Inquiry Document No. 882

Report on the Inquiry, May 10, 1918

Part I

The work of the Inquiry consists of the following sections:

The western front—Belgium, Luxemburg, Alsace-Lorraine, from the left bank of the Rhine to the occupied part of France.
The head of the Adriatic—the Trentino, the Isonzo, Istria and Trieste, the Dalmatian coast.
Austria-Hungary—including the Czecho-Slovak and Jugo-slav movements.
The Balkans—Montenegro, Serbia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, the Greek islands, and the Greek fringe on the coast of Asia Minor.
The Ottoman Empire—Thrace, Constantinople, the Straits, Anatolia, the Armenian vilayets, Syria and Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Arab states.
Persia, Afghanistan, and Beluchistan.
The former Russian Empire—the Polish area, including Galicia, Teschen, East and West Prussia, Posen, Silesia; Lithuania, Courland, Esthonia; White Russia; Ukraine; Finland; Great Russia; Siberia; the Caucasus; Mohammedan Russia; Russian Central Asia.
Rumania and Bessarabia.
Africa—Northern Africa, Tropical Africa, Southern Africa.
The Far East—Japan, China, French Indo China, Siam.
The Pacific Ocean—the Dutch colonies, the German colonies, Australasian claims, the American naval position.
South and Central America.

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In addition to these analytical territorial studies, the following synthetic research is in progress:

The commercial relations of Central Europe in the east, west, and over seas.
Political and commercial developments and plans of the British Empire.
The world situation as to minerals, agricultural products, manufactures, shipping, commercially strategic lines of transportation, British, German, French, Italian firms doing foreign business, timber resources of the world, raw material possibilities, tariffs, credit.
The needs and political affiliations of the European neutrals.
Projects for educational, sanitary, and fiscal reform in backward areas, especially Turkey, the Balkans, and Africa.
A special diplomatic history of the world in its bearing upon problems of the settlement.
The diplomatic policy of each of the Great Powers.
A current collation, summary, and analysis of public commitments in all countries, affecting the settlement, together with an examination of sources upon which claims are based.
The collection and analysis of plans proposed for settling questions likely to arise at the peace conference.
International Law—the collection of treaties and precedents, statements of legal questions involved in the President’s program, with particular reference to the League of Nations, the equality of trade, and equality upon the high seas.
The production of a series of maps and graphs embodying the results of research.
The collection of detailed primary reference maps on all parts of the world which may come under discussion.
The selection and planning of a library to be assembled at short notice, for use at the conference itself.
The revision and current use of all material in the archives, and the training of a corps of expert advisors and assistants competent to use this material.
The framing of plans for transforming the present staff of the Inquiry into a secretariat for the use of the peace commissioners.
Detailed critiques of reports and other material.
The central direction of the research and administration of the staff and equipment.

Part II

In this part an attempt will be made to state the force engaged in each one of the sections named above, discriminating between volunteers and salaried employees,16 together with an estimate of the [Page 84] present condition of the work, the probable changes, and a forecast of the future.

1) The western front:

The work is under the direction of Dean Charles H. Haskins of Harvard University.

Belgium.—The political problems of Belgium are being done by Dean Haskins himself. For the summer months an assistant at a nominal salary has been authorized. Preliminary reports are at hand; a definitive report is not expected until late summer. As Dean Haskins continues his duties at Harvard, including those in the summer school, he is riot able to give his full time to the subject.

Alsace-Lorraine.—A preliminary report by Professor E. B. Krehbiel of Stanford University (no longer a member of the Inquiry’s staff), dealing with the possibilities of a plebiscite is completed, but criticism showed that more detailed study was necessary before any satisfactory conclusions could be reached.

The following studies are nearing completion under the direction of Professor Wallace Notestein of the University of Minnesota: a) the present government of Alsace-Lorraine; b) public opinion in Alsace-Lorraine, based especially upon the debates of the Reichstag and the Landesausschuss; c) conditions in Alsace-Lorraine since 1914, as seen in German, French, and Swiss newspapers; d) the recent attitude of the clergy in Alsace-Lorraine towards France and Germany.

Professor Notestein’s work will terminate on July 1st.

Professor E. C. Armstrong of Princeton University is preparing a special study of the question of language and the linguistic frontier of Alsace-Lorraine, which should be ready by July 1st.

Professor W. H. Hobbs of the University of Michigan has completed a study of the boundaries of Alsace-Lorraine in their relation to mineral resources. Professor Hobbs is now doing work on irrigation in Turkey, but it is planned to terminate his engagement on July 1st.

Economic studies of Belgium, Alsace-Lorraine, and France.—Two investigations in regard to the western front are in their initial stages: a) the economic relation of Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and France is just about to be investigated. The direction of this research will be in the hands of Professor Clive Day of Yale University, the actual research to be done by Dean Haskins and his assistant; b) Studies of the needs of France in relation to reconstruction are to be initiated under the direction of Dean Haskins.

A report on Luxemburg prepared by Dr. L. D. Steefel is at hand, and is regarded as satisfactory.

The French ports.—A preliminary report on the harbors of France, especially the Channel ports, has been submitted by Professor Day.

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2) The head of the Adriatic:

Italy.—This work is under the joint direction of Dean Haskins and Professor Dana C. Munro of Princeton University. Good provisional material is at hand for determining ethnic and strategic frontiers for Italy.

Detailed and definitive research is being done by Professor Lunt of Haverford, and will be completed in the course of the summer.

The position of Italy in the Adriatic and her relation to the JugoSlavs, Albania, and Greece requires study, but has not yet been undertaken, because the force necessary has not yet been freed from other research.

It will be necessary also to undertake in the future a study of Italy’s commercial position in the Mediterranean and the probable attitude of different parties in Italy towards the groups of problems which will arise at the peace conference. This is a matter of critical importance upon which the Inquiry has not yet been able to make a study.

3) Austria-Hungary.

The political problems of Austria-Hungary are under the direction of Professor Charles Seymour of Yale University. The economic problems are under the direction of Professor Day.

Nationality questions.—Material on the distribution of nationalities and the economic and social bases of classes and nations in Austria-Hungary may be regarded as in semi-final form.

Internal politics.—The internal politics of the Dual Monarchy are being studied by Professor Robert Kerner of the University of Missouri. Brilliant reports on the Czecho-Slovak and Jugo-Slav questions are at hand. Owing to the fact that Professor Kerner is himself of Czech descent and an enthusiastic Czech nationalist, it is felt that his work requires careful checking up by men of cooler judgment.

Economic studies.—Professor Clive Day’s economic studies of the industrial organization of Austria-Hungary are illuminating and satisfactory, though by no means final. They require integration in the general economic situation of Central Europe and western Russia. Owing to the disintegration of Russia all material based on pre-war statistics with regard to Austria-Hungary stands in need of constant revision.

It is the opinion of the Inquiry that Professors Day, Seymour, and Kerner constitute an unusually strong combination which should be kept intact for the final peace conference.

Galicia.—The nationalist questions involved in Galicia are being Studied as part of the Polish question, though the group of men working on Austria-Hungary study Galicia in its political and economic relations to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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4) The Balkans:

Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania.—Greece.—Serbia.—The work on Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Albania is being done by Professor W. S. Monroe of the State Normal School of New Jersey; the work on Greece and the Greeks by Professor W. S. Ferguson of Harvard University; the work on Serbia is being done by Professor Monroe insofar as it involved Bulgarian and Albanian claims.

It will be necessary, however, to study Serbia also as part of the Jugo-Slav movement, and it is planned to have Professor Kerner take this up at a later date.

It is believed that by June 1st, when Professor Monroe’s engagement must be terminated, the nationalistic problems of the disputed parts of the Balkans will be carried as far as it is useful to carry them.

The biggest thing which remains to be done on the Balkans is the study of constructive proposals, such as a customs union, the Balkan Federation, an autonomous Macedonia, etc., etc. This will require detailed studies of the internal and external economic and religious life of the people, in its relation to their national claims. It is a work requiring great knowledge and insight, and the present plan of the Inquiry is to put the facts before the best men in different fields of the Inquiry, as well as before outsiders like Dean Pound of the Harvard Law School and various men who have made a lifelong study of the Balkan question.

5) The Ottoman Empire:

The work is under the general direction of Professor Dana C. Munro of Princeton University, who has the following men assisting the investigation in this field:

E. H. Byrne, E. P. Cheyney, E. S. Corwin, O. R. Dewing, H. L. Gray, W. H. Hall, David Magie, D. G. Munro, A. T. Olmstead, C. G. Osgood, L. B. Paton, W. K. Prentice, E. C. Richardson, H. R. Shipman, L. Van Hook, T. J. Wertenbaker, J. H. Westcott, W. L. Westermann, J. E. Wrench.

Irrigation questions.—A study of the irrigation possibilities of Mesopotamia is being conducted by Professor F. H. Newell, formerly head of the U. S. Reclamation Service.

The study of Turkey is of course enormously difficult, owing to the extreme complexity of the problem, the unreliability of official statistics, and the great changes caused by the war. The sources have been examined and collected, good information has been collected on concessions to various powers, and preliminary reports have been made on most of the areas.

It is necessary to say frankly, however, that in spite of the learning and hard work of the group of men under Professor Munro, [Page 87] the result up to date is unsatisfactory. The Inquiry is not prepared to speak with any authority on Turkish questions. At the present time the whole work on Turkey is under close examination with a view to determining whether a drastic reorganization of personnel may not be necessary.

At least four months will be required to gain control of the needed information about Turkey, and as many more to develop a group of men who can speak with expertness. From this it must not be inferred that the elementary material on Turkey is not available. It is. What is lacking is a real appreciation of the inwardness of internal race and religious questions and their bearing upon international politics.

The Mohammedan world.—A study is now being made by Mr. Leon Dominian, and will be completed on June 1st, giving a conspectus of the Mohammedan world from Morocco to Central Asia. Mr. Dominian’s engagement will terminate on June 1st.

6) Persia, Afghanistan, and Beluchistan.

The work on Persia has been under the direction of Professor A. V. W. Jackson, assisted by Dr. A. Yohannan, and Dr. Louis Gray. Dr. Yohannan’s services have been terminated, and Dr. Gray, being an invaluable man for general research, is now employed in other fields of the Inquiry.

The reports on Persia are provisional but satisfactory. They lack a certain amount of unity which Dr. Gray can supply, but nevertheless they carry the subject about as far as it is useful to carry it on the basis of the material available in this country.

7) The former Russian Empire.

The work has been under the direction of Professor Archibald C. Coolidge of Harvard University. On May 1st, owing to his appointment by the War Trade Board as a special agent in Stockholm, the direction of the Russian work was taken over by Professor Robert H. Lord of Harvard University.

The Polish area.—In addition to the general direction of the Russian work, Professor Lord is himself doing active research on the Polish problem. For the statistical and scientific side of this work he has as his assistants Dr. Henryk Arctowski and Professor S. J. Zowski. This work has been done with a very high degree of skill, and in the opinion of the Inquiry with great success.

The territory “indisputably Polish.”—The material for defining the area which the President described as “indisputably Polish” is provisionally completed, and definitively completed for approximately 80% of the area.

Economic life.—Examination of various claims.—The material on Polish economic life is provisionally completed, and definitively completed [Page 88] for about 40% of the area. Four months more will put the Inquiry in possession of all the material needed for discussing the delimitation of the Polish state. This will include a comparative examination of the scientific claims put forward by different groups among the Poles themselves and by German, Austrian, Russian, French, and Italian authorities.

Polish politics.—Professor Lord’s specialty is the politics of Poland. This is a subject which requires constant reference to current events. It also requires collaboration with the men working on the politics of all the surrounding territories. The work is in healthy condition, but of course from the nature of the subject it cannot be allowed to lapse, and in the opinion of the Inquiry it should be continued without interruption to the peace conference itself.

Professor Lord, with Dr. Arctowski as his assistant, will be fully competent to act as expert advisor on the Polish question.

Lithuania, The Baltic Provinces, the Ukraine, the Don Cossacks, Siberia.—Owing to the scarcity of men who can deal with Russian affairs, it has been necessary to cover the whole field of Russia by transferring Professor F. A. Golder from one area to another as soon as a provisional report has been completed. He has up to date done Lithuania, the Baltic Provinces, the Ukraine, the Don Cossacks, and he is at present engaged upon Siberia.

The Caucasus.—Professor A. I. Andrews has prepared a report on the Caucasus.

Esthonia.—A report on Esthonia is being prepared by Mr. Speek of the Congressional Library, and will be done in two or three months.

Finland.—Dr. S. E. Morison will complete a report on Finland by June 1st.

Central Asia.—Provisional report on the economics and ethnography of Central Asia has been submitted.

All of these reports are satisfactory compilations from official sources and other available material. No one of them, however, is definitive, and owing to the constant change of events each of them requires constant examination and revision. Nevertheless, it may be said that the Inquiry has the main outline of facts and problems in the border nations of the former Russian Empire.

Great Russia.—On approximately May 1st arrangements were made with Professor Lord to undertake a study of Great Russia itself, especially in its relation to the border nations and to reconstruction. For this purpose it is planned to secure the services of Dr. I. M. Rubinow of the Federal Trade Commission, who is regarded as the best authority in America on internal Russian economics.…

Agrarian problem.—It is planned to secure from Professor V. Simkhovitch of Columbia University a study of the agrarian problem in Russia.

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In order to tie together all the research in the eastern theater, Professor Day will direct further economic research and Professor Lord further political research, the two men acting in close collaboration. They will aim to analyze the relations of the different parts of Russia to each other and to Central Europe. This is a work which clearly cannot be terminated at any particular moment. After the permanent facts have been gathered, they require constant examination and illumination in the light of events.

8) Rumania and Bessarabia:

Preliminary reports by Professor W. A. Reed on Bessarabia and the Dobrudja are at hand.

9) Africa:

Work on Africa is under the direction of Mr. George Louis Beer.

French North Africa.—French North Africa is being studied by Professor G. F. Andrews.

The native races.—Mr. O. Bates, editor of the Harvard African Studies, is just beginning a special report on the native races of Africa.

Economic problems.—Mr. Beer himself has just completed an excellent study of the general economic problems of Central Africa. This will be a basis of a study of the legal questions involved, and for more detailed studies on maps of the resources and possibilities of each area in Africa which is subject to an exchange of sovereignty.

As Africa is likely to be a field of detailed negotiation, in which America may very well be called upon as conciliator or arbitrator, and in view of the President’s statement about African colonies, it seems plain that the equipment of the Inquiry cannot be too detailed or the knowledge too intimate. No really expert student of Africa was available, and the Inquiry has therefore been compelled to pick men who could make themselves expert.

It is planned to expand Mr. Beer’s work by securing for him the assistance of Professor Harris, author of “Intervention and Colonization in Africa.” The practical possibilities for useful study are not likely to be exhausted within any period which can now be foreseen, and it will be of essential importance to keep those men whose study has made them expert intact as an organization for the final conference.

The work is in such condition that it would be available at any date in the next few months. Whatever other time is available for research will be profitably used in deepening and extending information and conclusions.

10) The Far East:

Work on the Far East has been under the direction of Mr. W. H. Pitkin. Mr. Pitkin’s services terminate on June 1st.

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China.—Reports on Chinese economic problems have been submitted by Dr. A. P. Winston, and others are in progress of preparation.

A detailed map showing the railroads of China has been prepared through the courtesy of the American International Corporation, and will be turned over June 1st.

Mr. Pitkin himself has submitted reports on Far Eastern policy, and upon the legal bases of the Japanese, Russian, and French spheres of influence in China.

Japan.—Arrangements have been made with the Honorable R. S. Miller, Consul General at Seoul, whereby he is to report information upon Japanese politics.

A preliminary economic study of Japan was handed in by Dr. James F. Abbott of Washington University, and a report on Japanese foreign policy is at hand.

India.—Statistical and other material for India has been compiled, and will be turned in on June 1st.

Siam.—Mr. Pitkin has assembled material on Siam, which is to be supplemented by surveys of the events leading up to the declaration of war and its reaction upon Siamese policy.

Part of Mr. Pitkin’s staff will need to be retained. Just what part cannot be accurately stated now, since the subject is still under examination.

11) The Pacific Ocean:

The German colonies.—A good provisional report on the German colonies in the Pacific islands by Professor Blakeslee of Clark University is at hand.

Australasia.—Joint administration of the New Hebrides.—Additional reports have been submitted by Dr. Preston Slosson on the position of Australasia with regard to the peace settlement, and on the joint administration of the New Hebrides. Dr. Slosson is the general assistant of Professor J. T. Shotwell, an exceedingly useful man for the general purposes of the Inquiry, and should be retained for that reason.

12) South and Central America:

The research will be directed by Dr. Isaiah Bowman. As the authorization for this work was not secured until approximately May 1st, it is entirely in its preliminary stages. General plans have been drawn, and Professor Bailey Willis of Stanford University has been selected to do the economic and scientific part of the research. The active cooperation of Mr. J. H. Stabler of the Division of Latin American Affairs of the Department of State has been [Page 91] secured on the political side. Various candidates for the actual research in the politics and history of Latin America are now under consideration.

For this work $20,000 has been set aside, which is administered as a separate fund, though the overhead charges for expense and general administration are carried by the general funds of the Inquiry.

It is planned to assemble the essential material within a period of three months, and to keep it current thereafter with a reduced staff.

13) The commercial relations of Central Europe.

This is under the direction of Professor Day, whose work has already been referred to in the sections on Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the western front (#s 1, 3, 7).

In addition the National Board for Historical Service is preparing a digest of official information in regard to German and Austrian commercial policy after the war, on the basis of German newspapers and periodicals now in Washington.

14) Political and commercial developments and plans of the British Empire:

This work is being done by Professor J. T. Shotwell, with the assistance of Dr. Slosson. A preliminary draft should be completed by July 1st. The subject is so vast and subject to such constant change that no final date can be set for the completion of this work.

15) The world’s economic situation:

This work is under the direction of Professor Allyn A. Young of Cornell University, who is cooperating closely with a number of government bureaus in Washington.

Minerals.—The world mineral situation is being studied by the U. S. Geological Survey, which has set aside a staff of six men for this purpose alone. The material on Europe is approximately completed. For most of the important minerals the whole world has been covered. The subject is splendidly in hand, and for particular problems may be regarded as complete. The final and conclusive material should be in hand in the next two or three months.

Agricultural products.—Information on agricultural products has been received from the Department of Agriculture for all areas likely to come under consideration. A special study of agricultural possibilities is being conducted by an expert in the Department of Agriculture, and should be completed in the course of the summer.

Manufactures.—The statistics of manufacturers are being prepared by the Bureau of the Census, under the direction of Professor Young, and will be completed in the course of the summer.

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Shipping.—Arrangements for securing information as to shipping have been made, and the situation at any particular date can be obtained at short notice.

Transportation.—The highly important study of commercially strategic lines of transportation has been done only superficially for certain obvious cases, that is, the Bagdad railway, the Berlin-Bokhara scheme, the Danube, the Rhine, the Vistula. As soon as men are released from more immediately pressing problems, it will be highly desirable that all important transportation possibilities in Russia, the Balkans, Russian Asia, China, and South America should be examined in the light of their commercial implications.

Firms doing foreign business.—A list is being prepared of all British, German, French, Italian firms doing foreign business, together with the amounts of business, the character of the business, and the location of their plants. This list is being compiled as a private enterprise by a friend of Dr. Young’s in the General Electric Company. A staff of about sixty people is engaged on it. It is entirely gratuitous.

Timber.—The necessary information in regard to timber, especially in Russia, is being prepared by Mr. Raphael Zon, an expert in the U. S. Forestry Service. This work is being done under the direction of Professor Young by the committee of men working with the War Industries Board. The information is probably available for all the more important factors at the present time, though it has not yet become organized. The material needs of course to be kept current.

Commercial treaty arrangements.—It is planned to produce a chart showing the commercial treaty arrangements of the world as they exist at the present time, with corrections for new developments. It is hoped that for this work the cooperation of the Tariff Commission may be secured.

Tariffs, credit.—Preliminary material prepared by Mr. David H. Miller is at hand. It is hoped, however, to secure more detailed information through the Federal Reserve Board.

16) The needs and political affiliations of the European neutrals:

This important work has just been started. Miss Ruth Putnam, under the direction of Professor Day, is preparing a statement of Holland’s political position and of her relations to her colonies. Arrangements for work in regard to Scandinavia, Switzerland, and Spain are in their preliminary stages. It was felt that it would be unwise to use the limited force available for work of this character until the more important problems had reached a certain stage of progress. Moreover, it is believed that most valuable assistance can be obtained from the men in government service who have conducted actual negotiations with the neutrals.

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It should be noted that Professor Young’s service as head of the research division of the War Trade Board qualifies him to oversee the research in regard to the neutrals, and as soon as a force is available he will take up that problem.

17) Education, sanitary, and fiscal reforms in backward areas:

Education.—The educational problem in Turkey, Africa, and the Balkans is being studied by Professor Paul Monroe of Teachers’ College, Columbia University, with special reference to the application of our own experience in the Philippines. This work is satisfactorily advanced, though of course it is inexhaustible.

Colonizable areas in Africa—sanitary problems.—A good study of the areas in Africa colonizable by white men has been completed by Miss Wrigley of the staff of the American Geographical Society.

Certain studies made by the Rockefeller Institute in regard to Turkey are at hand. Much remains to be done, for which at present no force is available.

Fiscal reform.—The subject of fiscal reform has not yet been studied.

18) Diplomatic history of the world.

The provisional draft of this has been completed. The work was carried out by the National Board for Historical Service, under the direction of Professor Greene. For clerical and incidental expenses the sum of $300 was allotted. The printing of the report has been authorized by the Secretary of State. As the work was done under great pressure and by a widely scattered group of men, it is proposed to take time now for careful revision and editing.

19) A survey of the diplomatic policy of each of the Great Powers has been undertaken.

20) Collection of public commitments affecting the settlement.

A current file of declarations is maintained at the central offices of the Inquiry by a Columbia University student, Mr. Edward Gluck, with clerical assistance.

21) The collection and analysis of solutions for problems likely to arise at the conference.

These are gathered from all possible sources and are collated and arranged at the central offices of the Inquiry.

22) International law:

This work is under the immediate direction of Mr. David H. Miller, in collaboration with Mr. Woolsey of the State Department and Major James Brown Scott, attached to the Secretary of State. The facilities of the law division of the Carnegie Institution are employed, the bulk of the work being done in Washington.

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The problems involved in the League of Nations, freedom of the seas, the reduction of armaments, and the equality of trade are of course only partly covered as yet. It is hoped that in the course of time the political and economic research in various fields can all be brought to bear on these questions. They cannot be handled with authority until research on diplomatic problems is more advanced.

23) The production of a series of maps and graphs embodying the results of research.

The map program is under the immediate direction of Dr. Bowman, who has a staff of 11 men. The following base maps will be completed by the end of May:

Baltic Basin 1:3,700,000
Central Africa 1:9,000,000
Poland 1:1,000,000
Austria-Hungary (preliminary) 1:2,500,000
Caucasus (prelim.) 1:2,400,000
Western Asia 1:9,000,000
South America (with pop. density) 1:9,000,000
Russia (western) 1:1,000,000
Balkans (revised) 1:2,000,000
Asia 1:9,000,000
Alsace-Lorraine 1:250,000
Egypt 1:1,000,000
Austria-Hungary (revised) 1:2,000,000
Poland and Lithuania 1:4,000,000
Africa 1:26,000,000
Balkans (preliminary) 1:2,500,000
Russia 1:3,000,000
Rumania 1:1,000,000
Head of Adriatic 1:3,000,000
Danube to India 1:6,000,000
Russian Empire 1:13,000,000
Macedonia 1:1,000,000
Anatolia, Armenia 1:2,000,000
Tyrol 1:500,000
Baltic Provinces 1:1,000,000
Syria and Palestine 1:500,000
Mexico 1:2,000,000
Europe 1:4,000,000
Mediterranean 1:5,000,000

Block diagrams:

  • Albania
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Trentino
  • Isonzo

These maps are needed in quantities for the convenient summary of the research and for the exposition of problems susceptible to such expression. In addition, it is proposed to put upon graphs all material not susceptible to cartographic representation.

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In addition, it is proposed to provide, at a cost of $20 a set, 25 sets of the millionth map of Europe and western Asia produced by the British General Staff and the French Service Geographique de l’Armee. We have the best of reasons for believing that the authoritative data for the British and French governments will be embodied on these maps, and it is therefore the intention of the Inquiry to put all data which might be used as evidence at the conference upon millionth maps. This will make them readily comparable with the British and French material.

24) The collection of detailed primary reference maps:

There will be required at the peace conference a very complete reference library of detailed European maps, including all the General Staff maps and other detailed maps engraved to a large scale. Most of these will be loaned by the American Geographical Society. There are certain ones, however, which will have to be purchased abroad, and for which provision should be made soon. The approach of the peace conference itself will create a great scarcity of maps.

The disposition to be made in the future of draftsmen now available is a difficult question. A few of them will be transferred to work on Latin America and their salaries debited to the Latin American fund. In one or two cases, perhaps, different types of draftsmen will be needed as the work advances, and some of the men should therefore be dispensed with. As trained draftsmen are exceedingly scarce, and as a force of draftsmen will be needed at the conference itself, the drafting force should in principle be kept intact. The type of work needed by the Inquiry can only be developed after months of training, even of the most skilled draftsmen, and any man who has been with the Inquiry for some time represents an invested capital of experience which should be preserved.

However, should it appear by the autumn that the meeting of the conference is likely to be postponed for a long time, a recommendation for the decrease of the drafting force can be made.

25) The selection and planning of a library to be assembled on short notice.

The library is under the direction of Mr. Andrew Keogh, librarian of Yale University, who has a staff of seven. Mr. Keogh’s department has two functions: 1) the preservation and indexing of all the documents and maps of the Inquiry; 2) the preparation now of lists of books which will be needed on all subjects likely to be discussed at the peace conference, together with information as to where they can most quickly be borrowed or purchased.

The Inquiry is not now purchasing a library. Only a very few indispensable books which cannot be obtained in accessible libraries are being bought. The library which will actually be used at the [Page 96] peace conference exists as a paper scheme, planned on the theory that when actual negotiations begin the necessary books can be obtained.

26) The revision and current use of all material in the archives:

This is under the immediate control of the Executive Committee, who have a staff of four assistants, P. T. Moon, H. L. Gray, F. E. Flournoy, John Storck. These men are trained every day in the use of the material itself. They have grown up with the Inquiry and know all its details. They are the men who are needed to control the intricate mass of material now in the archives. As the material increases in scope, the importance of this part of the work grows. On it depends, in the last analysis, the availability of all the research being done. This staff should under any circumstance be kept intact, and in the course of the next few months should be slightly enlarged.

27) The framing of plans for transforming the present staff of the Inquiry into a corps of expert advisors and assistants competent to use this material.

An attempt is being made to work out in detail the probable organization needed at the peace conference, together with recommendation as to personnel.

28) Detailed critiques of reports and other material.

This work is done by Professor James T. Shotwell, who has as his assistant Dr. Slosson.

29) The central direction of the research and administration of the staff and equipment.

This work is performed by Dr. Mezes, Mr. Miller and Mr. Lippmann. Clerical and business force, including the photostat operators, consists of about 22 persons.

Part III.—Conclusions

In Appendix 117 there is given a list of all the workers for the Inquiry, defining them as paid and unpaid. Among the paid recommendation is made as to those whose services can profitably be terminated, and those whose services should be continued. This list represents the minimum with which the work of the Inquiry can successfully be carried on within the next 12 months. Most of the men on the list will by that time have accumulated a fund of experience which will make them indispensable for the final conference itself, and provision should be made for keeping this force intact. Should the end of the war be delayed after next spring, it will be possible to reduce the staff very considerably by adopting the principle [Page 97] that certain of the men should be regarded as on a reserve list, to be called into active service whenever needed.

By working under full pressure it would be possible to produce an intelligent result from six to twelve months hence. For the production of a result which will adequately support the case of the President in all its detailed application, the research should be regarded as continuous up to and including the time of the conference itself.

Special emphasis is put upon the necessity of training each individual man for this work. The type of intellectual effort required differs radically from any with which university life accustoms one. The mass and intricacy of the detail covered is greater than any ever attempted in the field of political science.

The discovery and applications of methods by which this mass of detail can be made readily and reliably useful to statesmen engaged in momentous negotiations requires men who have lived with the research and who know it in all its parts, and have explored all the means by which it can be arranged and presented. The Inquiry should be regarded primarily as an active organization, and not simply as a group of scholars producing voluminous reports which can be printed and used in their absence. For satisfactory results at the peace conference, a selected group of men who have done the work should be on hand to mediate between the documentary material and the peace commissioners themselves.

  1. In the following portion of this memorandum workers on the Inquiry were designated as volunteers or as salaried workers, with the amount of the salary specified in each case. These designations and salaries have been omitted without inserting indication of omission.
  2. Not printed.