Agreement between the Presidents of Honduras, Salvador, and Nicaragua, Signed August 20, 1922, on Board the U. S. S. “Tacoma”44
In the waters of the Gulf of Fonseca, aboard the Tacoma, a war vessel of the United States of America, on the 20th day of the month of August of the year 1922, the undersigned Presidents of Republics: Of Honduras, His Excellency Señor don Rafael López Gutiérrez; of Salvador, His Excellency Señor don Jorge Meléndez; and of Nicaragua, His Excellency Señor don Diego Manuel Chamorro, who have assembled in this conference moved by the desire to seek the most efficacious friendly means to remove all of the causes which may have caused the unrest which has disturbed Central America in recent years, after a frank discussion of all matters relating to the political conditions in the three countries and to their other vital interests; in the presence of Their Excellencies: the Honorable Franklin E. Morales, Minister of the United States of America to Honduras; the Honorable Montgomery Schuyler, Minister of the United States of America to Salvador; the Honorable John E. Ramer, Minister of the United States of America to Nicaragua, who on this occasion represent the Government of the United States of America, in evidence of the deep interest felt by that friendly Republic in having the lofty aims of this convention attained so as to cement actual and lasting peace,
- First.—In view of the differences of opinion which have arisen as to the General Treaty of Peace and Amity signed in Washington by the five Republics of Central America on December 20, 1907,46 being in force, and pending a revision of that said Treaty, they [Page 423]declare that beginning from this date, the three States over which they preside shall regard the said Treaty as being in force in everything that affects the relations maintained by the three Republics.
- Second.—The three Presidents promise one another not to permit the political refugees from any one of the Republics to prepare in the territory of the others any armed invasion whatsoever of the other contracting States or to threaten the public peace in any other manner; and for that purpose they agree to apply rigorously Article XVI of the General Treaty of Peace and Amity mentioned in the preceding clause, binding themselves also to guard their respective frontiers in order to prevent the said invasions.
- Third.—In case that any one of the States should be actually invaded from one of the other two signatories of this Convention, the Government of the State in whose territory the invasion was prepared shall be obligated immediately to send forces to the disturbed frontier for the purpose of cooperating within its territory to the reestablishment of normal conditions, and to that end shall capture and disarm the offenders to whom Clause XVII of the General Treaty of Peace and Amity above mentioned shall be rigorously applied. They undertake, also, without any other restrictions than those flowing from the constitutions of the respective countries, to expel from their territory, in case of such invasions, the guilty leaders of the invasions, provided it be requested by the Government of the Republic which may be invaded. It is understood that this provision shall be applied even to invasions which may have taken place previously in any one of the three Republics and caused the unrest which has brought about this conference.
- Fourth.—The three signatory Presidents agree not to accept in the armies of their respective Governments the political refugees of any of the other Republics, nor to appoint them to any office that may carry military authority. They assume the same obligation with respect to the nationals of the three Republics or other individuals who may have incited invasions even though they may not be political refugees. If the State’s own nationals are involved, the guilt must be proved in a satisfactory manner by the offended Government, in order to obligate the others.
- Fifth.—The three signatory Presidents desiring further to promote rapprochement between those countries in the sense of a practicable way which may lead to the ideal of the Central American Union, cherished by all three, will call a conference to be attended by the respective plenipotentiaries of the five Governments of Central America for the purpose of deciding upon measures, such as free trade, unification of currency, unification of the tariff systems, ways of communication and other measures guaranteed by treaties aiming [Page 424]to draw them closer to one another, which would tend to make really practicable, in a future thus prepared, the political unification of Central America. For that purpose the month of December next is fixed for a preliminary conference, the object of which will be to determine what form studies made in each country shall take relative to the realization of the above-mentioned measures. The place where this preliminary conference will be held shall be decided upon by agreement made among the Foreign Offices of the Central American Republics. The purposes of this conference shall not be modified except by unanimous consent of the contracting parties.
- Sixth.—The Presidents of Nicaragua and Salvador agree to endeavor to secure from their respective Governments the granting of free trade in the natural products of their respective States and also in goods therein manufactured from their own raw materials. Whatever may be accomplished on this point shall be by way of experiment and an effort will be made to establish the system of free trade on January 1st of the coming year 1923 for a period of one year.
- Seventh.—Actuated always by the same spirit of concord which has inspired this Convention and in order to make effective their purpose of maintaining peace in Central America, putting aside all differences of opinion which might turn into keen causes of trouble, the signatory Presidents agree to submit to arbitration all disputes now existing, or which may arise among the signatory Republics, over boundary questions, the interpretation of treaties, and any other matters which may give or have given rise to discussions or dissension among them. The preliminary conference of the plenipotentiaries referred to in Clause V shall establish the form and organization of the arbitration. The boundary question between Honduras and Nicaragua48 is excepted from the stipulations contained in this clause, each one of the interested parties reserving the right to maintain the legal position it has thus far maintained.
- Eighth.—In their desire that the benefits of assured peace which may be derived from this conference shall extend to all of Central America the three contracting Presidents shall invite the Presidents of the Republics of Costa Rica and Guatemala to adhere to this Convention. The mere notice from either one of the two Presidents referred to, of Costa Rica and Guatemala, that he has accepted this Convention shall be held sufficient to make him a signer of and party to it.
As recording the whole covenant they now sign six identical copies with the assistance of their respective Secretaries of State for [Page 425]Foreign Affairs and in company with Their Excellencies the Ministers of the United States of America to Nicaragua, Salvador and Honduras above named.
- R. López G.
- Jorge Meléndez
- Diego M. Chamorro
- Franklin E. Morales
- Montgomery Schuyler
- John E. Ramer
- F. Bueso
- Arturo R. Avila
- Carlos Cuadra Pasos
- Transmitted to the Department by the Minister in Honduras in his despatch no. 160, Aug. 23.↩
- File translation replaced by translation printed in Conference on Central American Affairs, Washington, December 4, 1922–February 7, 1923 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1923), p. 6.↩
- Text of treaty
Foreign Relations, 1907, pt. 2, p. 692; for correspondence relating to the question whether the treaty was still in force, see ibid., 1920, vol. i, pp. 168 ff.↩
- For papers relating to this subject, see pp. 443 ff.↩