page LIII]

MOROCCO

Representations by the United States Against Discriminatory Passport Regulations in the Spanish Zone of Morocco

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Apr. 17 (1110) From the Ambassador in Spain
Foreign Minister’s unfavorable reply (text printed) to Ambassador’s protest against discriminatory visa requirement in Spanish Zone of Morocco. Ambassador’s advice that since the reply refers only to the first of two notes, he has sent another note (text printed) asking reconsideration in light of the second note.
(Footnote: Information that apparently no further reply was received.)
419

Negotiations Concerning Claims and Proposed Recognition by the United States of the Spanish Zone in Morocco

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Jan. 13 (1012) From the Ambassador in Spain
Memorandum from the Foreign Office (text printed) indicating insistence on making payment of claims contingent not only upon recognition of the Spanish Zone but also upon abolition of capitulatory rights; Ambassador’s suggestions and opinions on the whole Spanish Zone situation.
(Footnote: Copy to the Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at Tangier.)
422
Jan. 30 (1) To the Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at Tangier (tel.)
Request for comments on despatch No. 1012 of January 13 from the Ambassador in Spain.
426
Feb. 6 (1132) From the Diplomatic Agent and Consul General at Tangier
Comprehensive analysis and comment on despatch No. 1012 of January 13 and its enclosure.
(Footnote: Information that outbreak of civil war in Spain in July 1936 prevented resumption of negotiations on claims and recognition.)
427

PALESTINE

Instructions Regarding the Exercise by American Consular Officers in Palestine of Judicial and Administrative Functions

Date and number Subject Page
1936 May 11 To the Consul General at Jerusalem
Summary of regulations pertaining to judicial and administrative functions of consuls in Palestine, and instructions as to exercise of those functions.
433

Attitude of the Department of State Concerning Problems Arising From Conflicting Interests of Arabs and Jews in Palestine

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Apr. 25 (62) From the Consul General at Jerusalem
Detailed account of the disturbances which have taken place in and around Jaffa since April 18.
434
May 6 (69) From the Consul General at Jerusalem
Comments on the situation as it has developed from April 25.
441
[Page LIV]1936 May 18 From the Consul General at Jerusalem (tel.)
Advice that the center of unrest now includes Jerusalem; that measures have been taken for protection of the 1100 Jewish-Americans in the city.
442
May 22 From the Consul General at Jerusalem (tel.)
Growing acuteness of situation; reenforcement of British military establishment.
442
May 23 To the Consul General at Jerusalem (tel.)
Approval of measures taken to protect American nationals, and indication of great importance Department attaches to vigorous and prompt action to protect nationals in any situation which may arise.
442
May 28 (184) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Instructions to express Department’s appreciation of coopertive attitude of authorities of Palestine in the protection of American nationals; and to indicate that Department would be gratified to receive information on developments in that country.
443
July 1 From the Consul General at Jerusalem (tel.)
Easing of situation, apparently by more drastic military measures.
443
July 27 (285) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Instructions to mention unofficially to Foreign Secretary Eden the concern in influential American Jewish circles over information that the British Government is contemplating the suspension of Jewish immigration into Palestine.
444
July 28 (377) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Noncommittal attitude of Eden upon being informed of American Jewish concern over the immigration matter.
445
July 31 (2404) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
British announcement of membership and terms of reference of the Palestine Royal Commission of Inquiry, with indication, however, that Commission will not begin its work in Palestine until order has been restored there.
445
Aug. 1 (293) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether announcement setting up Royal Commission indicates that British Government has abandoned any plans to suspend Jewish immigration into Palestine.
446
Aug. 22 From the Consul at Jerusalem (tel.)
Receipt of information regarding a forthcoming visit to Palestine by three American Senators on an unofficial investigation mission; surprise of British officer that no official notification has been received, and his position, on grounds of safety, that the party cannot be permitted to tour the country.
446
Aug. 22 To the Consul at Jerusalem (tel.)
Instructions as to procedure, and indication that Department knew of the proposed visit of only one of the Senators.
447
Aug. 27 To the Consul at Jerusalem (tel.)
Telegram from the Ambassador at London (text printed) telling of British instructions to High Commissioner in Palestine to extend every courtesy to the Senators, and leaving question of their freedom to travel in Palestine to his discretion.
448
[Page LV]1936 Sept. 4 (420) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
British Government’s denial of acceptance of terms of settlement of the Higher Arab Committee; its statement that no decision has been reached in the matter of suspending immigration, and that sending of reinforcements to Palestine is under consideration.
448
Sept. 7 From the Consul at Jerusalem (tel.)
British steps to put violence to an end in Palestine.
449
Sept. 22 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Visit of Senator Copeland to the Secretary to report on his recent unofficial visit to Palestine, along with Senators Austin and Hastings; Secretary’s comprehensive summary of U. S. activity relative to Palestine.
450
Oct. 12 From the Consul at Jerusalem (tel.)
Local relief and thankfulness for Arab rulers’ appeal to community to end strike and unrest; view of most observers that the situation is an armed truce pending arrival of the Royal Commission.
452
Nov. 6 (513) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Departure of Royal Commission for Jerusalem. Advice that Colonial Secretary has rejected view that immigration to Palestine should be suspended, but has accepted High Commissioner’s recommendation of a smaller quota.
452
Nov. 6 From the Assistant Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs to the Assistant Secretary of State
Reasons why Department should refrain from intervening in respect to the smaller labor immigration quota for Palestine in case it should be pressed by Jewish organizations to take some action.
453
Nov. 10 From the Consul at Jerusalem (tel.)
Situation in Palestine as a result of the Colonial Secretary’s position on immigration, including widespread support of the Arab Higher Committee’s decision not to cooperate with the Royal Commission.
454
Nov. 18 From the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs to the Assistant Secretary of State
Opinion that it would not be proper to transmit to the British Government, through diplomatic channels, a private document referred to by Rabbi Stephen Wise in a recent communication.
455
Dec. 2 Memorandum by the Acting Secretary of State
Visit of Rabbi Wise and Robert Szold, a lawyer, who indicated their desire that certain statements be brought to the attention of the British Government; explanation as to reasons for refusal to do so.
458
[Page LVI]

SYRIA AND THE LEBANON

Representations by the United States Against French Unilateral Withdrawal of Customs Privileges Assured to American Educational and Philanthropic Institutions in the Levant States Under French Mandate

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 25 (360) From the American Consul at Beirut to the French High Commissioner
Protest against provisions of decree No. 292/LR of December 20, 1934, as a limitation of customs privileges assured, by U. S.-French arrangement of 1923, to American educational and philanthropic institutions in the Levant States under French Mandate.
460
May 25 (887) From the Consul at Beirut
Reply from the French High Commissioner (text printed) to the Consul’s note of January 25; comment on various points, and opinion that the reply is not satisfactory.
462
Aug. 6 (1001) To the Chargé in France
Review of the situation, with instructions to bring matter to the attention of the Foreign Office along with an indication of U. S. willingness to consider reasonable proposals for a final adjustment.
466
Aug. 19 (1414) From the American Embassy in France to the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Representations in accordance with instructions.
467
Undated Memorandum by the Second Secretary of the Embassy in France
Conversation with M. Chauvel of the Foreign Office who explained the French viewpoint, and desired to know what kind of settlement the U. S. Government would accept.
468
Nov. 9 (2301) From the Ambassador in France
Note from the Foreign Office (text printed) making inquiry as to possibility of informal exchange of views concerning ultimate settlement.
470
Nov. 18 (983) From the Consul at Beirut
Apprisal of new complications connected with a provision of the decree of December 20, 1934, which deals with limitation of imports with respect to the country of origin.
471
1936 Jan. 11 (1025) From the Consul at Beirut
Memorandum (text printed) of a conversation with M. Kieffer, Chief of the Political Bureau of the High Commission; opinion that High Commission has every interest in postponing the issue; belief that Department should insist strongly on recognition of the legal situation based on U. S. treaty rights.
472
Jan. 17 (1173) To the Ambassador in France
Transmittal of copy of despatch No. 983 of November 18, 1935, from the Consul at Beirut, and instructions to renew representations relative to customs immunity for American institutions in Syria with a view to obtaining an early settlement of the question.
474
Mar. 9 (2591) From the Ambassador in France
Renewal of formal and informal representations; memorandum (text printed) of a conversation between the Counselor of Embassy and M. Chauvel.
475
[Page LVII]1936 May 31 From the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in France
Expression of uncertainty as to nature of proposals which U. S. Government would favor; discussion of regime established by the decree of December 20, 1934, and hope that the treatment accorded Italian institutions under the regime would be acceptable to the U. S. Government.
476
July 17 (43) From the Consul General at Beirut
Brief review and analysis of situation; suggestion that a proposal be made to the French Government for an exchange of notes clarifying and specifying the privileges granted to American institutions by the agreement of 1923.
478
Sept. 12 To the Consul General at Beirut
Instructions to draw up draft of proposed exchange of notes, after securing views of officials of interested American institutions and consulting with French High Commissioner to arrive at mutually acceptable draft.
480
Dec. 17 (123) From the Consul General at Beirut
Account of execution of instructions; submittal of three notes agreed upon, with comments thereon.
481
(Note: Settlement of matter by exchange of notes, February 18, 1937.) 483

Inquiry by the United States Regarding the Inclusion of the Subject of Archaeological Activities in Syria in the Franco-Syrian Treaty Negotiations

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Apr. 27 (1293) To the Ambassador in France
Instruction, in view of inquiries from archaeologists, to make formal inquiries as to whether the question of archaeological activities in Syria or of the revision of the antiquities law of Syria is included in matters to be discussed during the Franco-Syrian negotiations.
483
June 8 (17) From the Consul General at Beirut
Information from Inspector General of Archaeology concerning Syria’s liberality in archaeological matters as compared with attitude of the Lebanon, and his hope of continuance of liberality in the treaty.
484
July 22 (1417) To the Ambassador in France
Request for early report on action taken in accordance with instruction No. 1293 of April 27.
484
Aug. 6 (2948) From the Chargé in France
Advice from Foreign Office that matter of archaeological excavations was included in treaty negotiations, and that France was insisting on maintenance of the present regulations for another 20 years.
485
(Note: Information that it was agreed to continue the present regime in regard to archaeological activities.) 486
[Page LVIII]

SYRIA AND THE LEBANON

Modification of Certain Discriminatory Legislation by the Lebanese Government in Response to Representations by the United States

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Jan. 13 (628) From the Consul at Beirut
Note of protest (text printed), sent to French High Commissioner, against discriminatory nature of two legislative decrees relative to educational requirements for the practice of medicine or pharmacy in the Lebanese Republic; reply (text printed) denying de jure discrimination. Information of an identical reply to a similar British protest.
486
Jan. 23 (632) From the Consul at Beirut
Receipt of information that British Foreign Office has instructed the British Ambassador at Paris to take up subject with the French Government in view of unsatisfactory nature of High Commissioner’s reply.
490
Apr. 20 (367) To the Ambassador in France
Instructions to address a note to the Foreign Office (substance printed) requesting modification of the discriminatory decrees relative to the practice of medicine or pharmacy in the Lebanon.
(Footnote: Note to Foreign Office dated May 1, 1934; information that no definite reply was received before 1936, although the matter was brought to the attention of the Foreign Office several times.)
491
1936 Apr. 1 (2657) From the Ambassador in France
Information from Foreign Office that the Lebanese Government plans to present to the next legislative session a law modifying the objectionable decrees.
492
Apr. 16 (2685) From the Counselor of Embassy in France
Transmittal of copies of several notes sent to the Foreign Office regarding U. S. concern over the discriminatory decrees of Lebanese Government.
493
May 15 (5) From the Consul General at Beirut
Advice that the necessary amending law has been passed by Lebanese legislature; quotation of old and new texts of article I of the decrees, showing that the new text eliminates discriminatory features.
494

Insistence by the United States on Being Consulted Regarding the Possible Termination of the Mandatory Regime in Syria and the Lebanon

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Aug. 4 (1440) To the Ambassador in France
Instructions to inquire as to the arrangements contemplated for consultation with the United States in connection with the termination of the mandates over Syria and the Lebanon.
496
Aug. 27 (3021) From the Chargé in France Aide-mémoire left at the Foreign Office, and reply (texts printed); conversation with a Foreign Office official, who stated that no detailed consideration had yet been given to consultation with other powers. 498
[Page LIX]1936 Nov. 3 (442) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Telegram from Beirut (text printed) relative to French negotiations with the Lebanon; reminder that Department’s instruction No. 1440 of August 4 applied to the Lebanon as well as Syria, and instructions to bring matter to attention of the Foreign Office if it is considered that any doubt exists.
500
Nov. 3 To the Consul General at Beirut (tel.)
Information of content of telegram No. 442 to the Ambassador in France, and indication that it would appear unnecessary for the Consul General to communicate officially with the High Commissioner in this matter.
501
Nov. 5 (77) From the Ambassador in France
Steps taken to make sure that Foreign Office understood that previous exchange of views applied to the Lebanon as well as to Syria.
501

TURKEY

Conference at Montreux for Revision of the Regime of the Straits, June 22–July 20, 1936. Assurance by Turkey of American Participation in Benefits of the Convention Signed July 20, 1936

Date and number Subject Page
1936 Apr. 11 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Turkish Ambassador’s presentation to the Secretary of a copy of a note dated April 10 (text printed), being sent by Turkey to parties to the Lausanne Treaty, suggesting conversations relative to revision of that treaty.
503
Apr. 14 (20) From the Ambassador in Turkey
Account of the circumstances under which a copy of the Turkish note of April 10 was delivered to the Counselor of Embassy; and detailed comments on its contents, timing, and international effect.
506
Apr. 15 (117) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
General feeling in Geneva that matter of the demilitarized zone of the Straits will be brought before May meeting of the League Council.
510
Apr. 20 (17) To the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)
Request for comment on press reports that Turkish troops have entered demilitarized zone of the Straits.
510
Apr. 20 (2129) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Favorable Foreign Office attitude toward the Turkish proposal, in contrast to its attitude in discussion of a similar idea two years before.
511
Apr. 21 (12) From the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)
Turkish official denial of reports mentioned in Department’s No. 17 of April 20; opinion that such a move is unlikely in view of Straits proposal and its reception.
512
[Page LX]1936 Apr. 23 (22) From the Ambassador in Turkey
Memorandum (text printed) of a conversation with the Foreign Minister regarding Turkey’s démarche on the problem of the Straits; comments on U. S. interest in the Turkish proposal, and opinion as to inadvisability of U. S. representation at any conference relative to the proposal.
512
Apr. 24 (1544) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union
Transmittal of copy of the Soviet reply to the Turkish note, expressing complete approval of the Turkish action and readiness to participate in negotiations relative to the proposal; comments on Soviet-Turkish relations.
518
Apr. 27 (90) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Willingness of Japanese Government to discuss matter of rearming the Straits; expectation, however, that certain reservations will be made.
519
Apr. 29 (16) From the Minister in Yugoslavia (tel.)
Readiness of Yugoslav Government to second the Turkish demand, although Yugoslavia is not a signatory to the Straits Convention.
519
May 12 (32) From the Ambassador in Turkey
Account of Turkey’s efforts to overcome Rumanian objections to a revision of the Straits Convention, resulting in a note from Rumania expressing willingness to discuss the revision.
519
June 5 (297) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
British Government’s official announcement that it has accepted Turkey’s invitation to attend a Straits Conference at Montreux.
520
June 11 (228) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Information on arrangements for Montreux Conference, scheduled to convene on June 22.
521
June 22 (30) To the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)
Navy Department’s view as to the desirability of a U. S.-Turkish bilateral agreement to safeguard U. S. rights in navigation of Straits; concurrence of State and Navy Departments in Ambassador’s view regarding inadvisability of U. S. representation at Montreux Conference.
521
June 23 (244) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Information that the Turkish Foreign Minister has stated at Montreux, in a private conversation, that Turkey has given direct commercial assurances to the United States and Poland. Comments on general situation at Montreux as Conference opens.
522
June 25 (32) To the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)
Advice of Turkish Foreign Minister’s statement relative to “direct commercial assurances to the United States and Poland”, and request for opinion as to its significance.
523
June 26 (26) From the Chargé in Turkey (tel.)
Opinion that Turkish commercial assurances were statements of official policy.
523
[Page LXI]1936 June 26 (254) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Summary of information from various delegations as to the positions which the countries represented will take on the questions before the Montreux Conference.
524
June 29 (265) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
British attitude toward possible provisions relating to the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Balkan Entente’s united support of Turkey.
525
July 3 (28) From the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)
Confirmation by the Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkish policy respecting commercial navigation of the Straits, as indicated in telegram No. 26, June 26.
526
July 22 (36) From the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)
Occupation by Turkish troops of the Islands of Imros and Tenedos, and the demilitarized zones of Upper Bosporus and Dardanelles.
526
July 29 (90) From the Ambassador in Turkey
Memorandum (text printed) of post-Conference conversation with the Foreign Minister on the Straits matter.
526
Nov. 13 (156) From the Ambassador in Turkey
Receipt of note from the Foreign Ministry advising that the Montreux Convention became effective on November 9. Conversation with the Foreign Minister, who promised a formal signed communication giving assurances as to U. S. participation in the benefits of the Convention.
(Footnote: Foreign Minister’s formal communication dated January 13, 1937, and Ambassador’s reply, February 10, 1937 (excerpt printed).)
528

Liquidation of United States Claims Against the Government of Turkey for Disbursements Made While Representing Turkish Interests, 1914–1917

Date and number Subject Page
(Note: Citation to supplement to claims agreement of October 25, 1934, effected by exchange of notes signed at Ankara, May 29 and June 15, 1936.) 529