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List of papers by topics, incoming papers chronologically under date of receipt

[Page XIII]

Preliminary Document

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 18, 1916 The Counselor for the Department of State to Representative John J. Fitzgerald. Memorandum regarding U. S. action in protest against certain acts of belligerents in violation of the principles of international law. 3

PART I: THE CONTINUATION AND FURTHER SPREAD OF THE WAR—EFFORTS TOWARD PEACE

Developments in the Balkan Countries—Portugal’s Entrance into the War, March 9, 1916—Statements Made in Belligerent Countries Regarding the Prospects and Terms of Peace

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
521 Jan. 1, 1916 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press reports declaration of war against Austria and Bulgaria by Albanian de facto government. 13
3311 Jan. 5 [Rec’d Jan. 6] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Thinks arrangement has been made by which Greece will permit Central powers to attack Allies in Saloniki. 13
210 Jan. 6 [Rec’d Jan. 7] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has been informed that Roumania has received a loan from the Allies. 13
212 Jan. 13 [Rec’d Jan. 18] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). England and France have bought large quantities of grain from Roumania. 14
220 Feb. 2 [Rec’d Feb. 3] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). To avert danger of change of ministry, Roumania has sold grain to Central powers also. 14
[Page XIV]1912 Jan. 21 [Rec’d Feb. 7] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State. Transmits message of President Poincaré to the French Army, urging them to heroic and patriotic endeavor. Considers it typical of his convictions. 14
564 Feb. 14 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Briand’s visit in Italy successful; Allies will hereafter act unitedly. 16
54 Jan. 19 [Rec’d Feb. 16] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State. Reports on German and Bulgarian civil administration of Serbian territory. 16
33 Feb. 24 [Rec’d Feb. 25] The Chargé in Portugal to the Secretary of State (telegram). Portuguese Government has taken possession of German merchant vessels interned at Lisbon. 17
314 Feb. 17 [Rec’d Mar. 1] The Consul at Havre to the Secretary of State. Belgian Ministry has communicated to the press Allied declaration regarding Belgian independence, reestablishment and indemnity, and Belgian reply thereto. Transmits press texts. 17
34 Mar. 9 [Rec’d Mar. 10] The Minister in Portugal to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany considers herself at war with Portugal. 18
36 Mar. 16 The Minister in Portugal to the Secretary of State (telegram). Diplomatic relations between Portugal and Austria-Hungary broken off. 19
604 Mar. 20 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). War substantially exists between Italy and Germany. 19
63 Mar. 18 [Rec’d Mar. 24] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State (telegram). Troops are concentrating on Roumanian frontier. 19
340 Mar. 25 [Rec’d Mar. 26] The Minister in Switzerland to the Secretary of State (telegram). Turkey is thought to be desirous of making separate peace with the Allies. 20
3664 Mar. 25 [Rec’d Mar. 26] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Founding of Socialist Labor Party, opposed to continuing the war. 20
3666 Mar. 26 [Rec’d Mar. 27] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Protests against the publication of his confidential correspondence and requests public denial that peace proposals have come from the Chancellor. 20
[Page XV]2858 Mar. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Statements have been issued denying that peace suggestions have come from German Government through the American Ambassador. 21
141 Feb. 24 [Rec’d Mar. 28] The Chargé in Portugal to the Secretary of State. Gives details of seizure of German merchant vessels interned at Lisbon; encloses decree. 21
74 Apr. 1 [Rec’d Apr. 4] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report on Bulgarian conditions. Situation respecting Roumania has eased. 23
3712 Apr. 5 [Rec’d Apr. 7] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Debate in the Reichstag on peace terms, the future of Belgium, and relentless submarine warfare. 23
3747 Apr. 14 [Rec’d Apr. 15] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Trade agreement between Roumania and Germany was signed on April 7. 24
250 Apr. 14 [Rec’d Apr. 16] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreigners not having passports are conscripted for Roumanian Army. The country is ready for war. 25
573 Mar. 25 [Rec’d Apr. 18] The Consul General at Budapest to the Secretary of State. Details of a rumored agreement of Great Britain, France, and Germany in June 1914; plan ruined by Russian intrigues in the Balkans. 25
3834 May 2 [Rec’d May 3] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Believes that Germany will welcome mediation by the President. 27
105 Apr. 8 [Rec’d May 8] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State. Danger of a rupture between Bulgaria and Roumania seems to have disappeared. 27

Spanish Proposal for Joint Good Offices, May 11, 1916—Efforts in Behalf of Peace in European Neutral Countries—Attitude of the Belligerent Countries Toward Possible American Mediation—Further Developments in the Balkan Countries

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
240 May 11 The Ambassador in Spain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Circumstances now being favorable, the King is ready to cooperate with the President toward securing an arbitration protocol. 28
1398 May 16 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Quotes speech of May 14 by President of France: Allies desire to make a peace that will guarantee stability and not leave Germany in a position to recommence the war. 29
[Page XVI]609 Mar. 30 [Rec’d May 17] The Minister in Sweden to the Secretary of State. A bill introduced in Parliament proposes that the King consider the calling of a peace conference of neutral countries. 29
358 May 4 [Rec’d May 23] The Consul at Havre to the Secretary of State. The Allies pledge aid in maintaining the status quo of Belgian Congo. 29
203 May 4 [Rec. May 25] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State. The Storthing has voted that petition of the Ford Peace Conference be laid on the table. 30
1279 May 26 [Rec’d May 28] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comments on the President’s change of policy in regard to mediation. 30
483 May 2 [Rec’d May 29] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State. Commercial treaty between Roumania and Germany not obligatory on either side. Entente powers are making successful efforts to prevent Turkey from obtaining cereals from Roumania. 31
3939 May 30 [Rec’d May 31] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). German press considers the President’s peace proposals as being favorable to Great Britain. 32
1421 May 31 The Counselor of Embassy in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Paris press comments unfavorably on President Wilson’s speeches. 33
3941 May 31 [Rec’d June 1] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). National Liberal Party advocates relentless submarine warfare; all parties except Socialists prefer mediation to come from Switzerland. 33
June 3 The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). French military authorities declare martial law; no resistance. 33
3062 June 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Requests explanation of statement on favorable prospects of peace. 34
369 June 7 [Rec’d June 8] The Minister in Switzerland to the Secretary of State (telegram). Swiss Government considers pressure in favor of peace premature; inadvisable for Switzerland to act now. 34
124 June 8 [Rec’d June 9] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). General blockade of Greek ports has been commenced without notice by the French, uncertainty prevails as to its purpose and scope. 34
[Page XVII]3972 June 8 [Rec’d June 9] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Statement to press concerning peace mere generalities; made good impression. Requests authority to deny that the Department has issued statement that Germany will demand peace if harvest is unfavorable. 34
3085 June 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Authorization to state that the Department has given no statement in regard to the internal economic conditions of Germany. 35
41 Apr. 29 [Rec’d June 16] The Consul at Trebizond to the Secretary of State. Russian forces, unopposed by the Turks, have occupied the city. 35
June 15 [Rec’d June 19] The Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs to Greek Diplomatic Officers in Neutral Countries. The Greek Government denounces the treatment to which her maritime commerce is subjected by the Entente powers. 36
133 June 22 The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Greek Government accepts demands of Entente powers for complete demobilization, dissolution of Chamber of Deputies, new elections and reforms. Blockade not yet raised. 37
4071 June 29 [Rec’d June 30] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Strikes and disturbances in Berlin. 37
July 13 The Acting Secretary of State to the Greek Chargé Acknowledges receipt of communication protesting against treatment to which maritime commerce of Greece is subjected by the Entente. 38
270 June 5 [Rec’d July 14] The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State. Greek fortification in the north occupied by Germans and Bulgarians. The Allies declare all Macedonia in state of siege; Saloniki occupied without resistance. 38
275 July 18 [Rec’d July 21] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Believes that Roumania will enter the war on the side of the Quadruple Entente if Russia has immediate success. 39
279 July 22 [Rec’d July 24] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Roumania is receiving war supplies from Russia; indicates an agreement between them. 40
4214 Aug. 10 [Rec’d Aug. 11] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). New agreement concluded between Roumania and Central powers for sale of foodstuffs. 40
[Page XVIII]688 Aug. 14 [Rec’d Aug. 15] The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Italy may feel compelled to take the initiative in declaring war on Germany. 40

Memoranda of the Ambassador in Great Britain of Conversations with British Statesmen, July 27—August 1, 1916

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
July 27 [Rec’d Aug. (17?)] Memorandum of the Ambassador in Great Britain of a conversation with the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. British attitude toward America, President Wilson’s speech, and a league to enforce peace. 40
Undated [Rec’d Aug. (17?)] Memorandum of the Ambassador in Great Britain. Conversation with Lord Bryce, July 31, regarding the President’s speech, interference with mail, blockade, league to enforce peace, etc. 43
Aug. 1 [Rec’d Aug. (17?)] Memorandum of the Ambassador in Great Britain of a conversation with the British Prime Minister. Justification of Casement execution; anti-American feeling in Great Britain; Mexican situation. 45

Rejection of the Spanish Proposal for Joint Good Offices, August 23, 1916—Roumania’s Entrance into the War, August 27, 1916—Italy’s Declaration of War Against Germany, August 28, 1916

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
293 Aug. 18 [Rec’d Aug. 19] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reliably informed that Roumania will enter the war, joining the Entente powers. 46
172 Aug. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). The President prevented by Allies’ attitude from either accepting or rejecting the King’s peace suggestion. 46
695 Aug. 27 [Rec’d Aug. 28] The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Italy has declared war against Germany. 47
297 Aug. 27 [Rec’d Aug. 29] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Have been asked to take charge of German interests in Roumania as war is expected between the two countries. 47
[Page XIX]274 [298] Aug. 27 [Rec’d Aug. 29] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Department is asked to take charge of Roumanian interests in Austria and in Germany, in case of war. 48
299 Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 29] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Roumania declares war against Austria-Hungary. Allies of latter consider this a declaration of war against them. 48
Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 29] The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Notification of Italy’s declaration of war upon Germany. 48
Aug. 31 [Rec’d Sept. 1] The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). Greek revolutionists and soldiers have joined French Army. 49
2053 Aug. 30 [Rec’d Sept. 2] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Turkey joins Germany and Bulgaria in war against Roumania. 49
304 Sept. 6 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Roumania (telegram). Has war against Roumania been declared by Germany and Bulgaria, or vice versa? 50
310[?] Sept. 5 [Rec’d Sept. 15] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany, as ally of Austria-Hungary, considers herself at war with Roumania. Bulgaria opened hostilities on Roumania without declaration of war. 50
158 Sept. 24 [Rec’d Sept. 25] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Venizelos begins movement to have Greece join the Allies, undoubtedly the beginning of revolution. 50
541 Sept. 8 [Rec’d Oct. 11] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State. German and Austrian Ministers request the United States to represent their interests; Bucharest subjected to air raids; enemy subjects of military age interned. Encloses Roumania’s declaration of war against Austria-Hungary. 50

Germany’s Request of September 25, 1916, for the Good Offices of the United States—The October Revolution in Greece

[Page XXI]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4375 Sept. 25 [Rec’d Sept. 26] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). If the President will make offer of good offices in general terms, Germany will accept and be ready to send delegates to proposed peace conference. 55
[Page XX]418 Sept. 28 [Rec’d Sept. 29] The Minister in Switzerland to the Secretary of State (telegram). Any attempt at mediation before public opinion in belligerent countries has paved the way for a peace conference, will do more harm than good. 55
4401 Sept. 28 [Rec’d Sept. 29] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Substance of the Chancellor’s speech before the Reichstag. 56
5001 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 12] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The British regard German peace moves as insincere, and as German propaganda to throw onus of continuing the war on the Allies. 57
4458 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 12] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Forwards confidential message for Gerard from Bayard Hale stating his belief that the peace movement will be favorably entertained in Russia. 58
4471 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 14] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Topics discussed in the Reichstag include Roumania, Greece, Great Britain, the submarine, new political bearings, etc. 58
Oct. 13 [Rec’d Oct. 14] The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). Revolutionists in control of the city. The consulate will deal with Provisional authorities unofficially, pending instructions. 60
Oct. 21 The Acting Secretary of State to the consul at Saloniki (telegram). Instructions to deal informally and unofficially with the Provisional authorities. 60
Oct. 24 [Rec’d Oct. 25] The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). Provisional authorities consider Consulate’s relations informal and unofficial. 60
4349 Oct. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Progress in Germany of a new movement tending toward greater liberalism in internal affairs and Government, favored by all parties except Conservatives. 61
4889 Nov. 10 [Rec’d Nov. 12] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Chancellor claims that Germany is fighting a defensive war, that England is partly to blame for hostilities, that Germany is prepared to join a union for peace and that annexations after the war are incompatible therewith. 64
4614 Nov. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 18] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Chancellor’s peace interview with Hale is an informal suggestion to the President; Austria’s wish to avoid peace suggestions until Roumania is defeated, does not accord with German plan. 64
Nov. 19 Memorandum dictated by the Counselor of the British Embassy in the office of the Assistant Secretary of State. British reply to Austro-Hungarian feelers regarding peace terms has been given out unofficially at The Hague. 65
435 Nov. 20 The Minister in Switzerland to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press article states that United States is ready to take steps toward peace; undoubtedly German propaganda. 65
1539 Nov. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 21] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comments on reports that the President contemplates inviting the belligerent powers to a preliminary peace conference where all parties shall present minimum demands. 66
4626 Nov. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Hale’s cablegram (to the New York American) is delayed. 67
3606 Nov. 22 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instruction to make effort to secure Chancellor’s statement to Hale. German Embassy is trying to prevent its publication. 67
186 Nov. 23 The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Have assumed charge of interests of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. 67
4639 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Nov. 24] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Retirement of Von Jagow has evoked criticism of his activities. Promotion of Zimmermann is welcomed. 67
4636 Nov. 22 [Rec’d Nov. 24] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Interview with the Chancellor on Belgian enforced labor, failure of Germany’s peace suggestions, and submarine warfare. 68
4652 Nov. 25 [Rec’d Nov. 27] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor has recalled original interview with Hale. The new draft directly avoids the subject of peace. Quotes from the original interview. 69
Nov. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 29] The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). Greek Provisional Government declares war on Bulgaria and Germany. 70
[Page XXII]

Intimation to Germany, November 29, 1916, of the President’s Willingness to Extend Good Offices if Submarine Sinkings and Belgian Deportations Cease—The Contest in Greece

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3621 Nov. 29 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Message to German Chancellor deploring and protesting the deportation of Belgians for enforced labor in Germany. This will frustrate Belgian relief work and the peace plans. 70
4662 Nov. 28 [Rec’d Nov. 30] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Forwards paraphrase of revised text of Hale’s interview with the Chancellor concerning peace. 71
384 Nov. 25 [Rec’d Nov. 30] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Bulgarian and German armies have crossed the Danube. Bucharest in panic and Government removed to Jassy. Has been requested to take charge of British, Russian, Italian, and Serbian interests. 74
2288 Nov. 28 [Rec’d Dec. 1] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Presented new military attaché to the Sultan. Requested permission for Americans to aid war sufferers in Turkey. 75
4670 Nov. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 1] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor has urged acceptance of the auxiliary service measure, adding that Germany is the first and only country ready to end the war. 75
Nov. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 2] The Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs to the American Minister in Greece. Greek protest against treatment by the Allied forces. 75
4671 Dec. 1 [Rec’d Dec. 2] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Believes that Germany as a whole would welcome peace; nevertheless she is marshaling her resources for a spring offensive against Russia. 77
189 Dec. 2 [Rec’d Dec. 3] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Desultory fighting in Athens; British and French losses numerous; Entente control slight. Suggests presence of the Des Moines 78
154 Dec. 4 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Greece (telegram). Inadvisable to send the Des Moines to Athens. 78
190 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Athens quiet but Piraeus in danger. British and French subjects leaving. Repeats request for cruiser. 79
191 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Spanish and Netherland Ministers have joined him in protesting the lawless methods of the Greek Government in suppressing Venizelists. 79
[Page XXIII]3644 Dec. 5 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to report whether note for Chancellor regarding Belgian deportations has been received and what action has been taken. 79
192 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 6] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Relations between Greece and the Entente very uncertain. 79
194 Dec. 6 [Rec’d Dec. 7] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Legation staff safe. Persecution of Venizelists continues. 80
194 [195?] Dec. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 8] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Entente blockade of Greece declared. Divergence in views amongst Allies as to the treatment to be accorded Greece. Has been asked to take charge of French interests. 80
Dec. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 8] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Details of Allied blockade of Greece. 80
160 Dec. 8 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Greece (telegram). Instructions to cable reason for protests to Greek Government and the character of methods used by them in suppressing the Venizelists. 81
4700 Dec. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 8] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor leaving for General Headquarters. Transmits his confidential oral communication regarding the President’s attitude on the question of a peace move. 81
196 Dec. 8 [Rec’d Dec. 9] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Extent of blockade of the Greek coasts. 82
4707 Dec. 8 [Rec’d Dec. 10] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Confidential interview with the Chancellor, regarding the President’s attitude toward peace move, is given out by German Foreign Office but suppressed upon protest. 82
198 Dec. 9 [Rec’d Dec. 10] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). The King is desirous of peace. Entente have blockaded ports without explanation; have also demanded complete demobilization and reparation. 83
4712 Dec. 10 [Rec’d Dec. 11] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Informed that the Chancellor will announce to the Reichstag that Germany has demonstrated her ability to win the war; that he will outline acceptable terms of peace, which will strengthen the peace parties in Russia, England, and France. 83
[Page XXIV]199 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 12] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs, in protest against blockade, draws attention to peaceful relations with Allies and their failure to allege a motive for their act. 83
200 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 12] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Neutral Ministers in protest to Greece have insisted upon restoration of order; gives specific cases of disorder and persecution. 83
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 12] The Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Greek Chargé in the United States (telegram). Gives account of the Venizelist insurrection in Athens and states that order has now been reestablished. 84

The Central Powers’ Invitation of December 12, 1916, to the Allied Powers to Discuss Peace

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1572 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Central powers will issue an identic appeal to the Entente powers to arrange a peace conference. 85
4722 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Chancellor has delivered, for transmission to the Entente powers, a communication offering to enter into peace negotiations. 85
4724 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Spanish Ambassador thinks it improbable that the Allies will accept the peace offer and that Germany will retaliate by resuming ruthless submarine activity. 86
111 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Prime Minister points out the strong position of the Central powers and proposes to enter into peace negotiations with Great Britain. 86
4725 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Confidential remarks of the Chancellor upon presenting the German peace note. 87
4723 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 14] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits the Chancellor’s address to the Reichstag reviewing the military situation, extolling Germany, and maintaining her readiness for peace. 87
[Page XXV]1573 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 14] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Announces receipt of note of Austro-Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding peace negotiations. 89
4733 Dec. 13 [Rec’d Dec. 14] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Danish Minister thinks that if the Allies reject the peace offer, Germany will reopen a ruthless submarine campaign. This opinion prevails generally. 89
4726 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 14] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits text of German note to Allied Governments offering to enter into peace negotiations. 89
4728 Dec. 13 [Rec’d Dec. 14] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary of the reception of Germany’s peace offer and comments on the deportation of Belgians. 91
2327 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 15] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits text of the Turkish offer to enter peace negotiations with the Allies. Conditions of peace not stated. 91
203 Dec. 14 [Rec’d Dec. 15] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). The British Minister has presented Greece with the ultimatum of the Allied powers, demanding the removal of the Greek Army to Peloponnesus. 92
4735 Dec. 14 [Rec’d Dec. 15] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary: Conservative and National Liberal Parties disapprove the Government’s failure to consult the Reichstag or make known its concrete peace terms. 92
5320 Dec. 15 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Improbability of British acceptance of Germany’s proposal to hold a peace conference, and the reasons therefor. 92
Dec. 16 The Secretary of State to Diplomatic Representatives in Great Britain, France, Russia; Italy, Japan, Roumania and Serbia, and to the Consul at Havre for transmission to the Belgian Government (telegram). Transmits, for presentation to the governments concerned, the peace note of the Central powers, with instructions to intimate, when presenting it, that the United States would appreciate confidential information of the probable reply. 94
[Page XXVI]1745 Dec. 16 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits a portion of Briand’s speech, made before the Chamber of Deputies, commenting on the peace proposals and warning against demoralization. 95
449 Dec. 16 [Rec’d Dec. 17] The Minister in Switzerland to the Secretary of State (telegram). Swiss opinion: Chances of peace remote, as specific intention of Germany is not known; Japan not desirous of making a separate peace. 96
5335 Dec. 18 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The German note delivered to the Foreign Office; the reply will be a single answer signed by all the Allied Governments; intimation of its character promised. 96
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 18] Note of the Greek Government in reply to the ultimatum of the Entente powers. The Royal Government accedes to their demands. 97

The President’s Suggestion of December 18, 1916, That the Belligerent Governments Communicate Their Terms of Peace—Lloyd George’s Speech of December 19, 1916

[Page XXVIII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Dec. 18 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). Transmits the suggestion of the President that all belligerents state their views as to the terms upon which the war may be ended. 97
Dec. 20 The Secretary of State to Diplomatic Officers in Neutral Countries (telegram). Transmits the suggestion of the President that all belligerents state their views as to the terms upon which the war may be ended. 97 n
1750 Dec. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 19] The Counselor of the Embassy in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). The German proposals have been presented to the Foreign Office. Intimation as to the reply will be made as soon as possible. 99
756 Dec. 19 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs, in speech to Chamber, declared it inopportune to discuss enemy notes. 100
5343 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 20] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Great Britain will decline the German peace proposal because it contains no concrete terms. France has been requested to draw up the reply of the Allies. 100
[Page XXVII]757 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 20] The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). German peace proposal was presented to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Reply of Allies not yet agreed upon. 101
5344 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 20] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Prime Minister has stated in the House of Commons that the Allies’ terms of peace are complete restitution, full reparation, and effectual guarantees for the future. 101
1752 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 20] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). The President of the Council stated before the Senate that the German peace proposal was a war ruse which had not deceived neutral governments and that a concerted answer would be made. 102
197 Dec. 20 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Spain (telegram). Forwards message from Ambassador Willard stating that the President authorizes him to say to the Spanish Government that the time is opportune for that country to act in support of the position taken by the United States. 102
5352 Dec. 20 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The President’s note urging that all belligerents set forth their peace terms, was presented to the Foreign Secretary. 103
4749 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 20] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary indicating that Germany expects the Allies to reject the peace proposals and is preparing for a merciless warfare. 103
939 Dec. 20 [Rec’d Dec. 21] The Ambassador in Russia to the Secretary of State (telegram). German peace note was delivered to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Could get no intimation concerning reply. 104
1754 Dec. 21 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has presented the President’s note regarding peace terms to the Premier, who expressed regret that it should have come simultaneously with the German peace proposals. 104
1796 Dec. 21 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. This Government does not concede the right of the Allies to blockade the Greek coast in the absence of a state of war. 105
Dec. 21 The Guatemalan Minister to the Secretary of State. Acknowledges receipt of the President’s message to belligerents calling for an expression of terms on which war can be brought to a close. His Government will cooperate in every possible way. 106
Dec. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). Denies that his Government is considering any change of its policy of neutrality. 106
759 Dec. 21 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Presents the President’s note concerning peace terms to the Minister for Foreign Affairs; his comment. 107
4753 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 22] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Zimmermann desires to remove causes of friction with the United States and gives reasons for not stating concrete peace terms in proposal to Allies. 108
5363 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Dominant tone in comment on the President’s peace note one of surprise and consternation; note considered ill-timed and shows an evidence of misunderstanding of the aims of the Allies. 108
1593 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). The President’s peace note presented to the Foreign Office. Burian succeeded by Czernin as Minister for Foreign Affairs. 109
302 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Chargé in Spain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Spain hopes to play an equal rô1e with the United States in urging peace; inquires if the President’s message requesting support was sent to all neutrals. 110
4764 Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The President’s note regarding peace terms presented to Zimmermann, who expressed great satisfaction. He stated that a reply can not be given until the Entente powers have answered the German peace proposals. 110
4768 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comment on Lloyd George’s speech regarding German peace proposal: Germany expects rejection; Allies will be responsible for continuance of the war. 111
Dec. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). The President’s peace note means nothing but what it plainly expresses; replies will be conveyed in strict confidence to other group of belligerents in hope of finding common grounds for negotiations. 112
109 Dec. 23 [Rec’d Dec. 24] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Norwegian Government extends congratulations to the President on his note to the belligerents and stands ready to cooperate in any action he may take. 112
[Page XXIX]455 Dec. 23 [Rec’d Dec. 25] The Minister in Switzerland to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Swiss Federal Council has presented to each of the belligerent powers a note endorsing President Wilson’s peace suggestions; promises enthusiastic support. 112
4776 Dec. 23 [Rec’d Dec. 25] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comment on the President’s peace note. 113
Dec. 25 [Rec’d Dec. 26] The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press strongly hostile to the President’s peace suggestion. The Pope considered the true intermediary. 114
2213 Nov. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 26] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. A résumé of the European situation as affecting Austria-Hungary and press comments on the effect of the President’s peace note. 114
5374 Dec. 26 [Rec’d Dec. 27] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Cecil expresses British disappointment in the President’s note; public opinion will not permit secret reply; gives assurance that no neutral can bring the war to a close until the Allies have spent their utmost force to secure freedom from organized tyranny. 115
200 Dec. 27 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Spain (telegram). U. S. note requesting cooperation in peace efforts was sent to the Spanish Government alone and was not repeated to other governments. 116
Dec. 23 [Rec’d Dec. 27] Note of the Swiss Federal Council addressed to all belligerent governments. Supports President Wilson in his efforts to bring about peace. 117

Replies of the Central Powers of December 26, 1916, to the President’s Suggestion

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4782 Dec. 26 [Rec’d Dec. 27] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Germany’s reply to the President’s peace note, proposing a speedy assembly, on neutral ground, of delegates of warring states to discuss peace terms. 117
Dec. 27 [Rec’d Dec. 28] The Spanish Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Presents the felicitations of the Pope to the President on his peace note. 118
1599 Dec. 26 [Rec’d Dec. 28] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits the reply to the President’s peace proposal: Suggestion for a convention of belligerents. 118
[Page XXX]2360 Dec. 24 [Rec’d Dec. 28] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Interview with the Turkish Minister for Foreign Affairs in which the President’s peace note was presented. Asks permission to give full text of communication to the press. 119
2366 Dec. 26 [Rec’d Dec. 28] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits reply of the Sublime Porte to the President’s peace note, in terms similar to those of Germany and Austria-Hungary. 120
Dec. 28 The Ambassador in Japan to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports interview with the Minister for Foreign Affairs in which he discusses the joint reply of the Allies to the German peace proposals. 120
763 Dec. 27 [Rec’d Dec. 28] The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs suggests that should the President make another peace move, he do so without conferring with other powers. Germany may have learned of discussion with Switzerland and forestalled the President’s step. 121
Dec. 29 The Norwegian Minister to the Secretary of State. The same from the Danish and Swedish Ministers. Transmits copy of a note from the Norwegian Government to the governments of belligerent nations expressing the hope that the initiative of President Wilson will bring peace. 121
3225 Dec. 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). The President’s peace note may be made public. 122
690 Dec. 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). The President did not consult Switzerland or any other power before sending the peace note. 122
308 Dec. 28 [Rec’d Dec. 30] The Chargé in Spain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Forwards Spain’s reply to the President’s peace proposals and request for cooperation. Has been informed that Norway, Denmark, and Argentina will make similar reply. 122
[Page XXXI]

Reply of the Allied Powers of December 30, 1916, to the Invitation of the Central Powers to Discuss Peace

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1770 Dec. 29 [Rec’d Dec. 30] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits advance copy of the reply of the Allied Governments to the proposal of the Central powers to enter into peace negotiations, which is to be delivered officially on Dec. 31. 123
4796 Dec. 28 [Rec’d Dec. 30] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comments on Germany’s reply to the President’s peace note. 125
1769 Dec. 29 [Rec’d Dec. 30] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Interview with Cambon regarding the French outlook as to the continuation of hostilities. 126
1774 Dec. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 31] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reply to the President’s peace note will be given soon, after due consideration. 127
211 Dec. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 31] The Minister in Greece to the Secretary of State (telegram). Entente demands; blockade to continue until conditions are fulfilled. This means acceptance or war. 127
4805 Dec. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 31] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary of situation in Europe from German viewpoint and speculation as to America’s entering the war. 128
4916 Dec. 21 The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Detailed report on peace propaganda in Germany since Oct. 7. Conclusion reached that it is the direct outcome of food situation. 129
Dec. 30 [Rec’d Jan. 2, 1917] The Consul General at Sofia to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Bulgarian reply to the President’s peace note, similar in terms to those of the other Central powers. 138
Jan. 2, 1917 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey, and the Consul General at Sofia (telegram). Transmits reply of the Entente to the overtures of the Central powers, with instructions regarding its delivery. 139
[Page XXXII]

PART II: NEUTRAL RIGHTS

Neutral Rights as Affected by the Submarine Operations of Germany and Her Allies—The Question of Armed Merchant Vessels—The Imperiling and Destruction of American Lives and Property—American Demands and German Pledges—Relations of the United States With Germany and Her Allies

the continuance of negotiations concerning the “lusitania” and the “ancona”—the sinking of the “persia”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Jan. 1 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Persia reported sunk by submarine. American Consul at Aden was passenger. Nearly all on board perished. 143
1066 Jan. 3 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Inquires concerning the destruction of the Persia and asks assurances of early action by the Government. 143
A 27/16 Jan. 3 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Discussion of Lusitania case delayed by failure to receive telegram from Germany. Requests that enclosed message be forwarded to Germany. 144
Jan. 3 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Message to the German Foreign Office has been forwarded. 144
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 7] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Explanation of German policy of submarine warfare in the Mediterranean. 144
Jan. 12 The Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Austro-Hungarian Chargé at Washington (telegram). No information has been received in regard to the sinking of the Persia; responsibility therefore cannot be assumed. 145
3361 Jan. 17 [Rec’d Jan. 18] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany unwilling to admit obligation to pay indemnity even though possibly willing to pay in the Lusitania case. 145
3360 Jan. 17 [Rec’d Jan. 18] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Zimmermann states that the sinking of the Persia was not caused by a German submarine. 145
[Page XXXIII]

the american proposal of january 18, 1916, of a modus vivendi for the observance of rules of international law and principles of humanity by submarines and the discontinuance of armament of merchant ships—further negotiations concerning the “lusitania”—the case of the “petrolite”—reports of offensive operations by armed merchant ships

[Page XXXV]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Jan. 18 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. The same, mutatis mutandis, to the French, Russian, Italian, and Japanese Ambassadors and to the Belgian Minister. Proposes a modus vivendi to bring submarine warfare within the rules of international law and to discontinue the armament of merchant vessels. 146
3375 Jan. 21 [Rec’d Jan. 22] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Asks to be informed as to negotiations on the Lusitania case. 148
1103 Jan. 22 [Rec’d Jan. 23] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs states that no Austro-Hungarian submarine was concerned in the sinking of the Persia. 148
Jan. 22 [Rec’d Jan. 24] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Relates the frightfulness of German submarine warfare and defends the arming of merchantmen. 149
2634 Jan. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Holding confidential negotiations with Bernstorff on Lusitania case. 150
2645 Jan. 26 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Negotiations with Bernstorff regarding the Lusitania. 150
3648 Jan. 25 [Rec’d Jan. 26] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). U. S. modus vivendi proposals considered a victory for Germany. Great Britain preparing to construct munition plants at home and in Canada. 151
2786 Jan. 26 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to report on the sinking of submarines by the Kashgar and the City of Marseilles. 152
[Page XXXIV]3365 Jan. 28 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). U. S. modus vivendi proposal will antagonize the Allies. Advises that it be withdrawn. 152
3406 Jan. 29 [Rec’d Jan. 30] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Zimmermann favors rejection of the Lusitania proposal, adding that Germany has plenty of submarines and that war with America would remove restrictions on submarine warfare. 153
3408 Jan. 29 [Rec’d Jan. 30] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Draft of a note which he understands the German Government is willing to send in settlement of the submarine incidents. 153
4007 Jan. 29 [Rec’d Jan. 31] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits copy of letter from Zimmermann to Colonel House pointing out objectionable features in the Lusitania terms of settlement proposed by the Department; also Colonel House’s suggestion for no action. 154
3409 Jan. 30 [Rec’d Jan. 31] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Zimmermann’s statement that there is no longer any international law and his own denial of Germany’s power to change its rules to suit her convenience. 155
1107 Jan. 31 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Instructions to inform the Department if prize court proceedings are instituted in relation to the Ancona, Lasakumi Maru, and Persia. 155
3413 Jan. 31 [Rec’d Feb. 1] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Thinks that Germany is not desirous of break in relations with the United States and will try to embroil us with Japan. 155
3419 Feb. 1 [Rec’d Feb. 2] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany will admit liability in Lusitania case but will deny illegality of her act. 156
1786 Feb. 2 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to inquire of Turkey whether the Persia was sunk by her submarine. 156
3703 Feb. 3 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Passengers and crew of the Kashgar dispersed. Nothing known concerning her or the City of Marseilles. 157
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 4] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Germany’s submarine warfare an act of retaliation. Regrets are expressed and reparation offered for loss of American lives on the Lusitania. 157
Feb. 3 [Rec’d Feb. 5] The British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). U. S. proposal to deprive merchant vessels of defensive armament would insure the effectiveness of submarine warfare. 158
3437 Feb. 4 [Rec’d Feb. 5] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reported that enemy merchant vessels will be sunk by Germany without notice in retaliation for British orders to fire on submarines at sight. 159
3445 Feb. 5 [Rec’d Feb. 6] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports substance of conversation of Morgenthau with Zimmermann and with Von Jagow on war issues. 151
48 Feb. 7 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Instructions to report in detail as to operations of British submarines in the Baltic. 159
2830 Feb. 7 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to investigate and report cases of Kashgar and City of Marseilles. 160
3458 Feb. 7 [Rec’d Feb. 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Zimmermann’s interview with the press regarding the submarine controversy. 160
1116 Feb. 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Instructions to present to Foreign Office report of attack on the Petrolite, and if facts are as reported, to demand apology, punishment of captain, and compensation. 160
Feb. 8 Extracts from an interview with the German Chancellor by Karl H. von Wiegand, published in the New York World, Feb. 9, 1916. Germany desires to maintain friendly relations with the United States, but not at the price of national humiliation: refuses to give up submarine weapon. 161
Feb. 10 Statement given to the press by the Secretary of State. Germany has been asked to do nothing that is not reasonable and fair. 162
[Page XXXVI]

german memorandum of february 10, 1916, announcing that armed merchant ships are to be treated as belligerents

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3473 Feb. 10 The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). German memorandum on the treatment of armed merchantmen has been received and will be forwarded as soon as it is translated. 163
90 Feb. 10 [Rec’d Feb. 11] The Minister in Sweden to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports on British submarine warfare in the Baltic. 163
3474 Feb. 10 [Rec’d Feb. 11] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German memorandum of Feb. 8 on the treatment of armed merchantmen. 163
1144 Feb. 10 [Rec’d Feb. 12] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Foreign Office note announcing that armed merchant vessels will be treated as belligerent. 166
3479 Feb. 11 [Rec’d Feb. 12] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has learned indirectly from Foreign Office that, if necessary, Germany will make alliance with Russia and Japan against America. 167
3482 Feb. 12 [Rec’d Feb. 13] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). German Government and press favor unrestricted submarine warfare if the U. S. modus vivendi proposal fails. 167
2882 Feb. 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Gives status of relations with Germany on subject of submarine warfare. 168
563 Feb. 14 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Italy considers American note recommending disarmament of merchantmen as favorable to Germany; Allied acceptance improbable. 169
3785 Feb. 15 [Rec’d Feb. 16] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). U. S. open telegrams communicated to government officials. Sources of information concerning the Kashgar and City of Marseilles closed. Suggests that future telegrams be sent in cipher. 169
Feb. 16 The Secretary of State to Diplomatic Officers in European countries (telegram). This Government will rely upon the established rules of international law if the modus vivendi proposals are rejected by the Entente powers. 170
[Page XXXVII]

the german ambassador’s note of february 16, 1916, on the “lusitania” and “arabic” cases; his communication of instructions found on the british armed merchant ship “appam”—austrian note of february 22, 1916, on the “petrolite” incident—italian note of february 19, 1916, on the modus vivendi proposal

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
A 1138 Feb. 16 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits reply to U. S. note of July 21, 1915, on the Lusitania case: expresses regret; recognizes liability; and offers indemnity. 171
Feb. 17 Memorandum of the Secretary of State of a conversation with the German Ambassador. Regarding Germany’s new submarine policy and its effect upon the settlement of the Lusitania case. 172
2716 Feb. 17 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany’s recent proclamation regarding enemy merchantmen has stopped negotiations and left the Lusitania case unsettled. 173
A1082 Feb. 19 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits British confidential instructions found on the Appam: Any submarine to be treated as hostile. 173
573 Feb. 24 [Rec’d Feb. 25] The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits reply of Italian Government to the U. S. modus Vivendi proposal. 174
1164 Feb. 23 [Rec’d Feb. 25] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits official note explaining the attack on the Petrolite. 175

the president’s letter of february 24, 1916, asserting the right of american citizens to travel on armed merchant ships—german memorandum of february 28, 1916, asserting that the pledges of september 1 and october 5, 1915, do not apply to armed ships

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2740 Feb. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Transmits the President’s letter to Senator Stone regarding abridgment of the rights of American citizens. 177
3528 Feb. 25 [Rec’d Feb. 26] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Baron Zwiedinek informed his Government that the United States would welcome a German declaration such as the memorandum on armed merchant vessels. 178
3530 Feb. 25 [Rec’d Feb. 26] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comment regarding rights of Americans to travel on armed liners and views of German officials as to advantages of war with America. 178
[Page XXXVIII]3531 Feb. 26 [Rec’d Feb. 27] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comments on American conflict of opinion regarding armament of merchantmen. 179
3535 Feb. 27 [Rec’d Feb. 28] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany is discussing advisability of abandoning the practice of sinking ships without notice if England disarms merchant vessels. 180
Feb. 28 The German Ambassador to the Secretary State. Reiteration of stand taken by Germany against armed merchantmen; explanation of pledges made to America. 181
Feb. 28 The Austro-Hungarian Chargé to the Secretary of State. Austria-Hungary takes the same position as Germany on treatment of armed enemy merchantmen. 182
1168 Feb. 28 [Rec’d Feb. 29] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Vienna press is warned by Ministry of Foreign Affairs that relations between the United States and Germany have reached a critical stage. 182
A 1427 Feb. 29 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Quotes British press to prove that armament of British merchantmen is for offense and North German Gazette to show that Germany is within her right in attacking these armed vessels. 182
2756 Mar. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Repeated to Vienna. Explanation of misquoted statement in message of Austro-Hungarian Chargé to his Government. 183
2757 Mar. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German memorandum on submarine policy and armed merchantmen not yet received. 185

defeat in congress of the resolution to prevent americans from traveling on armed merchant ships—the decision of the german government against unlimited submarine warfare—resolutions in the reichstag against restrictions

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2760 Mar. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Quotes the President’s letter to Congressman Pou urging vote upon resolutions regarding travel on armed merchantmen; statement regarding the situation. 185
3561 Mar. 2 [Rec’d Mar. 3] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Tirpitz is urging that every vessel approaching England be torpedoed at sight. 186
[Page XXXIX]3565 Mar. 3 [Rec’d Mar. 4] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Unlimited submarine blockade of English waters discussed in council. Decision lies with the Emperor. 186
Mar. 4 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors in European Belligerent Countries. Gore resolution forbidding Americans to travel on armed merchantmen tabled in the Senate. Action favorable to administration’s position. 186
2451 Feb. 14 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Forwards note verbale transmitting memorandum from the German Foreign Office on the treatment of armed merchantmen, and exhibits. 187
3579 Mar. 6 [Rec’d Mar. 7] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Tirpitz’s proposal for unlimited submarine blockade of England is rejected in war council. 198
A 1601 Undated [Rec’d Mar. 8] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Explains how Great Britain’s disregard for established rules of international law is responsible for Germany’s submarine policy. 198
3592 Mar. 7 [Rec’d Mar. 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Forwards text of semiofficial reply to British Admiralty’s publication of instructions of Oct. 20, 1915, to armed merchantmen. 201
Mar. 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors in European Belligerent Countries (telegram). The House of Representatives tabled the resolution warning Americans against traveling upon armed merchantmen—a vote of confidence in the President’s conduct of foreign affairs. 202
2790 Mar. 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Denies that he told the Austro-Hungarian Chargé that the United States would welcome a German declaration that armed merchantmen would be treated as auxiliary cruisers. 202
3601 Mar. 9 [Rec’d Mar. 10] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press reports tabling of resolution regarding travel on armed merchantmen; complains of negligence of Embassy in not telegraphing secret British orders attached to German memorandum. 205
3606 Mar. 9 [Rec’d Mar. 11] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). German press attempts a survey of the political situation in Washington and concludes that dissension in the Democratic Party is cause of weakened position of the Government. 205
[Page XL]3624 Mar. 15 [Rec’d Mar. 16] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Semiofficial notice is published that submarine warfare is being conducted with increased severity. 205
1188 Mar. 15 [Rec’d Mar. 16] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Burian impressed with clearness of statement regarding the German memorandum on armed merchantmen; incident a case of misunderstanding. 206
3635 Mar. 16 [Rec’d Mar. 18] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press reports trouble with Mexico, suggesting that Japan is backing Villa. Resignation of Von Tirpitz confirmed. 206
3637 Mar. 17 [Rec’d Mar. 18] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comment: Von Capelle to succeed Von Tirpitz; since enemies have refused peace, Germany will use every means to secure early victory. 206
3640 Mar. 18 [Rec’d Mar. 19] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Interview with the Chancellor regarding peace. 207
3645 Mar. 18 [Rec’d Mar. 19] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Resolutions introduced in the Reichstag by the different parties declaring for full freedom in use of the submarine. 208
3190 Mar. 7 [Rec’d Mar. 20] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits despatch from the Consul General at London regarding an engagement between the City of Marseilles and a hostile submarine. 209
3650 Mar. 20 [Rec’d Mar. 21] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Capelle appointed Secretary of State of the Navy. Germany disclaims any connection with sinking of the Tubantia. 209
3651 Mar. 21 [Rec’d Mar. 22] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Pressure being used to prevent open discussion in the Reichstag of resolutions advocating full freedom in the use of submarines. 210
3654 Mar. 22 [Rec’d Mar. 23] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram) Socialist resolution regarding the use of submarines and peace; Von Tirpitz clique against Chancellor and clamoring for relentless submarine war. 210
[Page XLI]

replies of the allied governments of march 23, 1916, to the proposal for a modus vivendi

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Mar. 23 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. The same, mutatis mutandis, from the French and Russian Ambassadors and the Belgian Minister. Reply to the American proposal for a modus vivendi. 211
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 23] The British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the Ambassador at Washington (telegram). Instructions to give verbal assurance that armament on British merchantmen is solely for defense. 212
Mar. 23 The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits Italy’s reply to the American proposal for a modus vivendi. 213
3658 Mar. 23 [Rec’d Mar. 24] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Postponement of discussion in Reichstag of resolution on submarine warfare. Semiofficially reported that Germany and Austria are to receive foodstuffs from Roumania. 214

the sinking of the “sussex”, march 24, 1916—cases of the “englishman”, manchester engineer”, “berwindvale”, and “eagle point”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4019 Mar. 25 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). French S. S. Sussex reported torpedoed near French coast. 214
1640 Mar. 8 [Rec’d Mar. 26] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Sublime Porte states that the Persia was not sunk by a Turkish submarine. 214
3098 Mar. 27 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquires whether the Sussex was armed and whether Channel ships are armed. 215
2852 Mar. 27 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to inquire whether the Sussex was torpedoed by a submarine belonging to Germany or her allies. 215
[Page XLII]4044 Mar. 28 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Admiralty states that the Sussex was not armed; not customary for cross-channel passenger steamers to be armed. 215
2855 Mar. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instruction to inquire whether the Englishman was sunk by a submarine belonging to Germany or her allies. 215
1330 Mar. 28 [Rec’d Mar. 29] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). No indication of guns on the Sussex. Channel passenger steamers not armed. 216
2859 Mar. 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The Englishman is reported to have been sunk by the U-19. 216
2860 Mar. 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to inquire of Foreign Office whether the Manchester Engineer was sunk by a submarine belonging to Germany or her allies. 216
3678 Mar. 29 [Rec’d Mar. 31] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reichstag Budget Committee discussed submarine question. Press leaning toward relentless warfare. 217
Mar. 31 [Rec’d Apr. 1] The Ambassador in Brazil to the Secretary of State (telegram). Brazil suggests that leading American countries meet in conference to solidify continental relations and convince Europe that interests of American powers are identical. 217
1339 Apr. 1 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports fully on destruction of the Sussex, enclosing affidavit of Beer and letter of the American Consul at St. Gall. 218
2873 Apr. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Requests to be informed whether the Berwindvale was torpedoed by Germany or her allies. 219
2874 Apr. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Requests report on destruction of the Eagle Point. 220
3687 Mar. 31 [Rec’d Apr. 2] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reichstag Budget Committee passes a resolution to make such use of the submarine as will bring peace and security to Germany. 220
1341 Apr. 2 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports findings on comparison of fragments, from the Sussex with a German mine and torpedo kept at Toulon. 220
[Page XLIII]A 2346 Apr. 2 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Germany wishes to know what the United States is going to do about the misuse of its flag by the British naval forces (Baralong case). 222
542 Apr. 1 [Rec’d Apr. 3] The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State (telegram). Netherland ships delay sailing; precautionary measures are taken for self-defense. 222
3141 Apr. 4 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquires if the Sussex was ever used as transport or troopship and if transports follow the same route as the Sussex on her last trip. 223
4101 Apr. 5 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Admiralty states that the Sussex was never a transport or troopship and that the route followed on last trip was not the route of transports or troopships. 223
Apr. 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Brazil (telegram). Brazil’s proposal for conference of American countries is receiving consideration. 223
Apr. 7 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. The same, mutatis mutandis, to the French, Russian, and Italian Ambassadors and the Belgian Minister. Regrets that governments of the Entente powers can not accede to proposal for a modus vivendi. 223
3715 Apr. 6 [Rec’d Apr. 7] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Deliberations of different factions in the Reichstag. The Budget Committee has submitted a report on submarine resolution. 224
3713 Apr. 6 [Rec’d Apr. 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Von Jagow’s note stating that result of investigation of the Sussex case is still inconclusive. Comments. 225
3720 Apr. 7 [Rec’d Apr. 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reichstag passed the submarine resolution. The debate showed that differences of opinion were subordinate to a desire for unity. 226
1468 Apr. 12 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Inquires as to reliability of evidence submitted in the Sussex case. 227
[Page XLIV]

the german note of april 10, 1916, on the “sussex” and other cases

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3735 Apr. 11 [Rec’d Apr. 13] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Von Jagow’s note on investigation of the Sussex, Manchester Engineer, Englishman, Berwindvale, and Eagle Point cases. 227
225 Apr. 12 [Rec’d Apr. 13] The Ambassador in Spain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Prime Minister asks if the United States thinks a joint protest of neutrals against the torpedoing of neutral vessels and belligerent merchantmen would be effective. 229
1360 Apr. 13 [Rec’d Apr. 14] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Presents proof that no imposition was practiced in the evidence found on the Sussex. 229
140 Apr. 17 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). Suggestion of joint protest of neutrals to Germany against submarine warfare is under consideration. 230
1194 Apr. 17 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Prompt report requested on the Imperator said to have been destroyed by Austrian submarine. 231
3754 Apr. 16 [Rec’d Apr. 17] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits statement purporting to represent position of Chancellor, Foreign Office, and Marine Department regarding their submarine policy. 231

the american note of april 18, 1916, on the “sussex,” stating that diplomatic relations would be severed unless the current methods of submarine warfare were abandoned—memorandum published on april 27, 1916, concerning the status of armed merchant ships—memorandum communicated to germany on april 28, 1916, regarding the conduct of naval vessels toward enemy and neutral merchant ships

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2913 Apr. 18 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Statement of facts in the Sussex case and warning that if present methods of submarine warfare are not abandoned this Government will sever diplomatic relations. 232
3769 Apr. 19 [Rec’d Apr. 20] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Zimmermann is said to have stated that Germany will make no further concessions in submarine war. 237
175 Apr. 6 [Rec’d Apr. 21] The Consul at Cork to the Secretary of State. Conclusions regarding German submarine policy from conversations with officers and men of attacked ships and press description of treatment accorded ship’s crew picked up by submarine. 237
[Page XLV]3780 Apr. 20 [Rec’d Apr. 21] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Delivered to Von Jagow note on possible break in relations with Germany. He repeated that Germany would not give up sinking ships without notice. 239
2927 Apr. 22 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to cable exact words of Von Jagow in stating that Germany would not give up sinking merchant ships without notice. 239
Apr. 22 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Requests specific information regarding instructions issued for guidance of British sea captains. 239
3790 Apr. 22 [Rec’d Apr. 23] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany is delaying answer to U. S. note warning of possible break in diplomatic relations. 240
3785 Apr. 22 [Rec’d Apr. 23] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comment on the U. S. note regarding break in diplomatic relations and Germany’s delay in replying. 240
3793 Apr. 23 [Rec’d Apr. 24] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Representatives of socialists and workmen’s unions will tell Chancellor that Germans do not want war with America. 240
1594 Apr. 13 [Rec’d Apr. 25] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Reports British loss of merchant vessels and seriousness of tonnage situation. 240
3237 Apr. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to confer with Foreign Office regarding British representation in Berlin in case of severance of relations between the United States and Germany. 241
3800 Apr. 24 [Rec’d Apr. 25] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Conflict between the Military and Navy, and those who advocate a decent conduct of submarine war. 241
3795 Apr. 24 [Rec’d Apr. 25] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports interview with Chancellor regarding reply to U. S. note on submarine war and threat of break in relations. 242
3799 Apr. 24 [Rec’d Apr. 25] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Jagow’s statement regarding the U. S. note on severing of relations with Germany. 242
3805 Apr. 25 [Rec’d Apr. 27] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Jagow states that sinking of merchant ships without notice in war zone is Germany’s answer to England’s illegal blockade of Germany. 243
[Page XLVI]3811 Apr. 25 [Rec’d Apr. 27] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports interview with Chancellor on crisis in relations. Requests instructions as to details of what will be acceptable to the United States. 243
Mar. 25 [Pub. on Apr. 27] Memorandum of the Department of State. Status of an armed merchant vessel of a belligerent from the view-point of a neutral when that vessel enters its port, and from that of an enemy when on the high seas. Rights and duties of neutrals and belligerents. 244
111 Apr. 25 [Rec’d Apr. 27] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Instructions of Oct. 20 for the guidance of British sea captains contain orders at present in force. 249
3816 Apr. 27 [Rec’d Apr. 28] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Is asked by Von Jagow to go to Great Headquarters for an audience with the Emperor. 249
2944 Apr. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions as to care of U. S. interests in case of severance of relations with Germany. 249
1242 Apr. 27 [Rec’d Apr. 28] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Austrians do not want break with America. 250
Apr. 28 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits British Admiralty instructions of Oct. 20, 1915, for defensively armed merchant ships. 250
3253 Apr. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Asks for copies of instructions of Oct. 20, 1915, to British armed merchantmen. 251
2951 Apr. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The United States expects a prompt declaration of abandonment of illegal submarine warfare. Encloses memorandum concerning legal conduct of naval vessels. 252
1918 May 4 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Department has not felt warranted in taking up the Baralong case with the British because of the contradictory evidence in the case. 253
3839 May 3 [Rec’d May 4] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports visit to General Headquarters and interview with the Emperor. 253
[Page XLVII]1247 May 3 [Rec’d May 4] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits official account of attack on the Imperator. 256
2975 May 5 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inquires if Department’s memorandum on conduct of naval vessels toward merchant ships was handed to German officials. 256
2976 May 5 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inquires what use was made of Department’s circular of Apr. 27 regarding attitude of this Government on subject of armed merchant ships. 256

german reply of may 4, 1916, promising to observe the rules of visit and search and to provide for the safety of persons on board destroyed ships—note of may 7, 1916, acknowledging responsibility in the “sussex” case—american note of may 8, 1916, accepting the german assurances as unconditional

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3848 May 4 [Rec’d May 5] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits note from Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs promising to observe rules of visit and search and to provide for safety of persons on board ships when torpedoed. 257
3852 May 6 [Rec’d May 7] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). His answer to the Emperor’s complaint against England for stopping cargoes bound for Germany through neutral countries. 260
3853 May 6 [Rec’d May 7] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press comment on German note promising concession to American demands. 260
3856 May 7 [Rec’d May 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Newspapers forbidden to comment on German note. Navy and Military hope for revenge on the United States later. 262
3855 May 7 [Rec’d May 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Disposition of Department’s memorandum on conduct of naval vessels toward merchant ships. 262
2983 May 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Accepts German assurances as not contingent upon conduct of any other Government. 263
[Page XLVIII]3857 May 7 [Rec’d May 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Department’s circular of Apr. 27 regarding attitude of this Government on subject of armed merchant ships, was presented to the Foreign Office and to the Chancellor. 263
3861 May 8 The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Widespread sentiment in Germany that when war is ended she will be revenged on the United States for export of arms and attitude toward submarine war. 264
3863 May 8 [Rec’d May 9] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Article from the Cologne Gazette discussing Germany’s concession. 264
3865 May 8 [Rec’d May 9] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits text of note of Von Jagow acknowledging liability for attack on the Sussex and offering indemnity. 265
3873 May 10 [Rec’d May 11] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Jagow affirms that Germany made no express condition in note on submarine war. 266
1256 May 10 [Rec’d May 11] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). It is thought that Germany’s conduct of submarine war will be contingent upon concessions from the Entente. 266
3880 May 11 [Rec’d May 12] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor fears that unless the United States enforces international law against England, Germany will demand resumption of relentless submarine war. 267
A3444 May 12 [Rec’d May 13] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Warns that neutral ships, when stopped by Germans, must observe provisions of international law to avoid incidents as in the Bandoeng case. 267
3886 May 13 The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor thinks it inadvisable to answer the last American note. 268
May 18 [Rec’d May 19] The Japanese Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Agrees with Allies in declining to meet suggestion of the United States regarding submarine warfare and armed merchantmen. 268
1937 May 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. German note warning neutral ships against turning on submarines, has been sent to the Secretary of Commerce and contents given to the press. 268
[Page XLIX]1538 Apr. 26 [Rec’d May 22] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Interview with Burian regarding break in relations between Germany and the United States because of Germany’s submarine policy. 269
1272 May 24 [Rec’d May 25] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits official notice of prize court procedure in the Ancona case. 271
May 31 The Acting Secretary of State to the Consul General at Hamburg (telegram). Instructions to ascertain unofficially if Germany intends to institute prize proceedings in the Arabic case. 271
3951 June 3 [Rec’d June 4] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Jagow asks why American notes to England on the China case and the seizure of mails were not published, while U. S. notes to Germany were invariably published. 271
June 5 [Rec’d June 7] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Denies that merchantmen have been instructed to use guns for offensive purposes and that awards have been made by the Government for such use. 271
3971 June 7 [Rec’d June 9] The Consul General at Hamburg to the Secretary of State (telegram). German Government will not voluntarily institute prize court proceedings in the Arabic or any other case; but claimants may do so. 272
3978 June 9 [Rec’d June 10] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Von Jagow again asks why U. S. notes to Great Britain about the China and the detention of mails were not published. 272
3086 June 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The China correspondence will be made public as soon as believed expedient. 273
4007 June 16 [Rec’d June 17] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). U. S. note to the Allies relating to seizure and detention of the mails was published in Germany and received favorably. 273
1609 May 20 [Rec’d June 19] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Unfriendliness of the Austrian press to the United States. Note from Burian promising to take steps to prevent press attacks on the President and U. S. Government. 273
[Page L]

the american note op june 21, 1916, on the “petrolite” incident—austrian replies of july 17 and september 9, 1916—the case of the “owego”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1263 June 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Gives information regarding attack on the Petrolite by Austrian submarine. Demands apology, punishment of commander, and indemnity. 276
July 1 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Suggests early settlement of the Frye case. 278
4084 July 6 The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). There is talk of forcing the Government to reckless submarine war. 279
1296 July 14 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). This Government reserves right to present diplomatic claims in the Ancona case. Extension of time is requested for preparation of cases for prize court proceedings. 279
July 19 Memorandum of the Counselor for the Department of State. Austro-Hungarian Chargé presented affidavits of seamen on the Petrolite case; evidence conflicts with facts as stated in U. S. note to Austria. 279
July 20 Memorandum of the Counselor for the Department of State. Discusses with the Austro-Hungarian Chargé (Zwiedinek) the discrepancies in affidavits in the the Petrolite case. 280
4149 July 24 [Rec’d July 25] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Possibility that Germany will now sign the Bryan arbitration treaty but will reopen submarine war. 280
245 July 26 [Rec’d July 27] The Consul General at Berlin to the Secretary of State (telegram). Amendment to prize ordinance of Sept. 30, 1909, published. 281
A4724 July 26 [Rec’d July 27] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. German Government agrees to diplomatic settlement of question of indemnity for the Frye; desires that negotiations be conducted in Berlin. 281
3264 Aug. 2 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Time not propitious for entering negotiations with Germany for the signing of the Bryan arbitration treaty. 281
[Page LI]1788 July 20 [Rec’d Aug. 14] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Transmits note from Burian on the Petrolite case. 282
3296 Aug. 16 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request prompt investigation of the attack on the Owego by a German submarine. 283
1332 Aug. 18 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Awaits further report on the Petrolite case; requests that settlement be hastened. 283
1811 July 24 [Rec’d Aug. 21] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Transmits Foreign Office agreement to extend time for the registration of claims in the Ancona case and to settle question of indemnity for personal injuries through diplomatic channels. 284
4249 Aug. 21 [Rec’d Aug. 22] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Bassermann (Reichstag member) demands employment of all methods of warfare. 284
4273 Aug. 27 [Rec’d Aug. 28] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note on submarine operations against the Owego. 285
4279 Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 29] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Indications that Germany will return to reckless submarine war. 285
1423 Sept. 8 [Rec’d Sept. 9] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reply to the U. S. Petrolite note promised soon. 286
3390 Sept. 18 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Explains conduct of captain of the Owego and urges that submarine commanders be instructed to use caution to insure their signals being understood. 286
1370 Sept. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). The United States understands that Austria-Hungary will consider claims in the Ancona case without need of presentation in prize court. 287
4407 Sept. 29 [Rec’d Sept. 30] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Anti-American outburst in press over the activities of U. S. flyers on the British front. Public opinion being prepared for resumption of indiscriminate warfare. 287
[Page LII]1988 Sept. 15 [Rec’d Oct. 2] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. An impasse arrived at in Petrolite case. Encloses Burian’s reply to U. S. note. 288

the renewed struggle in germany for unrestricted submarine warfare (october 1916)

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4412 Oct. 1 [Rec’d Oct. 2] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Early resumption of indiscriminate submarine warfare not unlikely. 291
4417 Oct. 2 [Rec’d Oct. 3] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor’s stand against indiscriminate submarine war strengthened; crisis passed for the present. 292
3448 Oct. 4 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to investigate report that German Admiralty is preparing for early resumption of submarine warfare in violation of neutral rights. 292
4433 Oct. 5 [Rec’d Oct. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Chancellor is thought to be holding his own against attacks on his submarine policy; no feeling of permanent security. 292
4436 Oct. 6 [Rec’d Oct. 7] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Admiralty preparing for possible resumption of indiscriminate submarine war. It is reported that submarine issue is to be dropped for the present. 293
4439 Oct. 7 [Rec’d Oct. 8] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Agreement to drop submarine issue may be based on desire of German Government to have the President act on its secret suggestion for peace. 293
4443 Oct. 7 [Rec’d Oct. 9] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary on party policies regarding submarine war. 294
4442 Oct. 7 [Rec’d Oct. 9] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Is assured that Chancellor has situation in hand but that submarine question as a political issue will never be settled until England abandons blockade. 294
4450 Oct. 9 [Rec’d Oct. 10] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Helfferich, in Reichstag, gives forcible arguments against resumption of reckless warfare. 295
[Page LIII]1478 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Adjustment through diplomatic negotiations in the Ancona case extends only to personal damage; losses on goods must be decided by prize court. 295
4467 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Naval officers have petitioned the Emperor for immediate resumption of indiscriminate submarine warfare. Encloses a résumé of Admiral Scheer’s letter. 296
4478 Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 15] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Arrangements are said to have been made to double the output of ammunition. Present political outlook is reassuring though insecure. 296
4503 Oct. 20 [Rec’d Oct. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). No developments in political situation because of Hindenburg’s request that agitation of submarine question be dropped. 297
4502 Oct. 20 [Rec’d Oct. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary of the political aspect. 297

representations to germany (october 30—november 18, 1916) concerning the sinking of the “rowanmore”, “marina”, “arabia”, “sebek”, “delto”, “lanao”, “columbian”, and “chemung” (december 2, 1916)—replies and correspondence on these cases—reports on political conditions in germany with reference to submarine policy—communications of instructions found on a french armed merchant ship

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3530 Oct. 30 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Transmits report of U. S. Consul at Queenstown on sinking of the Rowanmore for the attention of the German Government. 298
3532 Oct. 31 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of torpedoing of the Marina. 299
3538 Nov. 2 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany. (telegram). Instructions to request report on sinking of the Rievaulx Abbey, Strathtay, and Antwerpen. 299
4555 Nov. 3 [Rec’d Nov. 4] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note promising investigation of the Rowanmore and Marina cases as soon as the commanders return from sea. 299
4322 Oct. 16 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Résumé of political developments, with particular reference to possible resumption of indiscriminate submarine warfare. 300
[Page LIV]4347 Oct. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Report on parties and party leaders in the Reichstag. 305
275 Oct. 16 [Rec’d Nov. 7] The Consul General at Dresden to the Secretary of State. Informed by a German army officer that Germany contemplates unrestricted use of submarines early in 1917 and simultaneous nightly air raids on England. 308
5129 Nov. 7 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports torpedoing of the Arabia. 308
Nov. 14 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits report of Consul at Malta on torpedoing of the Arabia. 309
3586 Nov. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of attacks on the Sebok and the Delto. 309
3587 Nov. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of sinking of the Lanao. 310
3588 Nov. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of sinking of the Columbian. 310
3589 Nov. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of torpedoing of the Arabia. 310
4619 Nov. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note regarding the sinking of the Rievaulx Abbey, the Strathtay, and the Antwerpen. 311
4622 Nov. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note describing the sinking of the Rowanmore. 311
4654 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note relative to the sinking of the Marina. 312
4655 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). If necessary information is supplied in Marina case, German Government will take steps to rectify error, apologize, and offer indemnity. 313
[Page LV]4116 Dec. 2 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiry as to the service of the Marina. 313
1436 Dec. 2 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of the Chemung, reported sunk by Austrian submarine. 314
4530 Nov. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 4] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Further information on political situation in Germany, bearing chiefly on submarine war. Note of Consul General at Dresden on food situation. 314
A 8059 Dec. 5 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Conclusive evidence that enemy merchant ships are armed offensively; encloses instructions for captains of merchant vessels, found on a French ship. 318
4685 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German report on sinking of the Arabia. 319
4692 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office replies that their statement regarding the Marina case applies equally to the Arabia. 319
5283 Dec. 6 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note giving service of the Marina. 320
4691 Dee. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office instructions to Bernstorff to endeavor to settle Arabia case by conversations. 320
4140 Dec. 7 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Repeats German report on sinking of the Arabia and asks if the vessel was used as transport for troops in service of Great Britain. 320
4702 Dec. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 8] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Foreign Office note placing responsibility for sinking of the Sebek on her own captain. 321
[Page LVI]

representations of december 9, 1916, concerning the sinking of the “trevarrack”, “barbara”, “trippel”, “lökken”, “palermo”, and “john lambert”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3651 Dec. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request an investigation of the sinking by German submarine of the Trevarrack. 321
3652 Dec. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of sinking by a German submarine of the Barbara. 322
3653 Dec. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request investigation of sinking of the Trippel by German submarine. 322
3654 Dec. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Instructions to request investigation of sinking of the Lökken. 322
3655 Dec. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Instructions to request investigation of sinking of the Palermo. 323
3656 Dec. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Instructions to request investigation of the sinking of the John Lambert . 323
4162 Dec. 11 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests that replies be hastened; and asks whether the Marina was ever in the service of Great Britain, and if so, when? 323
4716 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 12] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note on the sinking of the Lanao. 324
4720 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Press summary regarding the Caledonia’s attack on a German submarine and subsequent sinking of the steamer. 324
[Page LVII]2250 Dec. 18 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Inquiry regarding French vessel on which were found instructions for masters of merchantmen for protection from submarines. 325
5337 Dec. 18 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British statement as to the service of the Marina. 325
4744 Dec. 17 [Rec’d Dec. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note relative to sinking of the Columbian. 325
5356 Dec. 21 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note stating that the Arabia had never been in the service of the British or Allied Governments. 327
4791 Dec. 27 [Rec’d Dec. 28] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note relative to sinking of the Delto. 327
A 8929 Dec. 29 [Rec’d Jan. 2, 1917] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. The confidential instructions of the French Admiralty to masters of merchant vessels for their protection, were found on the Marie Thérèse on Oct. 29 and bore no date. 328

Neutral Rights as Affected by the Blockading Measures taken by Great Britain and Her Allies—Interference with American Trade—The Black List—Protests and Proposals of Retaliation

the seizure of the “kankakee”—the black list of neutral ships

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2646 Dec. 29, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to report upon the whereabouts and status of the Kankakee. 328
3493 Jan. 3 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Kankakee was captured by the British and conveyed to Gibraltar. 329
Jan. 5 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Requests reply to U. S. note regarding British measures restricting legitimate trade with belligerent and neutral countries. 329
Jan. 5 [Rec’d Jan. 6] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Has presented to his Government the U. S. note requesting reply regarding trade restrictions. 329
[Page LVIII]2686 Jan. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to advise Foreign Office that conditions enforced by British in China are causing damage to American trade. 330
Dec. 29, 1915 [Rec’d Jan. 13] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits a list of ships suspected of carrying on business in interest of Germany. 330
2794 Jan. 5 [Rec’d Jan. 17] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits White Paper entitled Measures Adopted to Intercept the Sea-borne Commerce of Germany. 330

the trading with the enemy (extension of powers) act (december 23, 1915)—reservation of the right to protest against this act as affecting american interests, january 25, 1916—reports and correspondence on interference with neutral trade

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2735 Jan. 17 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to mail copy of amended enemy-trading act prohibiting trading with non-residents of enemy nationality or association. 337
3602 Jan. 19 The Ambassador in, Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits text of Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) Act of Dec. 23, 1915. 337
3601 Jan. 19 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Explains object of Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) Act of 1915. 338
2774 Jan. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Formal reservation of right to protest against the enemy-trading act of Dec. 23, 1915, as liable to cause undue interference with American trade. 339
2806 Jan. 31 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits, for attention of the Foreign Office, report of the Consul at Marseille on the disposition of the Kankakee with request for intervention on behalf of the crew. 339
1083 Jan. 17 [Rec’d Feb. 1] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Modification of British blockade policy improbable. Suggestions which if adopted would do away with reasonable complaints from U. S. shippers. 340
[Page LIX]2878 Jan. 20 [Rec’d Feb. 1] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. News articles on futility of England’s blockade against Germany, showing the decrease of German imports and increase in those of surrounding neutral countries. 341
3752 Feb. 10 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Explains action proposed by the British Government regarding the Kankakee and other vessels owned by American Transatlantic Co. 344
2903 Jan. 24 [Rec’d Feb. 17] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British memorandum in justification of trade regulations in China. 345
2911 Feb. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Again requests reply to. U. S. note on subject of British trade restrictions; delay causing dissatisfaction. 349
3833 Feb. 21 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British and French reply to U. S. note on trade restrictions will express willingness to submit, after the war, validity of order in council of Mar. 11 to an international tribunal: 349
Feb. 7 [Rec’d Feb. 23] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Reports the number of vessels, loaded at American ports, detained by British Admiralty since Mar. 11, 1915. 350
419 Feb. 2 [Rec’d Feb. 25] The Chargé in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State. Transmits letter from the commercial attaché on complaints of Netherlands Oversea Trust against British violation of agreement in adoption of rationing system. 350
3872 Feb. 28 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grey is urging haste in replying to U. S. shipping note. 351
Mar. 1 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). First proclamation under British blacklisting law names firms in neutral countries with which trading is forbidden. 352
[Page LX]

british note of february 16, 1916, in defense of the trading with the enemy (extension of powers) act—the first “statutory list”, february 29, 1916—representations in the cases of the “hocking”, “genesee”, and “kankakee”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3092 Feb. 19 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note in defense of the Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) Act, 1915. 352
3093 Feb. 19 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Procedure for Americans who seek release of goods placed in a prize court. 353
1248 Feb. 24 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits letter from U. S. consular agent at Kirkwall setting forth routine practice of British authorities on arrival of vessels diverted to that port by Admiralty. 355
3374 Mar. 16 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Forwards copy of Department’s letter to William Amer Co., and others, advising a method of procedure to secure release of goods seized by British. 355
3052 Mar. 16 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Note to Great Britain declaring the seizure of the Hocking, the Genesee, and the Kankakee to be illegal. 357
3191 Mar. 7 [Rec’d Mar. 20] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British proclamation prohibiting trading with persons of enemy nationality, etc., dated Feb. 29, 1916. 358
4006 Mar. 23 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Delay in answering U. S. note on blockade is due to necessary discussion of answer with France. 360
Mar. 25 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Certain firms in Philippine Islands are proclaimed as enemy firms under trading-with-enemy law. 360

british order in council of march 30, 1916, further modifying the declaration of london—protest against this order, april 8, 1916—the “zamora” decision asserting the prevalence of international law over orders in council

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4088 Apr. 4 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits text of order in council of Mar. 30. 361
[Page LXI]3163 Apr. 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to inform the British Government that its indifference to contentions of the United States regarding trade restrictions, and the issue of additional order in council, the validity of which is contested, appears intentionally discourteous. 362
4149 Apr. 12 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has been informed that the reply to the U. S. shipping note is now ready. 362
3194 Apr. 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Request for a British statement regarding application of the new order in council to the Joseph W. Fordney case. 363
1584 Apr. 7 [Rec’d Apr. 18] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits a British black list of ships corrected to Mar. 31, 1916. 363
4176 Apr. 19 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Spring Rice and Jusserand are ready to present their note, but consider time inopportune. 364
1605 Apr. 10 [Rec’d Apr. 21] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. British prize court must be governed by international law as against orders in council: Decision of Privy Council in Zamora case (text enclosed). 364
Apr. 22 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at London (telegram). Instructions ta, obtain total value of merchandise in prize court and approximate value of American goods therein. 367
3493 Apr. 14 [Rec’d Apr. 24] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Reversal of judgment by Privy Council in Zamora case may nullify rulings under orders in council. 367

british note of april 24, 1916, in general justification of measures of interference with neutral trade—the abolition of the distinction between absolute and conditional contraband

[Page LXII][Page LXIII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
107 Apr. 24 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits memorandum in justification of restrictions on trade. 368
Apr. 24 [Rec’d Apr. 25] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. France shares views expressed by British memorandum regarding restrictions on trade. 382
106 Apr. 22 [Rec’d Apr. 26] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. American Transatlantic Co. ship Winneconne carried cargo to Gothenburg for Germany. Immunity from capture enjoyed by company’s vessels can only be continued provided they will not trade with Scandinavia and Holland. 382
Apr. 27 The Vice Consul at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Figures showing value of merchandise in prize court not available. Gives price of goods sold by prize court to Mar. 31. 383
May 3 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). For the Consul General: requests estimate of value of American goods in prize court. 383
May 3 The Edward Maurer Co., Inc., to the Secretary of State. Calls attention to action of steamship lines in blacklisting, and refusing to accept freight for certain South American firms of German origin. Relief through the Government asked. 383
Apr. 20 [Rec’d May 9] The Vice Consul at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits list of articles declared to be contraband of war; no distinction made between absolute and conditional. 385
4271 May 9 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Government declines to discuss the Joseph W. Fordney case pending prize court decision. 387
May 10 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Explains status of ships owned by American Transatlantic Co. and asks if the British Government intends to repudiate its promise concerning them. 388
1739 May 2 [Rec’d May 13] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. British Government appears to have ignored its pledge to accept consignments to Netherlands Oversea Trust. Sends list of such goods returned for prize court proceedings. 390
3702 May 3 [Rec’d May 15] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits copy of aide mémoire to Grey setting forth shippers’ protest against the seizure of goods consigned to Netherlands Over-sea Trust, and Grey’s reply. 390
May 18 The Secretary of State to the Edward Maurer Co., Inc. Refusal of steamship companies to accept cargo for shipment, is a private matter, not under control of the Department. 391
May 18 The Third Assistant Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State. British Ambassador asserts that popular sentiment for the blockade is controlling the parliamentary situation. 392

protests against the black list of ships (may 19, 1916) and against interference with goods consigned to the netherlands oversea trust (june 15, 1916)—condemnation of the cargo of the “joseph w. fordney

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3341 May 19 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to request removal of vessels of American Transatlantic Co. from black list. 392
4345 May 22 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Consul General Skinner suggests that Oversea Trust assignments actually in Holland should not be returned to England until facts in each case have been examined. 393
3174 May 12 [Rec’d May 23] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State. Transmits amendments to and modifications of decree of Nov. 6, 1914, relating to the French adoption of the Declaration of London, with preliminary report of reasons therefor. 393
3662 May 23 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Approves action taken in connection with seizure of goods consigned to Oversea Trust. 395
74 May 26 The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in Sweden (telegram). The same to the Ministers in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway. Instructions to furnish statistics in refutation of allegations in the British note of Apr. 24 on trade restrictions. 395
June 6 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Value of detained cargo on June 2 estimated at four million pounds. 396
June 7 The Secretary of State to Representative George F. O’Shaunessy. Arrangements with Great Britain for the uninterrupted shipment of goods of German and Austrian origin for the benefit of American industries. 396
[Page LXIV]3426 June 15 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Shippers’ complaint that consignments to Oversea Trust are placed in prize court; instructions to request that goods in Netherlands not be returned to England until facts in each case have been examined. 397
927 May 31 [Rec’d June 19] The Minister in Denmark to the Secretary of State. Statement on trade conditions; difficulty in obtaining accurate statistics showing that receipt of American exports is less than needed. 398
493 June 13 [Rec’d June 27] The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State. Report on restraint upon commerce between the United States and the Netherlands. 399
June 29 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits proclamation of June 27 supplementing previous contraband proclamations. 405
195 July 3 [Rec’d July 5] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Great Britain will not repudiate promise to American Transatlantic Co. Trusts that discussion of legal points will be postponed until cases have come before the prize court. 405
2115 June 21 [Rec’d July 6] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits prize court judgment in the Joseph W. Fordney case. 406
4532 July 6 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Government ready to give consideration to concrete cases of U. S. shipments consigned to Oversea Trust which have been placed in prize court. 407

british order in council and french decree of july 7, 1916, withdrawing all recognition of the declaration of london and proclaiming other rules—the inclusion of american firms in the “statutory list” (july 19, 1916)

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1479 July 8 [Rec’d July 9] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). French and British Governments will discontinue observance of Declaration of London and will be guided by principles of international law instead. 408
647 June 23 [Rec’d July 11] The Chargé in Sweden to the Secretary of State. Government withholds information regarding imports as it might tend to affect interests of Sweden adversely. 408
[Page LXV]3488 June 29 [Rec’d July 17] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits German memorandum respecting British illegal measures against neutral firms which maintain commercial relations with Germany. 409
July 19 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits proclamation blacklisting 85 concerns in the United States. 411
July 20 Memorandum of the Acting Secretary of State. Discussion with Spring Rice of the subject of the blacklisting of U. S. firms and probable danger of litigation. 411
July 22 Memorandum of the Acting Secretary of State. Further discussion with Spring Rice of subject of blacklisting. 412
4600 July 22 [Rec’d July 23] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Will make mitigating suggestions regarding British blacklisting of American firms. 412
4181 July 10 [Rec’d July 24] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits text of the Maritime Rights Order in Council of July 7, 1916, with explanatory memorandum. 413
July 22 [Rec’d July 24] The Norwegian Minister to the Acting Secretary of State. Asks if the United States has requested an explanation of Great Britain regarding blacklisting. Desires to be informed of any further steps. 415
3392 July 11 [Rec’d July 25] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State. Transmits text of decree of July 7 repealing previous decrees relating to the Declaration of London, with report of reasons therefor. 416
523 July 20 [Rec’d July 25] The Russian Ambassador to the Acting Secretary of State. Russia joins with England and France in denouncing the Declaration of London. 418
July 21 [Rec’d July 25] The Swedish Minister to the Acting Secretary of State. Inquires as to course the United States will take regarding the British blacklisting of American firms. 418
July 25 Memorandum of the Acting Secretary of State. Spring Rice explains intention of blacklisting act and will communicate U. S. objections to his Government. 419
4606 July 25 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggested to Cecil that British officials in the United States be authorized to remove names of shippers from black list when good reason is shown. 420
[Page LXVI]4610 July 26 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Lord Robert Cecil explains the statutory black-list act and gives assurance that injustice will be avoided. 420

protest of july 26, 1916, against the blacklisting of american firms

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3578 July 26 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Formal note protesting against the enemy-trading act. 421
4292 July 19 [Rec’d July 31] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note refusing bunker coal to ships of the American Transatlantic Co. 422
2308 July 21 [Rec’d July 31] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Statutory and black lists, and reasons for placing certain firms thereon. Encloses British note to American Ambassador. 423
July 29 [Rec’d July 31] The British Embassy to the Department of State. Difficulties of the Chinese Prince, which arrived at Manila short of cargo seized by British at Penang. Asks cancellation of bond required of owners. 424
July 28 [Rec’d Aug. 1] The Swedish Minister to the Acting Secretary of State. Swedish Government ready to cooperate in rectifying unsatisfactory conditions due to British blacklisting. 425
Aug. 1 The Acting Secretary of State to the Swedish Minister. Forwards copy of note to British Government on the black list; in individual cases some modification of blacklisting has been secured. 426
Aug. 1 The Acting Secretary of State to the Norwegian Minister. Sends copy of note to Great Britain regarding the enemy-trading act. Will keep him informed of further action. 426
July 25 [Rec’d Aug. 4] The Swedish Minister to the Secretary of State. The Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish Governments have informed Great Britain and France that they reserve the right to protest against new maritime rules. 427
1517 Aug. 7 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits French notification of lists of persons and firms with whom transactions are forbidden. 427
Aug. 9 The Consul General at Guayaquil to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grace & Co. ships refuse cargo belonging to blacklisted Americans. Requests instructions regarding refusal of bills of health. 428
[Page LXVII]2308 Aug. 4 [Rec’d Aug. 14] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Further discussion of statutory and black lists and of cases of Albert Herskovits & Co. and J. Aron & Co. 428
1281 Aug. 15 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. British statement regarding vessels of American Transatlantic Co. is not clear. Company has complied with British conditions. 429

protests against the denial of bunker coal to american vessels not on the “white list” (cases of the “rizal” and “charlton hall”) and against interference with philippine commerce (cases of the “chinese prince”, “kafue”, and “aymeric”)

[Page LXIX]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3687 Aug. 15 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). The Rizal, carrying Philippine cargo, was refused coal at Colombo; no grounds for interference. 430
4057 Aug. 16 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain. American Transatlantic Co. complained of difficulty in obtaining employment for its vessels because of black list, not of failure to obtain bunker coal. 430
Aug. 16 The Department of State to the British Embassy. Protests seizure of goods on the Chinese Prince and the Kafue, and reserves rights of reclamation for damages. 431
Aug. 17 The Secretary of State to Representative Claude Kitchin. Brief history of British blacklisting and U. S. action taken regarding it. 432
3703 Aug. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). The taking up of individual cases of American firms on black list is not an admission of correctness of Great Britain’s course. 435
3710 Aug. 19 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to investigate statement that the securing of bunker coal is conditioned upon the promise not to sell or time-charter vessels without the consent of the British Government. 435
659 July 29 [Rec’d Aug. 24] The Chargé in Sweden to the Secretary of State. Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Spain are presenting, in identic notes, a formal reservation of rights to England and France in respect to their action regarding the Declaration of London. 435
3736 Aug. 25 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits request of F. E. Childs Co. for assistance in shipment of cocoa from Guayaquil with instructions to insist upon it. 436
[Page LXVIII]3741 Aug. 25 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). The Charlton Hall is refused coal at Colombo. 436
Aug. 29 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at Guayaquil (telegram). This Department has no authority to refuse bills of health to steamers refusing to carry cargo of blacklisted firms. 437
4063 Aug. 30 [Rec’d Aug. 31] The Netherland Minister to the Secretary of State. Forwards copies of Netherland notes of protest to British, French, and German Governments regarding revision of their maritime laws. 437
4814 Sept. 1 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Rizal received bunker coal at Colombo after charterers assented to British conditions. 439
4823 Sept. 4 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Consul at Guayaquil instructed to facilitate the shipment of cocoa to F. E. Childs Co., Inc. 439
4830 Sept. 4 [Rec’d Sept. 5] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note promising to give attention to representations regarding names on statutory list. 440
4848 Sept. 6 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Charlton Hall has been granted bunker coal at Colombo and the same facilities ordered for her at Suez or Port Said. 440
Sept. 7 The Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy. Certificates signed by British consular officers required for exports from Philippines to United Kingdom. Inquires if this has the sanction of his Government. 440
3806 Sept. 8 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to inquire as to British conditions for granting bunkering facilities to neutral ships. 441
3809 Sept. 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to request explanation of British interference with shipments between American ports: Cases of the Aymeric, the Chinese Prince, and the Kafue. 441
3558 Aug. 26 [Rec’d Sept.11] The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State. Forwards French instructions to representatives abroad relative to the issuance of certificates of nationality to persons doing business with France or her colonies. 441
Sept. 11 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). No further permits for shipment of certain goods will be issued at present to Scandinavian countries, owing to oversupply for normal use. 443
4878 Set. 12 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The British explain that the white list comprises neutral vessels whose owners have accepted certain conditions imposed by Great Britain. 443

acts of congress authorizing retaliation against measures detrimental to american commerce (september 7 and 8, 1916)—british protest against these acts

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3839 Sept. 16 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to investigate report of the closing of Scandinavia and Netherlands to U. S. commerce, and its relation to the retaliatory legislation by recent Congress. 444
4897 Sept. 16 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office explains notice that shipowners who have accepted certain British conditions may receive bunkering facilities. 444
Undated [Rec’d Sept.17] The British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington. British protest against the acts of Congress authorizing retaliation against measures detrimental to American commerce. 445

american protest of september 18, 1916, against the rules of the order in council of july 7, 1916—the requirement of “certificates of interest” for goods exported from the philippine islands to territories of the british empire

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4191 Sept. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain. Protest against the Maritime Rights Order in Council of July 7, 1916, as at variance with practice of nations; rights of the United States reserved. 446
Sept. 19 [Rec’d Sept.20] The British Embassy to the Department of State. Goods seized on the Chinese Prince and Kafue have been released. 447
Sept. 19 [Rec’d Sept.20] The Commerical Adviser of the British Embassy to the Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Explains the necessity for certificates required for exports from the Philippines to the United Kingdom. 447
[Page LXX]4915 Sept. 20 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British restriction on shipments to Scandinavia and Holland bears no relation to recent legislation in Congress. 448
4920 Sept. 21 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Conditions for granting bunkering facilities are the same as those for inclusion in the white list. 449
Sept. 23 [Rec’d Sept. 25] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Instructions have been issued for the release of goods removed from the Aymeric at Hongkong. 449
Sept. 28 The Secretary of State to the Counselor of the British Embassy. Objects to Sir Richard Crawford’s discussion of blacklisting with U. S. citizens in lieu of diplomatic discussion. 450
Sept. 29 [Rec’d Sept. 30] The Counselor of the British Embassy to the Secretary of State. Sir Richard Crawford had no intention of substituting private conversation for diplomatic discussion. 450
4810 Sept. 19 [Rec’d Oct. 2] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British reply to complaint that the American Transatlantic Co. is deprived of business by the black list. 452
Oct. 4 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Proclamation of Oct. 3, 1916, giving additions to and changes in the contraband list. 453
Sept. 28 [Rec’d Oct. 9] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits circular issued by the Foreign Office, Sept. 25, 1916, regarding certificates required of specified countries trading with the British Empire. 453
3908 Oct. 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Lord Cecil’s interview with the press regarding the black list, while negotiations on the subject were in progress, has created an unfavorable impression. 454
3913 Oct. 10 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Complains that the Pathfinder is delayed at Trinidad, awaiting permit from London for bunker coal. 455
[Page LXXI]

british notes in defense of the black list and in reply to the american protest of september 18, 1916—further correspondence regarding restrictions on bunker coal (case of the “pathfinder”)

[Page LXXII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
5003 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 12] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Official reply gives five points in support of blacklisting policy, but British realize American black list was a blunder. 455
3936 Oct. 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to endeavor to hasten consideration on export of certain drugs to Merck & Co. 456
5014 Oct. 13 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British will reduce black list in the United States; will not discriminate against its trade after the war. 456
5021 Oct. 14 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests a compromise plan to secure the removal of the black list. 456
Oct. 16 [Rec’d Oct. 18] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Denies that warning of black list was given to U. S. coal dealers; encloses British regulations of Oct. 1915 regarding bunker coal for neutral vessels. 457
4351 Oct. 18 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Instructions to renew request for removal of vessels of American Transatlantic Co. from black list. 459
5049 Oct. 19 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office requests its Government to authorize the granting of bunkers to the Pathfinder. 460
3962 Oct. 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Time not opportune for suggesting compromise regarding black list. 460
4988 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 24] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British reply to note on Maritime Rights Order in Council of 1916. 461
5021 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 24] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note in justification of the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1915. 461
Oct. 23 [Rec’d Oct. 25] The Secretary of Commerce to the Secretary of State. Transmits a memorandum on the means of combating foreign restrictions on commerce and a statement on the export of ammunition. 466
3980 Oct. 26 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Communicates a report of the Transatlantic Co. in the Hocking and Genesee cases; instructions to renew representations for release of the vessels. 479
5089 Oct. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 31] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report of a conversation with Lord Cecil on the coaling of U. S. ships in the British West Indies. 480
5107 Nov. 2 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Lord Robert Cecil gives assurance that inquiry is being made into the case of Merck & Co. 480
2989 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Forwards copy of his letter to Rothermel who has been warned by the British blacklisting department to have no dealings with Trompenberg of Amsterdam. 481
2931 Oct. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits copies of letters from Procurator General regarding seizure of U. S. goods consigned to Netherlands Oversea Trust, with comments. 482

reservation of american rights in connection with the abolition of the distinction between absolute and conditional contraband, november 11, 1916—refusal of the united states to resort to british courts for maintenance of national rights—prize court decisions upholding the legality of the order in council of march 11, 1915 (cases of the “stigstad” and “united states”)

[Page LXXIII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4467 Nov. 11 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. The same to the Ambassadors in France, Italy, and Russia. Formal reservation of rights in respect of American interests as affected by abolition of distinction between absolute and conditional contraband. 483
5169 Nov. 16 [Rec’d Nov.17] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British suggestion that Polk be sent to London to assist in reducing the black list. 484
Nov. 10 [Rec’d Nov. 21] The Vice Consul at London to the Secretary of State. Report on shipping detentions at Kirkwall during October. 484
4502 Nov. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. U. S. Government will not resort to British courts for maintenance of its national rights infringed upon by British orders in council. 485
4082 Nov. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Department’s work too pressing for Polk to go to London. Suggests that Crawford be empowered to act in Washington. 485
Nov. 25 The Vice Consul at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Great Britain declares additional articles of contraband. 486
5219 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Calls attention to the conciliatory attitude of the British toward the black-list controversy. Repeats British suggestion that Polk visit London. 486
5224 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Substance of the Foreign Office note on treatment of American Transatlantic Company’s ships. 487
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 6] The British Embassy to the Department of State. British memorandum explaining that, owing to tonnage shortage, coaling facilities are reserved for British and Allied ships and for such others as are utilized to their advantage. 489
Dec. 15 The Secretary of State to Mr. Carl S. Stern. Requests facts regarding British discrimination in giving letters of assurance for shipments of cotton to Scandinavia. 489
Dec. 16 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at London (telegram). Desires prize court decision on legality of provision of order in council under which non-contraband goods have been seized on ground of enemy destination. 490
Dec. 23 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Proclamation requiring that articles exported to Holland, with certain exceptions, be consigned to Dutch Government or Oversea Trust. 490
3281 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 26] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Claims may be presented in writing to prize court without intercession of local counsel; judgments may be obtained with practically no expense. 490
Dec. 18 [Rec’d Jan. 2, 1917] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits latest revised list of ships blacklisted by British. 491
[Page LXXIV]3327 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Jan. 2, 1917] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Prize court decision on Stigstad case deals with validity of order in council whereunder goods presumably destined for belligerent countries may be detained in the United Kingdom; comments thereon. 492
3355 Dec. 28 [Rec’d Jan. 10, 1917] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits judgment of prize court in case of the vessel United States, defining captor’s rights to shipments in transitu. 494

Informal Arrangements with Great Britain and Her Allies Regarding the Exportation of American Goods to Enemy and Neutral European Countries

british “letters of assurance” to american shippers

[Page LXXV]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Mar. 9 [Rec’d Mar. 11] The Assistant Secretary of Commerce to the Secretary of State. An office has been established at the British Embassy at Washington to furnish letters of assurance to facilitate passage of shipments. British circular of March 4 enclosed. 496
May 20 The Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy. Asks for more liberal issuance of letters of assurance to shippers of certain products. 497
May 23 [Rec’d May 24] The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Has called attention of Foreign Office to unsatisfactory issuance of letters of assurance to shippers. 497
July 6 The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). Inquires if letters of assurance for shipments to Greece shall pass through local British or French consulates only. 498
July 7 Mr. Carl S. Stern to the Secretary of State. Points out difficulties attendant upon issuance of letters of assurance; suggests that the Government take action to obtain prompt discontinuance. 498
July 8 The Acting Secretary of State to the Consul at Saloniki (telegram). Department has not given approval to arrangements for letters of assurance issued by British. U. S. consuls in Greece should have nothing to do with requests for them. 499
July 11 The Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to Mr. Carl S. Stern. The subject of interference with neutral trade is being given careful consideration by the Department. 499
287 Oct. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 7] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State. Transmits the suggestion that letters of assurance be arranged direct between Norway and England in order to avoid delay and expense. 500
Dec. 9 The Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy. Forwards the suggestion received from Norway regarding letters of assurance. 501
Dec. 11 The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Recommends that suggestions from Norway be made through Norwegian Financial Department. 502

shipments of fruit

[Page LXXVI]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3197 Feb. 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Points out the discrimination against American fruit to the advantage of Spain and other Mediterranean countries. 502
3223 Mar. 14 [Rec’d Mar. 31] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note on arrangements for shipment of fruit from the Mediterranean to the Oversea Trust. 503
July 7 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Danish Merchants’ Guild requested not to submit further applications for import permits for shipments of dried fruit, because of excessive importations over ration allotted by the British. 504
Sept. 1 [Rec’d Sept. 13] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Shipments of fresh apples to acceptable consignees in Scandinavia, not subject to interference. 504
2725 Sept. 14 [Rec’d Sept. 25] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Further restrictions on shipment of fresh fruit. 505
Oct. 18 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). British will raise no objection to shipments of fresh apples to Scandinavia with usual guarantee and restrictions. 506

shipments of tobacco

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2713 Dec. 20, 1915 [Rec’d Jan. 4] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. British do not propose to extend non-interference to shipments of tobacco destined for consignees suspected of trading with the enemy. 506
Jan. 10 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. British Government agrees not to interfere with tobacco shipped to neutrals. Suggests inspection of such shipments by customs officers to prevent smuggling of contraband. 507
3587 Jan. 15 [Rec’d Jan. 16] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Tobacco extracts and substitutes must be consigned to Oversea Trust. 507
Feb. 19 [Rec’d Feb. 21] The Assistant Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. Will provide for supervision of packing of tobacco in order to guard against contraband; also will caution collectors of customs to secure accuracy in manifests. 508
Mar. 6 The Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. British will request the opening of an occasional bale of tobacco to guard against concealed contraband. Asks if this can be done. 508
Mar. 10 [Rec’d Mar. 13] The Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. Inspection of tobacco intended for shipment. Requests attitude towards Geyer’s shipments from Government-bonded warehouses. 509
Mar. 18 The Acting Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Shipment of tobacco from Geyer & Co. allowed to proceed without inspection. 510
Apr. 10 [Rec’d Apr. 12] The Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. Instructions sent to collectors of customs regarding issuance of certificates for tobacco from customs-bonded warehouses. 510
4507 June 29 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The British Government will not continue to permit unrestricted importation of tobacco into enemy countries. 510
[Page LXXVII]3543 July 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Complains of change in British policy regarding tobacco; urges continuance of former arrangement for shipments. 511
3549 July 21 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Informed that tobacco must now be consigned to Oversea Trust. Requests that shipments on the way be not interfered with. 511
4661 Aug. 5 [Rec’d Aug. 6] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). American tobacco now on high seas or loading, not required to be consigned to Oversea Trust. 512
3654 Aug. 9 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Insists that assurance be given of non-interference with tobacco contracted for prior to notice of change in British attitude. 512
4755 Aug. 22 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British extend concession so that tobacco purchased prior to Aug. 4 and shipped before Aug. 31 need not be consigned to Oversea Trust nor covered by guarantee for Scandinavia. 512
3727 Aug. 23 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Asks that time for shipment of tobacco already contracted for be extended. 513
Aug. 24 The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Tobacco shipments made before Aug. 31 and paid for before Aug. 4 need not be consigned to Oversea Trust or have consignee’s guarantee. 513
Aug. 29 The Conference of Tobacco Growers of the United States to the Secretary of State. Protest against British withdrawal from agreement to permit tobacco free entry into neutral ports. 514
3767 Aug. 31 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). In view of Germany’s notice prohibiting importation of tobacco, urges removal of British requirement regarding consignment and guarantee. 516
4828 Sept. 4 [Rec’d Sept. 5] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office will not extend further facilities for shipment of tobacco. Other neutral countries subject to same requirements. 516
[Page LXXVIII]4902 Sept. 18 The Chargé in. Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Substance of British note refusing to remove restrictions on tobacco and discrediting Germany’s act of prohibition. 517
Sept. 23 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Agreement regarding tobacco is construed by Foreign Office to mean tobacco paid for by European importers only. Broader construction desired regarding tobacco afloat. 517
3860 Sept. 23 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Explanation of tobacco situation showing why change of methods has brought no relief. Urges relaxation of restriction. 517
3967 Oct. 21 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Tobacco detained at Copenhagen. Instructions to lay complaints of shippers before the Foreign Office. 518
5076 Oct. 26 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note permitting bona fide contracts for tobacco made before July 15 to be shipped without consignment to Oversea Trust or guarantee under certain conditions. 519
3991 Oct. 30 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Acknowledges receipt of British memorandum of Oct. 26 concerning tobacco shipments. 519
4048 Nov. 16 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Repeats communication from U. S. Minister at Copenhagen that tobacco is being held because of inability to comply with British regulations. Instructions to urge its release. 520
4110 Dec. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to insist upon the release of tobacco exposed and deteriorating in Copenhagen. 520
4132 Dec. 5 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge that tobacco be allowed to go forward to neutral countries without restrictions as to ultimate destination. 520
5271 Dec. 5 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Government unable to make further concessions regarding tobacco. 521
4144 Dec. 7 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Department has never understood that later arrangements regarding tobacco were intended to supplant previous assurances. Urges vigorous representations. 521
[Page LXXIX]5355 Dec. 21 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office states that later concessions were intended to operate in substitution of previous arrangements concerning tobacco. 522
5359 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Foreign Office is unable to make further concessions regarding shipments of tobacco. Importation of Dutch colonial tobacco into Holland is to be curtailed. 522

Informal Arrangements Regarding the Importation of Goods From Germany and Austria-Hungary

goods ordered before march 1, 1915

[Page LXXX]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2714 Jan. 14 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Regarding goods ordered from Germany and Austria-Hungary before Mar. 1, 1915, British Embassy urges speedy action on cases recommended. 523
3658 Jan. 28 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Gives reasons why investigation of complaints regarding goods ordered from Germany and Austria-Hungary is delayed in Foreign Office. 523
2838 Feb. 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Embassy states that on Jan. 18 nearly 150 importation cases were awaiting decision of the Foreign Office. Immediate decision urged. 524
3782 Feb. 15 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report on the number of importation cases awaiting decision of the Foreign Office and the number already dealt with. 524
3068 Mar. 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Protest against British excuses for the refusal of permits for the shipment of German cotton goods. 524
4012 Mar. 24 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that protest be made to British Ambassador at Washington, citing specific cases of refusal of permits for German cotton goods; or that more definite information be sent to him. 525
Mar. 25 [Rec’d Mar. 27] The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Counselor for the Department of State. Permits to bring out from neutral ports goods of enemy origin will be granted for goods genuinely ordered before Mar. 1, 1915; date can not be extended. 525
Apr. 18 [Rec’d Apr. 19] The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Foreign Office fixes the dates on which permits to move enemy goods must lapse. 526
Apr. 29 The Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy. Requests extension of time for firms which may be unable to obtain shipment of goods from Rotterdam within the time specified. 526
May 16 [Rec’d May 17] The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Issue by British consular authorities at neutral ports of permits for the shipment of goods must be made on or before date of expiration of the permit. 527
3385 June 2 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Plans to send Wyvell of Foreign Trade Adviser’s office to London to explain certain applications for assurances of non-interference with importations of German and Austrian goods. 527
4448 June 12 [Rec’d June 13] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that he take up with Lord Robert Cecil cases of application for assurance of non-interference with goods of enemy origin instead of Wyvell. 528
3451 June 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Foreign Office agreeable to have Wyvell go to London to aid in presenting importation cases. Only necessary to secure a hearing for him before proper officials. 528
4493 June 23 [Rec’d June 24] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British discouragement of Wyvell’s visit; further concessions regarding enemy exports impossible. 529
3468 June 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). No stone should be left unturned to secure justice to exporters against blockade measures. 530
3594 July 31 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Embassy suggests that only a limited number of cases be presented by Wyvell. Instructions to try to secure recognition of all meritorious cases. 530
[Page LXXXI]4647 Aug. 2 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Wyvell has 150 (importation) cases, many of which can be classifled and considered in groups. Others require individual consideration. 531
4695 Aug. 10 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Wyvell’s report on importation cases submitted to Cecil. 531
3663 Aug. 11 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Official sanction given Wyvell to present (importation) cases to Foreign Office for consideration. 531
4793 Aug. 30 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Wyvell’s report on finished work (importation cases). 532
4860 Sept. 9 The Chargé in Great. Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Wyvell’s final report on (importation) cases submitted. 532
4549 Dec. 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Expresses disappointment at favorable decision of only one importation case of the thirty presented by Wyvell; renews request for release of nine others. 532
Dec. 19 The Acting Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State to Mr. A. W. Faber. The Harrison Glove Co. case the only importation case granted. 533

importation of sugar-beet seed

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2748 Jan. 19 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge substitute shipping permits for sugar-beet seed now at Rotterdam. 534
3636 Jan. 24 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Government reluctant to grant further permits for shipment of sugar-beet seed not covered by existing permits. 534
2779 Jan. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). It is desired that the British Government issue permits for an amount of beet seed not in excess of existing permits. 534
[Page LXXXII]3760 Feb. 11 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Government will issue new permits for specified quantity of beet seed when shipments reach Rotterdam ready for loading. 535
3040 Feb. 11 [Rec’d Feb. 23] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note stating that all outstanding permits for shipment of beet seed will be canceled, and new permits issued. Comments thereon. 535
3764 Aug. 31 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Requests permit for shipment of beet seed now in Rotterdam for Michigan Sugar Co. 536
4888 Sept. 13 [Rec’d Sept. 14] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note stating that request for permit for shipment of beet seed to Michigan Sugar Co. must be considered and French Government consulted. 537
3840 Sept. 16 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to insist upon permit for shipment of beet seed to Michigan Sugar Co. and to DeRekowski, and to urge blanket permit covering U. S. normal requirements, as in fulfilment of agreement. 537
4916 Sept. 20 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Finds no record of agreement regarding blanket permit for shipment of beet seed. 538
3855 Sept. 22 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Stabler (Secretary of Embassy) states that informal understanding regarding blanket permit for beet seed was reached with Cadogan. 538
3919 Oct. 11 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to hasten action on permit of beet seed in view of previous understanding: large industry dependent on it. 538
5023 Oct. 16 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Misunderstanding regarding beet seed. British Government will issue no blanket permits for shipment of goods of enemy origin. Allies being consulted on subject of beet seed. 538
3956 Oct. 18 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge action on permit for shipment of beet seed to Michigan Sugar Co., omitting reference to previous understanding in the matter. 539
3996 Nov. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to present to the Foreign Office his belief that the facts in the case support Stabler’s version of the unrecorded Stabler-Cadogan agreement. 539
[Page LXXXIII]4009 Nov. 2 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Foreign Office must have confirmed shipment to Wisconsin Sugar Co. under general assurances given Stabler. Urges action on Michigan Sugar Co. and DeRekowski cases. 540
5171 Nov. 17 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Substance of British note: No record of assurances for future shipments of beet seed; permit given to Wisconsin Sugar Co. on special application of the United States. 540
4075 Nov. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge prompt and favorable action authorizing shipments of sugar-beet seed. 541
5223 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that unrecorded agreement be disregarded in negotiating for shipment of beet seed. 541
4117 Dec. 2 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Department will accept Foreign Office explanation of Stabler-Cadogan agreement and will not invoke it with reference to future shipments provided uninterrupted shipments to DeRekowski and Michigan Sugar Co. are allowed. 542
5290 Dec. 7 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that Department’s acceptance of Foreign Office explanation of the Stabler-Cadogan agreement can not be used as a means of inducing facilities for shipment. 542
4250 Jan. 5, 1917 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Prompt and favorable action expected on shipments of beet seed to Michigan Sugar Co. and to DeRekowski. Will not regard case as a precedent in discussion of future shipments. 543
5537 Jan. 24, 1917 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). As a special concession, British authorize release of beet seed to DeRekowski and Michigan Sugar Co. 543

importation of drugs

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3497 July 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Permit for shipment of novocaine and salvarsan already at Rotterdam, regarded as lapsed. Instructions to urge uninterrupted shipment. 544
[Page LXXXIV]3650 Aug. 8 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to press for early reply to representations regarding shipment of salvarsan and novocaine. 544
4678 Aug. 8 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British authorize shipment of salvarsan. Permit for novocaine has lapsed and cannot be renewed. 545
3709 Aug. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Explains delay in obtaining drugs and urgent need for them in the United States. Instructions to endeavor to obtain uninterrupted shipment. 545
4845 Sept. 6 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British will allow specific amount of novocaine to pass. Points out that delay has been caused by action of Germany. 546

importation of dyes

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2533 Dec. 3, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to draw attention to the urgent need for dyestuffs, requesting consent for safe passage to the Republic Trading Corp. as consignee instead of to William A. Mitchell. 546
2489 Dec. 10, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Desires restatement of present attitude of German Government as to exportation of dyestuffs. 547
2583 Dec. 14, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiry regarding British conditions for exportation of dyestuffs. Agreements for distribution through Republic Trading Corp. 547
Dec. 14, 1915 [Rec’d Dec. 15] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). German Government’s attitude regarding exportation of dyestuffs remains unchanged. 547
3407 Dec. 17, 1915 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Conditions for shipment of dyestuffs unchanged. Permission granted for two shiploads of dyes, on understanding that they are already paid for by cotton shipment: 547
3411 Dec. 17, 1915 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British request assurance that U. S. Government approves proposed change in consignment of dyestuffs from Mitchell to Republic Trading Corp. 548
[Page LXXXV]2644 Dec. 28, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests cancellation of permit for shipment of dyestuffs to Mitchell. Need for a replace permit for an equal amount of dyestuffs to be paid for in cash. 548
479 Jan. 12 The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State (telegram). Message from the Commercial Attaché to the Department of Commerce: Germans willing to ship dyestuffs if British will give assurance of non-interference. 549
2709 Jan. 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge early reply on dyestuffs, in view of urgent need in the United States. 549
3586 Jan. 15 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office understood that dyestuffs had been paid for with cotton already shipped. Necessary to know to whom further should be consigned, and price. 549
2739 Jan. 18 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Further representations regarding issuance of permits for material necessary for American industries, and attitude of U. S. citizens. 550
487 Jan. 19 The Chargé in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits message from the Commercial Attaché to Department of Commerce stating that he might obtain 800 tons of dyestuffs if British will guarantee non-interference. 550
2759 Jan. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). It is desired that cargoes of dyestuffs estimated at five million dollars be shipped from Germany. Urges early action. 551
2621 Jan. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Several bills introduced in Congress for protection of dye industry. Instructions to use this information. 551
2967 Jan. 31 [Rec’d Feb. 17] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note stating that if cotton shipped to Germany has been paid for in the United States in cash, British Government will not object to payment in Germany for two cargoes of dyestuffs. 551
2915 Feb. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to request permit for dyestuffs. It would relieve irritation against Great Britain, although improbable that Germany will lift embargo. 552
[Page LXXXVI]3850 Feb. 25 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British consider their undertaking of Jan. 28 not to interfere with shipment of dyes, the same as a permit. 552
2811 Mar. 15 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to again request permission for exportation of dyestuffs: British have assured non-interference. 553
3634 Mar. 16 [Rec’d Mar. 17] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that bills to protect U. S. dyestuff industry be introduced in Congress as the best method of obtaining dyes from Germany. 553
2828 Mar. 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Bill to protect U. S. dyestuffs industry now before Congress. German Ambassador has informed his Government dyestuffs should be released without exchange of commodities for cash payment. 553
A2888 Apr. 20 [Rec’d Apr. 21] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Is authorized to arrange for export from Germany to the United States of 15,000 tons of dyestuffs upon guarantee of safe delivery and precaution against reexportation. 553
Apr. 24 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Acknowledges note expressing Germany’s willingness to release certain dyestuffs. 554
May 13 The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Acting Secretary of State. German policy in regard to exportation of dyestuffs has caused British withdrawal of permit to ship two cargoes. 555
3316 May 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge continuance of undertaking of non-interference with shipment of dyestuffs to Republic Trading Corp. 556
May 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy. Restates U. S. understanding of dyestuffs case. Sees no basis for British change of attitude towards their assurances previously issued. 557
3359 May 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to urge that uninterrupted shipment of dyestuffs be allowed under previous permit. 558
[Page LXXXVII]3380 May 31 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Can not understand attitude of British regarding permits for dyestuffs; desires immediate assurance that they will come forward at once. 558
4420 June 5 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits official note declaring that permit to ship dyes has not been used and has now lapsed. Awaits further instructions. 559
3399 June 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to renew representations and recall definite agreement of British Government to allow certain shipment of dyes. 559
June 8 [Rec’d June 9] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Germany ready to ship dyestuffs as requested, subject to assurances of safe transit. 559
4467 June 16 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Final decision is that, permits for shipment of dyestuffs having lapsed, British can not consider fresh concessions under conditions which have now changed. 560
Oct. 30 The Counselor for the Department of State to the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy. Refers to his note of May 24 and sends a memorandum of facts regarding dyestuffs. 561

importation of sodium cyanide

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2632 Dec. 27, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to request uninterrupted shipment of sodium cyanide to Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co. 561
2694 Jan. 11 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Urges early reply regarding cyanide, in view of great need. 562
3710 Feb. 4 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British and French Governments cannot allow shipments of sodium cyanide. 562
2850 Feb. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Cites indispensability of cyanide; instructions to request prompt reconsideration of refusal to allow its export from Germany. 562
[Page LXXXVIII]2939 Feb. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Little cyanide available in Uruguay; instructions to ask again in name of Department, that uninterrupted shipment of cyanide be granted. 563
3896 Mar. 1 [Rec’d Mar. 2] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British position regarding sodium cyanide. Ambassador at Washington instructed to explain situation. 563
3006 Mar. 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Again requests cyanide permit; refusal would have serious consequences. 564
3928 Mar. 9 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Ambassador, Washington, instructed to explain to Department reason why British Government denies cyanide to Roessler & Hasslacher. 564
3023 Mar. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Ambassador has assured uninterrupted shipment of necessary articles. Unless immediate permits are granted for cyanide, matter will be taken up by Congress. 564
3949 Mar. 14 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grey has promised to give early consideration to the subject of shipments of cyanide. 565
3084 Mar. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to press for immediate reply regarding Mitchell-Bissell application for porcelain guides and for cyanide. 565
3330 Mar. 27 [Rec’d Apr. 15] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note giving reasons for objection to shipment of German cyanide. 565

importation of porcelain guides for textile machinery

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3629 Jan. 24 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Permits for porcelain guides for Mitchell-Bissell have been granted. No record of request for other guides. 566
2778 Jan. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). New application of Mitchell-Bissell Co. for permits for porcelain guides. 567
3653 Undated [Rec’d Jan. 27] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office has cabled the Embassy that new permit for Mitchell-Bissell for porcelain guides has been refused. 567
[Page LXXXIX]2805 Jan. 31 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Urgent request for reconsideration of refusal of permit to Mitchell-Bissell for porcelain guides and for cyanide. 567
2849 Feb. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Refusal of permit for porcelain guides and cyanide would cause unfavorable impression in the United States. 568
2912 Feb. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests immediate reply regarding porcelain guides. 568
3841 Feb. 23 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports a reconsideration of subject of porcelain guides. 568
3007 Mar. 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to inform Foreign Office that delay in shipment of porcelain guides and cyanide is causing inestimable harm. 568
4042 Mar. 27 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note stating that the Government, after careful reconsideration, is unable to reverse its original decision to refuse permits for the shipment of German porcelain guides. 569
Apr. 8 The Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy to the Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of State. Permits have been granted Mitchell-Bissell Co. to import certain cases of porcelain guides from Germany on condition specified. 569
4607 Dec. 27 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Instructions to request non-interference with further shipment of porcelain guides on broad basis of urgent need of U. S. industries. 570
5748 Feb. 2, 1917 [Rec’d Feb. 13] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note stating that the Government is unable to give any undertaking in regard to further shipment of porcelain guides. 570

importation of machine knitting needles

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3676 May 29 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. National Association of Hosiery and Underwear Manufacturers, Inc., request uninterrupted shipment of knitting needles on the ground of urgent need. 571
[Page XC]3750 Aug. 28 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Urges early and favorable reply to request with regard to knitting needles. 572
3844 Sept. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Points out serious conditions which threaten knitting industry for want of needles. Urges release. 572
4706 Sept. 6 [Rec’d Sept.18] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note stating that Great Britain can supply knitting needles and asks for samples of needles required. 572
4947 Sept. 27 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Government unwilling to grant facilities for needles from Germany since United Kingdom can supply them. 573
Oct. 7 The Acting Secretary of State to the Consul General at London (telegram). Instructions to make inquiries about supplies and classes of available knitting needles and to send names of British dealers. 573
Oct. 10 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Exportation of hosiery needles is prohibited to all non-British destinations. Reasons. 574
Oct. 14 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at London (telegram). Information regarding U. S. requirements for knitting needles. 574
Oct. 20 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports that a very limited surplus of needles can be supplied to the United States on account of embargo. 574
2983 Oct. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. German needles have been imported for British trade from the beginning of the war, but Procurator General refuses to release or sell those held in prize court. 575
1507 Nov. 10 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at London. Instructions to substantiate statements regarding importation of German needles for British trade. 575
4512 Nov. 25 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. No possibility of British firms supplying U. S. demand for needles. Instructions to urge action looking to relief of pressing need for German supply. 576
[Page XCI]4533 Dec. 4 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. The style of hosiery needles that Great Britain can supply is very little used in the United States. 576
3339 Dec. 20 [Rec’d Jan. 15, 1917] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits letters corroborating statement relative to importation of German needles into Great Britain and the supply of needles to U. S. factories. 577
4330 Jan. 24, 1917 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Bearded needles unavailable in England. English houses receiving German needles under license. Unless permit is given to ship German needles the unavoidable conclusion will be discrimination against the United States under guise of a war measure. 578
3474 Jan. 17, 1917 [Rec’d Jan. 30] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. German needles are imported into England with the consent of the Government. Encloses Procurator General’s letter regarding such importation. 579
4377 Feb. 1, 1917 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Since the British Government permits the importation of German needles for British use, the Department expects non-interference with needles for the United States. 579
4432 Feb. 12, 1917 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Hosiery and underwear industry in need of needles held at Rotterdam and Copenhagen. Urges prompt release. 580
5699 Feb. 15, 1917 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note agreeing to grant permit for export of German needles to the United States. Inquires as to quantity, etc. 580

importation of hops

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2408 Nov. 4, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests arrangement for importation of hops and lupulin from Germany or Austria. 580
2476 Nov. 19, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiry regarding action concerning hops. 581
[Page XCII]3323 Dec. 1, 1915 [Rec’d Dec. 2] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Government continues to discuss with France the exportation of German and Austrian hops. 581
2665 Jan. 5 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Awaiting decision regarding hops. The Ambassador at Paris has been instructed to present the matter to the French Government. 581
1298 Jan. 5 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Proposes that shipments of German or Austrian hops be made from neutral port to Secretary of Commerce to be distributed under guarantee. 581
3606 Jan. 20 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Asks for what purpose hops and lupulin are desired and if for use of the Government. 582
1230 Jan. 21 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). France refuses to authorize free exportation of hops from Germany; may be obtained from France and Russia. 582
2765 Jan. 22 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Hops and lupulin used in brewing industry are procurable only in Germany or Austria; are not for Government use. 582
2937 Jan. 28 [Rec’d Feb. 17] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note refusing permits for German or Austrian hops on ground that they can be obtained from Russia or France. 583

Arrangements for the Regulation of Imports Made by European Neutral Countries

the netherlands oversea trust

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
311 May 11 The Secretary of State to the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Reported discrimination of Oversea Trust against American coffee. Instructions to investigate and, if true, protest. 584
472 May 16 [Rec’d May 31] The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State. Evident discrimination of Oversea Trust against U. S. trade in coffee. Encloses formal protest. Relation of Trust to British and Netherland Governments. 584
[Page XCIII]323 June 8 The Secretary of State to the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Instructions to request a statement of the relations of the Oversea Trust to the Netherland Government. 586
590 June 13 The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State (telegram). Oversea Trust is private corporation not under Government control; no intention of discriminating against America. 586
502 June 20 [Rec’d July 5] The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State. Oversea Trust is chartered by the Netherland Government but is controlled by the British Government. Encloses Loudon’s note in explanation of its operations. 586
2432 Aug. 10 [Rec’d Aug. 22] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits correspondence with U. S. Commercial Attaché at The Hague regarding coffee trade with the Netherlands through Oversea Trust. 587

the norwegian associations and the stavanger packers’ import union

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
23 Apr. 15 [Rec’d May 12] The Consul at Stavanger to the Secretary of State. Transmits report on Stavanger Packers’ Import Union. 588
281 Oct. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 3] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State. Agreement practically concluded by which Great Britain allows Norway to import a maximum quantity of foodstuffs from America. 589
5370 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 18] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits copy of letter from Norwegian Minister in Great Britain regarding agreement for importation of certain quantities of foodstuff into Norway. 590

Interference with the Mails by Belligerent Governments

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Dec. 18, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Postmaster General. The British Ambassador at Washington states that Traum Rubber Co. is forwarding by parcel post to Stockholm dental rubber and rubber sheets. 591
2657 Jan. 4 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Cites instances of British interference with U. S. mail and parcel post. Instructions to protest. 591
Jan. 11 [Rec’d Jan. 12] The Postmaster General to the Secretary of State. Inquires if the rules of contraband are applicable to parcel post between this country and Sweden. 592
[Page XCIV]3643 Jan. 25 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note stating that questions regarding seizure of mails from neutral vessels must be referred to the Allied Governments jointly. 593
Jan. 26 The Secretary of State to the Postmaster General. So far as belligerent countries are concerned, the rules which apply to merchandise sent by freight or express apply also to merchandise sent by mail. 593
Jan. 24 [Rec’d Jan. 26] The Swedish Minister to the Secretary of State. Appeal for cooperation in protesting against illegal seizure by British of mail between neutral countries. 594
Jan. 28 The Secretary of State to the Swedish Minister. Acknowledges receipt of appeal for cooperation in protest against illegal seizure of mails by the British. 595
2904 Feb. 19 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Van Dyke reports that mail from the Netherlands to the United States is being seized by the British. Instructions to request an explanation. 595
3832 Feb. 21 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British answer to protest against seizure of mail will be delivered as soon as the French reply is received. 595
Undated Form letter of the Secretary of State to consignees of parcel-post packages seized by the British. Merchandise forwarded overseas by parcel post is subject to search; non-contraband is seized. Owner may make claim before the prize court. 596
Mar. 18 The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State (telegram). Department’s understanding that innocent mail may go forward immediately is erroneous. Procurator General will proceed against certain classes of mail under appropriate order in council. 596
862 Mar. 28 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at London. Transmits form letter being sent out by the Department in reply to complaints from consignees of parcel-post packages seized by the British. 596
Apr. 3 The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits memorandum in justification of the seizure of mails on the high seas. 598
85 Apr. 3 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits memorandum in justification of the seizure of mails on the high seas. 602
[Page XCV]4162 Apr. 15 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). In order to reduce censorship delay, Foreign Office suggests that shipping documents for cargo be dispatched in special bags; also that U. S. mail to neutrals of northern Europe be dispatched through England. 603
3311 May 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Post Office Department has no objection to placing shipping documents in special bags. Prefers mail to go direct to neutral countries, relying upon non-interference by Allies. 603
1700 May 24 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. A protest against illegal seizure by British and French of mail between neutral countries. 604
June 2 [Rec’d June 5] The British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Reply to complaints of U. S. citizens against interference with mails. 608
1948 May 29 [Rec’d June 13] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Transmits official note regarding the ultimate disposition of parcel-post merchandise seized by the British, with comments. 610
July 7 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits copy of Foreign Office letter to John Scheepers & Co. in explanation of the British practice of censoring mails. 610
3538 July 19 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to press for reply to note regarding censorship of mails. 612
4599 July 22 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note and memorandum in reply to specific complaints regarding censorship of mails by the Allied Governments. 613
3560 July 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). States that the British memorandum of July 20 (censorship of mails) has been published; urges forwarding of reply of Allied Governments without further delay. 615
1512 Aug. 2 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Subject of interference with mails is being considered by French and British Governments. 615
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 10] Statement issued to the Press by the British Embassy. Explains the system of censoring mails and the causes of delay. 615
[Page XCVI]3680 Aug. 15 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Repeats telegram from Consul at Singapore stating that Manila mails have been brought there and searched. Instructions to protest. 618
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Aug. 16] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Denies that mails are searched to utilize trade secrets as a means of capturing American trade. 618
4511 Aug. 11 [Rec’d Aug. 21] The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Forwards Lloyd George’s statement that the Government is free to make use of the information found in intercepted mail. Encloses extract from parliamentary debates. 619
1553 Aug. 24 The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). French Government promises reply to note on the interference with mails by Sept. 15. 621
Sept. 20 [Rec’d Sept.21] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits Lloyd George’s statement of Sept. 15 denying that the British Government is using information obtained from the censorship for commercial purposes. 621
2728 Sept. 15 [Rec’d Sept.25] The Consul General at London to the Secretary of State. Consular letters of American origin are being opened by the censors in spite of enclosed assurance to the contrary. 622
5012 Oct. 13 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note explaining the search and seizure at Singapore of mail en route to Manila. 623
Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits memorandum of the Allies regarding mail found on merchant vessels on the high seas. 624
307 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits memorandum of the Allies regarding mail found on merchant vessels on the high seas. 629
3940 Oct. 14 The Secretary of State to the the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests information regarding censorship of mails at Kirkwall and inquires as to the number of supervisors needed in censorship service. 629
Oct. 24 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. Acknowledges receipt of French note and memorandum on the censorship of mails. 629
5134 Nov. 8 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Information regarding the censorship of mails at Kirkwall. No means of judging accurately the number of men required as supervisors. 630
[Page XCVII]

The Removal by Belligerent Naval Authorities of Enemy Subjects and Military Reservists From American Ships on the High Seas—Cases of the “China” “Ausable”, “Henry S.”, “Marcus L. Urann”, “Missourian”, and “Frederick Luckenbach

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1295 Jan. 4 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Mere release of enemy subjects seized by the Descartes not satisfactory. Requires assurance as to future attitude toward alien enemies on neutral vessels. 630
1194 Jan. 6 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Attitude of the French Government toward alien enemies on board neutral ships. 631
1301 Jan. 7 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Appreciates the efforts of France to remove causes of friction. Believes that the principles of the Trent case deny to a belligerent the right to remove from a neutral ship even paid agents of a government. 631
1222 Jan. 19 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Quotes from French note stating that the principle involved in removal of alien enemy subjects from neutral ship must be decided jointly with Great Britain. 631
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 23] The Consul at Nagasaki to the Secretary of State (telegram). The British cruiser Laurentic removed Germans, Austrians, and Turks from the China. 632
Feb. 23 The Consul General at Hongkong to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germans, taken from the China by the Laurentic, are at military detention barracks, Hongkong. 632
2924 Feb. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to insist upon the release of persons removed from the China as not being incorporated in the armed forces of the enemies of Great Britain. 632
3259 Mar. 17 [Rec’d Mar. 31] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note in justification of removal of Germans and Austrians from the China. 633
3277 Mar. 20 [Rec’d Apr. 5] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. British authorities at Kirkwall have removed from the Ausable , Third Officer Leiztritz, believed to be in the German Naval Reserve. 635
3745 Apr. 13 [Rec’d Apr. 14] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German protest regarding the surrender by a U. S. captain of a German stowaway (an escaped French captive) to an English ship for return to French authorities. 636
[Page XCVIII]3233 Apr. 22 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Seizure of persons on the China: Instructions to maintain that only military or naval persons may be removed from neutral vessels on the high seas. 637
3264 May 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to protest to British Government against seizure of Leiztritz unless shown that he was incorporated in the armed forces of Germany. 639
2968 May 3 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Declines to interfere in the case of the German stowaway found on the Missourian , and returned to France on a British steamer. 640
1919 May 4 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Inquires whether any of the persons removed from the China were incorporated in the German, Austrian, or Turkish armed forces. 640
4252 May 5 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British will release China prisoners but cannot open the door through which enemy reservists in neutral countries may reach their own countries. 640
3285 May 6 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). U. S. Government expects formal apology for affront to its flag, as well as the release of the men taken from the China. 641
3298 May 11 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to press for the release of persons taken prisoner from the Henry S. 641
4284 May 11 [Rec’d May 12] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grey states that some of the China prisoners are German reservists with false passports returning to Germany; asks that they may be retained pending the arrival of documentary proof. 641
4289 May 12 [Rec’d May 13] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British memorandum in reply to U. S. protest against the seizure of persons on the China. Comments. 642
3318 May 15 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Insists upon the release of all persons removed from the China. 644
3320 May 15 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Expresses appreciation of amicable settlement of China case. Cites similar Civil War cases. Asks when prisoners will be released. 644
A 3485 May 13 [Rec’d May 16] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. The German subjects taken from the China do not belong to the military organization. 645
[Page XCIX]4314 May 16 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grey states that, when he promised the release of the persons seized on the China, he did not know that some of them were incorporated in the enemy armed forces. 645
4320 May 18 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that our Government ask for the release of undoubted civilians removed from the China but suspend demand for others until documents arrive from the Orient. 645
4335 May 20 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has been informed by Grey that all persons from the China will be released. 646
3347 May 20 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Cannot agree to retention of China prisoners on grounds of subsequent incriminating evidence. 647
3357 May 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Pleased with release of persons seized on the China, with admission of principle contended for. Instructions to press for release of men in the Henry S. and Ausable cases. 647
4645/11 May 25 The Turkish Chargé to the Secretary of State. Ottoman subjects removed from the China are not supposed to be incorporated in the armed forces of Turkey. 648
4384 May 30 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grey states that Leiztritz confesses to being an officer in the German Naval Reserves. 648
1567 May 31 [Rec’d June 1] The Austro-Hungarian Chargé to the Secretary of State. Reports that some of the Austro-Hungarian subjects removed from the China are members of the military organization. 648
3402 June 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquires when the China prisoners will be released and what arrangements have been made for their transportation home. 649
4446 June 12 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). The China passengers are in Australia. Delay in releasing them will be investigated. 649
3436 June 17 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Denies right of the British to seize Leiztritz and urges his release. 649
[Page C]3464 June 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The Government expects Great Britain to release and return the China prisoners promptly. 650
4508 June 29 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British memorandum stating that the China prisoners will be released in accord with promise, even though some of them had served in the war and were escaped prisoners. 650
A 4243 June 24 [Rec’d June 30] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Asks that steps be taken for the release of Leiztritz, giving reasons for request. 651
3478 July 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). States that the British memorandum concerning the China case is unsatisfactory; suggests that it be withdrawn or reworded. 651
4570 July 18 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note stating that the memorandum of July 5 was worded to indicate that the China case should not be used as a precedent. 652
3562 July 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to cable whether all Germans taken from the China have been released. 653
4276 July 19 [Rec’d July 31] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British memorandum in explanation of contention in the China case. 653
4637 July 31 [Rec’d Aug. 1] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Instructions have been given for the release of the China prisoners. Have requested details regarding all prisoners removed from the China, the Ausable , and the Henry S. 656
1654 Aug. 12 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Request for facts in the case of Second Mate Miller, who was removed by a French naval officer from the Frederick Luckenbach; instructions to request his release, if justified in so doing. 657
Aug. 23 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Chargé in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to procure names, etc., of China prisoners, and to ask again for their release. 657
4795 Aug. 30 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Colonial Office now handling the China case. Governor General of Australia instructed to convey prisoners to Shanghai in British ship. 657
[Page CI]4894 Sept. 15 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Shipping difficulties cause delay in release of the China prisoners. Suggests that consular officer in Australia take up matter. 658
Sept. 20 The Secretary of State to the Consul General at Sydney, Australia (telegram). Instructions to expedite transportation of China prisoners. 658
1610 Sept. 20 The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has been informed by Foreign Office that Miller will be released without delay. 658
2122 Sept. 26 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Arrangements have been made to send the China prisoners to Shanghai. Inexpedient to attempt to change their destination. 658
Oct. 7 [Rec’d Oct. 8] The Consul General at Sydney, Australia, to the Secretary of State (telegram). The China prisoners have sailed for Shanghai. 659
1646 Oct. 13 The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Miller released. Arrangements made for his return to the United States. 659
4324 Oct. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits German note stating position in regard to German stowaway on the Missourian . 659
3827 Oct. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 10] The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State. French reluctant to make written statement regarding the release of Second Mate Miller. Discussion of grounds for his arrest. 660
Nov. 15 The Consul General at Shanghai to the Secretary of State (telegram). The men seized from the China arrived in Shanghai and transshipped to Hongkong. 661
3746 Nov. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany. Argument in justification of the surrender of the German stowaway (Feldwebel) to a British ship. 661
Nov. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Memorandum giving a résumé of the China case. 662
4520 Dec. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Memorandum for Lord Grey on the Henry S., Ausable , and Marcus L. Urann cases. 667
[Page CII]4213 Dec. 26 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests a report on the British reception of memorandum on the Henry S., Marcus L. Urann , and Ausable cases. 678
5389 Dec. 29 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report on the British reception of the memorandum on the Henry S., Marcus L. Urann , and Ausable cases. 678

Departures by Belligerent Governments and Naval Authorities from the Established Rules for Exercise of the Right of Visit and Search at Sea

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1020 Dec. 17, 1915 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Protests against action of the Isis in searching the Zealandia, an American vessel lying at anchor in Progreso Harbor and in charge of Mexican customs officials. 679
50 Feb. 17 [Rec’d Feb. 23] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Maintains that the Zealandia, when searched by the Isis, was outside the three-mile limit; claims belligerent right to visit and search her, even though she was in charge of Mexican customs officials. 679
67 Mar. 11 [Rec’d Mar. 13] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. New procedure adopted for visit and search at sea, in consequence of German practice of disguising raiding cruisers as neutral merchantmen. 680
Mar. 14 The Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of State. Considers it unwise to enter into any agreement with one belligerent recognizing a departure from an established procedure in visit and search. 681
1134 Apr. 10 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Irregularity and illegality of the course of British naval officers in searching the Zealandia. 682
Apr. 13 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Unwise to agree to any change in the established rules of procedure by war vessels in visit and search. 684
Apr. 25 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. The action of customs collectors who bring to attention of ship-masters the recent British visit-and-search orders, should be disapproved. 684
May 5 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. U. S. coastwise trading vessels in Philippine waters are being subjected to irregular visit and search, supposedly by British ships. 684
[Page CIII]516 May 17 [Rec’d June 9] The Ambassador in Japan to the Secretary of State. Copies of Japanese instructions to naval officers regarding the boarding of merchant vessels, have been sent to American consuls and naval attaché in Japan. 685
June 9 [Rec’d June 12] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Communicates new instructions to naval officers regarding visit and search. 685
June 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Consuls are instructed to take no action regarding Japanese instructions for use of signals in boarding merchant ships. 686
196 July 3 [Rec’d July 5] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Refutation of charges of irregularities in visit and search of the Zealandia by the Isis. 686
1248 July 11 The Acting Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Search of the Zealandia was an undue and discourteous exercise of belligerent rights. 688

Projects of Cooperation Among the Neutral States in Defense of Neutral Rights

[Page CIV]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Feb. 14 The Swedish Minister in Great Britain to Colonel House. Advocates cooperation of neutrals against attempts of belligerents to annul existing rules of international law. 689
190 Mar. 14 [Rec’d Mar. 28] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State. Ministers of Scandinavia meet in Copenhagen, agreeing to maintain strict neutrality. Encloses official communiqué of the meeting. 691
Aug. 29 [Rec’d Aug. 31] The Greek Legation to the Department of State. Proposes that the United States take the initiative in negotiations looking toward the ratification of the International Prize Court Convention and the appointment of judges of the court, so that it may be accessible to claimants after the war. 692
Sept. 11 The Department of State to the Greek Legation. The time inopportune for negotiations for the institution of the International Prize Court. 693
271 Sept. 26 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State. Transmits copy of the official communiqué of the conference of Scandinavian ministers at Christiania, Sept. 19-22. 694
294 Dec. 1 The Chargé in Spain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Swedish proposal of neutral joint action considered by French and British Embassies as directed against the Allies. Informed that Spain would take only such action as the Allies would desire. 696
Dec. 4 The Secretary of State to Diplomatic Officers in European Countries (telegram). Inadvisable to participate in the proposed conferences of neutral European governments. Reasons. 696
5278 Dec. 6 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Asks what subjects are proposed for consideration in a conference of neutral nations. 697
4141 Dec. 7 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Subjects to be considered in a conference of neutral nations. 697
108 Dec. 20 The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State (telegram). Switzerland and Holland have accepted the invitation to attend the meeting of neutral European powers. If Spain refuses, the question of a meeting will be reconsidered. 697

PART III: NEUTRAL DUTIES

The Entrance Into and Transit Through the United States of Active and Discharged Members of Belligerent Armed Forces

[Page CV]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Dec. 28, 1915 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. Inquires as to purpose of visit to this country of officers of the French Army Flying Corps. 701
Dec. 30, 1915 [Rec’d Jan. 3] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Officers of the French Army Flying Corps are in the United States for a brief visit with relatives. 701
Jan. 27 The Secretary of State to Representative, J. A. Elston. The visit of members of the French Army Flying Corps is not a violation of neutrality. 701
214 July 13 [Rec’d July 14] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Requests permission for reentry into the United States of discharged British soldiers. 702
Aug. 21 The Acting Secretary of Labor to the Secretary of State. Cases of reentry of British discharged soldiers into the United States must be decided individually by immigration officers. 702
Sept. 1 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of Labor. In each case of reentry of a British soldier into the United States, it would have to be decided whether he was discharged and whether he intended to remain. Otherwise U. S. neutrality might be involved. 703
Sept. 22 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Requests that British take steps to prevent discharged soldiers applying for entry into the United States en route to Canada. 704
Sept. 22 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. Requests Foreign Office to prevent discharged soldiers from applying for entry into the United States in transit to Canada. 704
Sept. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 4] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Communicated to British Government U. S. request that they prevent British soldiers from entering the United States en route to Canada. 705
Oct. 7 [Rec’d Oct. 9] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Inquires if disabled soldiers may be sent from Halifax to Jamaica via New York. 705
Oct. 11 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of Labor. Approves withdrawal of Department’s circular of Sept. 8. Wishes to be advised of all soldiers entering the United States and the purpose of their visit. 705
Oct. 12 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Refuses request to allow disabled Jamaican soldiers to pass over American territory from Canada to Jamaica. 706
Nov. 24 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. British Government will endeavor to prevent passage of British soldiers through the United States to Canada. Such passage would be legitimate unless formally prohibited. 706
Dec. 1 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Regarding passage of discharged and disabled soldiers, this Government must be free to exercise such right as will meet the exigencies of war without giving formal notice. 707
Jan. 15, 1917 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Will permit the passage of Jamaican disabled soldiers if they are discharged in Canada and sent home as civilians. 707

The Sale of Contraband Goods—The Transfer to Another Neutral Government of Warships Built in American Yards for a Belligerent Government

[Page CVI]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2631 Mar. 7 [Rec’d Mar. 20] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits German note verbale with memorandum regarding attitude of the German Government as to the supply of munitions during Spanish-American war, with comment. 708
2444 May 25 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany. Sends file copies of correspondence concerning the Pinzon, with explanations. 710
Nov. 2 The Ambassador in Chile to the Secretary of State (telegram). British offer to sell to Chile five submarines constructed in the United States. 712
Nov. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Chile (telegram). Instructions to ascertain the nature of the proposed arrangement between Great Britain and Chile regarding transfer of submarines. 712
Nov. 11 The Ambassador in Chile to the Secretary of State (telegram). Informed that Chile has contracted in Great Britain for battleships and destroyers but not for submarines. 712
Nov. 14 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Chile (telegram). Department’s telegram regarding British transfer of submarines to Chile will apply equally to battleships and destroyers. 713
Nov. 16 The Ambassador in Chile to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs affirms that transfer of submarines to Chile is compensation offered by British for the delay in delivery of ships under construction in England. 713
Nov. 20 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Chile (telegram). Requires assurance that submarines are for use of Chile and not for transfer to belligerents. 713
Nov. 29 The Ambassador in Chile to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Chilean statement that submarines are for the use of Chile and will not be transferred to any belligerent during the present war. 714

Treatment of Belligerent Warships in American Ports: The Escape of Members of Their Interned Crews

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2525 Dec. 22, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Urges reply to representations on the escape of interned Germans. 714
Jan. 14 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of War. As the Empire preserves the character of a military transport, the 24-hour rule should be applied to her stay in Manila port. 714
3508 Feb. 19 [Rec’d Feb. 20] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Offers explanation of act of Germans who escaped from internment. 715
2792 Mar. 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Sends Navy Department’s criticism of German reply regarding the escape of interned Germans. 715
[Page CVII]3109 June 20 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Asks reply to note regarding apprehension, punishment, and return of Germans who escaped from internment. 716
B 6383 June 29 [Rec’d July 3] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. General Staff at Berlin does not assent to form of pledge required of commanding officers interned in the United States. 717
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Aug. 16] The Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of State. States the policy upon which the regulations of the Navy Department regarding the internment of belligerent war vessels are based, and desires to know if that policy as stated is in accord with his views. 718
Sept. 1 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Navy. Approves the policy of the Navy Department regarding the internment of belligerent war vessels, with slight amendment. 718
Sept. 21 The Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. Forwards letter from the collector of customs at New York showing that the Laconia and the Tuscania are being fitted out as transports. Requests instructions for the collector. 719
Sept. 22 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. The Laconia and the Tuscania should not be allowed to outfit as transports in a U. S. port; must be returned to the condition in which they arrived. 720
4052 Sept. 16 [Rec’d Oct. 9] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits note from Zimmermann regarding the escape of officers and men from German interned cruisers in U. S. ports. 720

Treatment of Prize Ships in American Ports—Case of the “Appam”

[Page CVIII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Feb. 1 The Secretary of the Treasury to the Counselor for the Department of State. Reports presence in Norfolk Harbor of the British steamer Appam, captured and manned by Germans and carrying prisoners. Requests instructions for the collector of customs. 722
Feb. 2 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Suggests that demand be made for immediate release of all persons on board the Appam, with certain specified exceptions. 723
A 785 Feb. 2 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. The Appam carries the crews of seven enemy vessels transferred from the Moewe. Requests internment of them and the crew of the Appam. 723
Feb. 3 [Rec’d Feb. 4] The Collector of Customs at Norfolk to the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. The German commander promises release of all persons on the Appam, except the prize officer and crew. 724
Feb. 4 The British Embassy to the Department of State. Requests that the principles of Articles 21 and 23 of Hague Convention XIII of 1907 be applied to the Appam case. 725
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 8] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Claims that the Appam is a prize and, under treaty of 1799, can not be interned or turned over to the British. 726
Feb. 15 The British Embassy to the Department of State. Reserves all rights with regard to the Appam. 726
Feb. 16 [Rec’d Feb. 17] The Attorney General to the Counselor for the Department of State. Transmits correspondence regarding the libel filed by British owners for possession of the Appam. 726
Feb. 17 [Rec’d Feb. 19] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Request for assurances with regard to the Appam. 727
Feb. 21 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Unable to comply with request for assurances in the Appam case. 727
A 1293 Feb. 22 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Protests against libel for possession of the Appam and asks for dismissal of suit. 728
Mar. 2 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador: Argument regarding disposition of the Appam and interpretation of Article 19 of the Treaty of 1799. 729
A 1829 Mar. 14 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Assurance that crew or equipment of the Appam will not be augmented and no attempt at escape will be made. Attempts to secure dismissal of suit. 731
A 1727 Mar. 16 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Interpretation of Article 19 of the Treaty of 1799 as regards the Appam case. Proposes that it be referred to the Hague Court of Arbitration. 732
Mar. 31 [Rec’d Apr. 1] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Requests that official representations be made to the U. S. court to return the Appam to her owners on ground that her detention was a violation of U. S. neutrality. 733
Apr. 4 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Declines to comply with request for official representations to court for release of Appam. Her presence in U. S. waters not violation of U. S. neutrality. 734
[Page CIX]2217 Apr. 7 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. States the reasons why the United States cannot accede to the request that legal steps before an American court be suspended in the Appam case and why it can only accept the proposal for arbitration of the meaning of Article 19 of the treaty of 1799 under certain specified conditions. 735
Apr. 12 [Rec’d Apr. 13] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Asks that Department suggest to the court its understanding of the general maritime rule on prizes of war in neutral ports, leaving the court free to determine whether the law had been violated in the Appam case. 737
A 4387 June 30 [Rec’d July 1] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. German interpretation of Article 19 of the treaty of 1799. An authenticated note from John Adams, Benj. Franklin, and Thos. Jefferson in support of the interpretation. Request that asylum be granted the Appam and that case be dismissed from court. 737
Aug. 3 [Rec’d Aug. 5(?)] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Calls attention to long stay of Appam in U. S. port, in violation of U. S. neutrality; again requests that she be released to British owners with damages, or else placed under U. S. custody. 741
Aug. 5 [Rec’d Aug. 7] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Holds that the United States is responsible for the Appam. Requests that the prize crew be interned. 741
Aug. 24 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Declines to accept responsibility for the Appam, which owners have placed in hands of the court. German Government has given assurance of protection. 742
347 Dec. 1 [Rec’d Dec. 2] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. The question of status and treatment of the Appam is one between the British and U. S. Governments and not one between the British owners and those in temporary possession of her. 743
1394 Dec. 13 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Appam owners must exhaust legal remedies with denial of justice before the question can be taken up through diplomatic channels. 745
[Page CX]

Treatment of Belligerent Merchant Ships Which Have Taken Refuge in American Ports

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Mar. 9 The Acting Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. It is reported that Germans will attempt to use interned vessels. Asks advice as to the proper means of maintaining neutrality in the absence of U. S. naval vessels. Suggests the dismantling of the engines of interned ships. 746
Mar. 11 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Inadvisable to disable machinery or place guards upon self-interned German vessels. Calls attention to effectiveness of fort guns and restriction of coal supply. 747
Apr. 20 The Attorney General to the Secretary of State. U. S. officials in Porto Rico report that Germans threaten to disable vessels if relations are broken. Instructions given marshal to appoint special deputies. 748
Apr. 22 [Rec’d Apr. 24] The Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. Proposed removal of crews from German interned vessels at San Juan in case of break in relations with Germany. Asks advice regarding the President. 748
Apr. 29 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Does not recommend removal of crew from the President. 749

Treatment of Armed Merchant Ships

[Page CXI][Page CXII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Dec. 31, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Italian Ambassador. U. S. rules of 1914 regarding armed merchant ships in American ports necessarily modified by the changed situation arising out of the effectiveness of their armament in attacks on submarines. 749
Jan. 7 The Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. Asks advice as to clearance of the armed steamer Giuseppe Verdi. 749
Jan. 11 [Rec’d Jan. 13] The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Gives assurance that guns carried by Italian merchantmen will be used for defense only and not to attack submarines while being warned. 750
Jan. 13 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Suggests that no objection be raised as to clearance of the Giuseppe Verdi, under assurances given by the Italian Ambassador. 750
Jan. 26 The Secretary of State to the Italian Ambassador. Asks that guns be removed from the Verona or that official assurance be given that they will be used for defense only and not for attack on submarines while being warned. 750
Jan. 27 The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Assurances given in the Verdi case were intended to cover any similar case. 751
Jan. 28 The Secretary of State to the Italian Ambassador. Prefers that a separate formal assurance be given by each armed merchantman wishing clearance from U. S. ports. 752
Feb. 7 [Rec’d Feb. 8] The Minister in Costa Rica to the Secretary of State (telegram). Costa Rican inquiry as to the admission of Italian armed merchantmen in U. S. ports. 752
Feb. 9 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Costa Rica (telegram). U. S. Government requires armed merchantmen either to land guns or to give assurance of defensive use only. Modification of policy under consideration. 752
Apr. 25 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Items of information which collectors should report regarding arrival in U. S. ports of armed merchantmen. 753
May 2 The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Wishes to modify assurances given regarding armed merchantmen, because Germans and Austrians have announced intention to sink at sight. 753
May 3 The Secretary of State to the Italian Ambassador. Will accept modified assurances regarding armed merchantmen for the present, but this not a precedent for future cases. 754
June 19 [Rec’d June 21] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Suggested alteration of present practice of issuing a separate note of assurance for each armed merchantman arriving in a U. S. port. 754
June 21 [Rec’d June 22] The Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of State. To avoid duplication, suggests that reports on merchantmen be made only when there is a material change in armament from what has already been reported. 755
June 22 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. Accepts suggestion regarding elimination of duplication in armament reports and clearance of French vessels. 755
July 3 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. The Secretary of the Treasury has accepted the suggestion that French consular officers give assurances regarding the armament of French merchantmen. 756
Sept. 13 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Calls attention to preparation at Brooklyn docks for armament of the Crewe Hall and states that clearance will be refused until ship is returned to former condition. 756
Oct. 13 [Rec’d Oct. 16] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Hague Convention XIII of 1907 not applicable to defensive armament; however, armament removed from the Crewe Hall. 757
Oct. 24 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Attitude concerning the Crewe Hall not based on Hague conventions but on desire to prevent embarrassing incidents. 757
Oct. 19 [Rec’d Oct. 26] The Collector of Customs at San Juan, Porto Rico, to the Secretary of the Treasury. Asks for definite instructions regarding clearance of French armed merchantmen arriving for the first time at a U. S. port. 757
Nov. 2 The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. French armed merchantmen arriving in port for first time are not to be cleared except upon instructions from Washington. 758

Hovering of Belligerent Warships in Close Proximity to Territorial Waters

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
82 Mar. 20 [Rec’d Mar. 28] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Claims British ships near U. S. waters necessary to prevent escape of enemy ships and to intercept supplies. Cites U. S. acts during Civil War as precedent. 759
1152 Apr. 26 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Maintains that hovering of belligerent warships such as the Vinland and Zealandia near U. S. waters, is inexcusable source of annoyance and offense. 762
1694 May 13 The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. Requests reply to inquiries regarding the presence of the Descartes in the vicinity of San Juan. 764
July 27 Memorandum of the Counselor for the Department of State. The French explanation of the presence of the Descartes in the territorial waters of Porto Rico. 765

Treatment of Belligerent War and Merchant Submarines in Neutral Ports and Waters (Case of the “Deutschland”): Their Operations Beyond Territorial Waters (Case of the “U-53”)

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
194 July 3 The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Submits views of British Government on issues raised by the rumored visit of a German submarine to a U. S. port. 765
July 11 The Acting Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Acknowledges note on the issues raised by rumored visit of German submarine to U. S. port. 767
July 13 Memorandum of the Acting Secretary of State. Conversation with the British Ambassador in regard to the submarine merchant ship Deutschland. 767
4123 July 15 [Rec’d July 16] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Inquires whether the Deutschland will be recognized as a merchant vessel. 767
[Page CXIII]3195 July 17 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in Great Britain. The Deutschland arrived in Baltimore bringing cargo of dyestuffs. Authorities here declared her to be a merchantman. 768
July 19 The Third Assistant Secretary to the Acting Secretary of State. British protest against U. S. decision in Deutschland case. Encloses telegram from Grey to the Ambassador at Washington. 768
Aug. 21 [Rec’d Aug. 22] The French Embassy to the Department of State. The same from the British, Russian, Japanese, and Italian Embassies, and from the Portuguese Legation. Urges that neutral governments take effective measures to prevent belligerent submarines from making use of neutral waters. 769
Aug. 31 The Department of State to the French Embassy. The same to the British, Russian, and Japanese Embassies, and mutatis mutandis, to the Italian Embassy and to the Portuguese Legation. The United States reserves its liberty of action in respect to treatment of submarines. Responsibility for any conflict between belligerent warships and neutral submarines must rest upon negligent power. 770
3909 Oct. 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same to the Chargé in France. German submarines off coast are apparently living up to formal assurances. With regard to the suggested modification of rules concerning submarines in neutral ports, Allies are reminded of their refusal to modify, during hostilities, the rules of warfare concerning armed merchantmen. 771
Oct. 10 The Acting Secretary of State to Diplomatic Officers in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Spain (telegram). Inquiry regarding treatment of belligerent war or merchant submarines visiting neutral ports. 772
[Page CXIV]3471 Oct. 10 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Sinking of nine merchant ships off Nantucket Island by the U–53 without violation of international law. Feeling throughout country aroused. 772
643 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 12] The Minister in the Netherlands to the Secretary of State (telegram). Netherlands has forbidden foreign war vessels within her waters since 1914 and reserves right to decide status of submarines. 773
5002 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 12] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Grey enumerates British grievances caused by U. S. attitude towards defensive armament, hovering, and submarines. 773
4460 Oct. 11 [Rec’d Oct. 12] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports informal conversation with Von Jagow regarding activity of submarines off U. S. coast. 774
A 6435 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 14] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Activities of German submarines in Atlantic will be within the rules of international law and promises given. 774
309 Oct. 13 [Rec’d Oct. 14] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Transmits affidavit of master of the Stephano, sunk by German submarine off U. S. coast. 774
368 Oct. 14 The Minister in Denmark to the Secretary of State (telegram). Under Danish law war submarines are treated as other war vessels. Question of merchant submarines has not arisen. 775
142 Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 15] The Minister in Sweden to the Secretary of State (telegram). War submarines prohibited from entering Swedish territorial waters. All treated as war submarines unless commercial character proven. 775
283 Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 15] The Ambassador in Spain to the Secretary of State (telegram). No measure yet taken regarding merchant submarine. Submits for U. S. opinion, proposed decree regarding rights and duties of neutrals in submarine warfare. 776
144 Oct. 16 [Rec’d Oct. 17] The Minister in Sweden to the Secretary of State (telegram). Swedish attitude toward commercial submarines corresponds to the attitude of the United States. War submarines, with certain exceptions, will be attacked. 777
79[89] Oct. 17 [Rec’d Oct. 18] The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State (telegram). No position yet taken by Norway on merchant submarines. Encloses decree forbidding war submarines in territorial waters. 777
Oct. 18 The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State (telegram). War submarines refused access to territorial waters of Norway; ruling does not extend to merchant submarines. 778
[Page CXV]5041 Oct. 18 [Rec’d Oct. 19] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British aroused over U. S. silence on the sinking of merchantmen by the U–53. Hope for an official statement of facts. 779
5052 Oct. 20 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Recommends that reports of U. S. naval officers be published to allay criticism regarding the U–53 incident. 780
3968 Oct. 22 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The United States not obligated to give the British an official statement of the facts in the U–53 case. 780
5070 Oct. 23 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British anxious to have official information regarding destruction of merchantmen by the U–53. 781
188 Oct. 27 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). Withholds opinion on proposed Spanish decree regarding submarines. 781
94 Oct. 28 The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits summary of German note protesting Norwegian decree relative to entry of submarines into Norwegian waters. 782
3986 Oct. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Will consider advisability of making statement on the U–53 after facts are obtained. Quotes from Admiral Benson’s published account of the rescue work. 782
98 Nov. 11 The Minister in Norway to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits summary of Norway’s reply to Germany regarding restriction on submarines: sole object to protect her rights as a neutral. 783
[Page CXVI]

PART IV: OTHER PROBLEMS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Regulations Regarding Passports and the Registration of Citizens Living Abroad

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2362–A Apr. 17 Executive Order. Revised rules governing the granting and issuing of passports in the United States, effective May 1, 1916. 787
483 Sept. 28 The Secretary of State to Diplomatic and Consular Officers (including Consular Agents). Registration of American citizens abroad: Instructions enclosing Executive Order effective Nov. 15, 1916. 790

Status of American Consular Officers in Belligerent Territory Occupied by Enemy Troops

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3995 June 14 [Rec’d June 15] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany contemplates extending to the Consul at Warsaw the same recognition as that accorded to Consuls at Brussels, Antwerp, and Liége. 795
3183 July 12 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Accepts German proposal to extend to the Consul at Warsaw the same recognition as that accorded to Consuls in Belgium. 796

The Proclamation by Germany and Austria-Hungary Creating the Kingdom of Poland

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
4562 Nov. 5 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim Poland an independent state. 796
4563 Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 7] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits text of manifest of Nov. 5, proclaiming Poland an independent state. 796
4575 Nov. 8 [Rec’d Nov. 9] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Consul at Warsaw desires instruction regarding the new Kingdom of Poland. 797
3576 Nov. 14 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Consul at Warsaw should deal with officials of the new Kingdom of Poland as de facto officials, but should not attend official ceremonies. 797
787 Nov. 18 The Russian Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Russia protests against German and Austro-Hungarian declaration of independence of Poland. 797
4006 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 23] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State. Transmits Allied declaration of Nov. 18, 1916, protesting against the formation of Polish State and creation of Polish Army by Central powers. 798
[Page CXVII]

Appointment of a New Austro-Hungarian Ambassador

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
250 May 15 The Minister in Denmark to the Secretary of State (telegram). Austrian diplomat states that Vienna would send an ambassador to the United States, but suggests his passage on a U. S. man-of-war. 798
1226 May 16 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram; cancelled on May 17). Impossible to send a warship for Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, but can arrange for his safe-conduct to the United States. 799
1464 Sept. 27 [Rec’d Sept. 28] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Austria-Hungary wishes assurance that safe-conduct will be given should they send an ambassador to the United States. 799
1375 Sept. 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Agrees to the appointment of an Austro-Hungarian ambassador and gives assurance of a safe-conduct to the United States. 799
1481 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Government asks agrément for appointment of Tarnowski as Ambassador. 800
1387 Oct. 18 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Desires more information concerning Tarnowski. 800
1489 Oct. 21 [Rec’d Oct. 23] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Enumerates qualifications of Tarnowski and recommends him as Ambassador to the United States. 800
1404 Nov. 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Tarnowski acceptable to the United States. Safe-conducts will be arranged. 801
1522 Nov. 9 [Rec’d Nov. 10] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Austro-Hungarian Government announces appointment of Tarnowski as Ambassador to the United States. 801
1524 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 12] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Burian requests that the new Ambassador be assured of means of communicating with his Government. 801
[Page CXVIII]1527 Nov. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 14] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Information regarding the passage of Tarnowski and party to the United States and request for safe-conducts. 802
4044 Nov. 14 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France. Austro-Hungarian request for safe-conduct for Tarnowski and party to the United States. 802
1417 Nov. 14 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Explains why no assurances regarding communication between the Ambassador and his Government can be given. 803
5218 Nov. 27 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Quotes British note refusing safe-conduct for Tarnowski because of the warlike activities of German and Austro-Hungarian diplomatic officers in neutral countries. 804
1712 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits French note refusing the Austro-Hungarian request to furnish safe-conduct for her Ambassador. 804
4097 Nov. 28 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France. Expects the British Government to reconsider their action and to grant safe-conduct for Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. 805
5243 Nov. 30 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). A request from the U. S. Government for safe-conduct for the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador will receive consideration. 805
5321 Dec. 15 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Foreign Office note granting U. S. request for safe-conduct for the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. 806
1749 Dec. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 19] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). French Government will accord safe-conduct to Tarnowski and suite. 806
[Page CXIX]2230 Nov. 24 [Rec’d Dec. 26] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Transmits Austro-Hungarian note accepting U. S. proposal for radio communication between the Government and its Ambassador and comments thereon. 806

Questions of Diplomatic Immunity—Case of Wolf Von Igel

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
A 8306 Dec. 19, 1915 [Rec’d Dec. 20] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Announces the personnel of the Embassy staff. 807
Dec. 30, 1915 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. The limitations of diplomatic immunity for domestics and employees of an embassy. 808
A 2826 Apr. 18 [Rec’d Apr. 19] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Requests the release of Von Igel, an Embassy employee arrested in New York, and the reprimand of officials responsible for his arrest. 808
A 2833 Apr. 18 [Rec’d Apr. 19] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Official papers belonging to Embassy were seized when Von Igel was arrested; requests their immediate return. 809
Apr. 20 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Instructions have been given for return of Embassy papers seized when Von Igel was arrested. 809
A 2876/16 Apr. 20 [Rec’d Apr. 24] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Protests against any use being made of papers seized with Von Igel. Again requests their return. 809
Apr. 24 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Von Igel’s crimes were committed before he became attaché; questions his claim to diplomatic immunity. Offers to return such papers as Bernstorff may consider official. 810
A 2955 Apr. 27 The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Presents reasons for claiming immunity of Von Igel and seized papers. Declines to inspect papers to determine which are official. Requests postponement of prosecution. 811
A 3807 May 27 [Rec’d May 29] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. German Government declares procedure against Von Igel as contrary to international law and that seized documents were inviolable. 812
June 16 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Seized papers will be used in case of the United States v. Hans Tauscher, et al. Immunity of Von Igel not yet decided. Cites unjustified invasion of premises used by American Embassy in Berlin and seizure of papers. 813
[Page CXX]A 4193/16 June 19 [Rec’d June 20] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Proposes that legality of seizure of papers from Von Igel be settled by arbitration and that, pending decision, no use be made of the papers in question. 814

Representation of Belligerent Governments in Enemy Countries—Protection of Consular Property

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1096 Sept. 29, 1915 [Rec’d Oct. 2] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Message to French Government: Seals have been removed from French Consulate at Beirut, and archives are being examined by Turkish authorities. 815
1231 Oct. 19, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Approves of protest against Turkish violation of French Consulate and inquires if examination of French archives continues. 815
826 Jan. 4 [Rec’d Feb. 15] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Sends copies of protests to Sublime Porte against violations of belligerent consular premises in care of United States. Replies received to only two of them. 815
1300 Feb. 14 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Report on services rendered belligerents as their representative and on their dissatisfaction with results obtained. 816
1625 Mar. 3 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). French archives have been removed from the Consulate General at Beirut and are being examined by the Turks. 818
Mar. 15 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey. Approves of protest against violation of belligerent consular premises. 819
Mar. 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. The United States is merely acting as a channel of communication between belligerents and not with authority to present demands. Belligerent demands are to be communicated without comment. 819
3844 May 4 [Rec’d May 5] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports the raid on British Consulate building used by the U. S. Embassy, and seizure of U. S. records on British relief work. 820
2988 May 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Requests full details of raid on Embassy’s quarters in British Consulate building. 820
[Page CXXI]3882 May 12 [Rec’d May 13] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Detailed report on raiding of British Consulate building. Encloses copy of his unanswered protest to Foreign Office requesting return of U. S. Embassy papers. 820
A 4385/16 June 30 [Rec’d July 1] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Germany apologized for raiding Embassy quarters in former British Consulate and papers were returned. This incident different from Igel incident. 821
4104 July 11 [Rec’d July 12] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Seized U. S. papers returned without note of apology. German request that matter be dropped. 822
1517 July 8 [Rec’d July 31] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State. If Department approves, will complain to Sublime Porte of violation of U. S. consular seals protecting belligerent interests in Turkey. Encloses Turkish note verbale in justification of acts. 822
3043 Oct. 18 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Permission to call attention of Sublime Porte to seriousness of violation by Turkish Government of U. S. consular seals. 823
343 Oct. 6 [Rec’d Oct. 10] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Garden of German Legation searched and explosives and tubes of bacilli of communicable disease found. 824
345 Oct. 8 [Rec’d Oct. 13] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Authorities ask Secretary Andrews to sign a procès-verbal describing proceedings in the garden of the German Legation; requests instructions. Reports aeroplane attacks. 824
1021 Oct. 14 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Roumania (telegram). Requests full report regarding proceedings in garden of German Legation. Andrews not authorized to sign procès-verbal. 824

The Right of Asylum—Case of the British Vice Consul at Sofia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
22 Jan. 1 [Rec’d Jan. 2] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State (telegram). Arrest of French consular official at Sofia. Controversy over attempted arrest of Hurst, former British Vice Consul and refugee in the American Legation. 825
8 Jan. 3 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Bulgaria (telegram). Instructions to make strong representations in favor of former British Vice Consul, but not to continue to shelter him if Bulgarian Government insists upon his arrest. 825
[Page CXXII]42 Jan. 7 [Rec’d Feb. 1] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State. Presents reasons why former British Vice Consul should not be surrendered. Awaits further instructions. 826
50 Jan. 18 [Rec’d Feb. 18] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State. Discussion of the right of asylum and further arguments against surrender of former British Vice Consul to Bulgarian authorities. 827
Feb. 25 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Bulgaria. Approves action taken in protection of former British Vice Consul. 829
61 Feb. 3 [Rec’d Mar. 6] The Chargé in Bulgaria to the Secretary of State. Reports liberation of the French Vice Consul and freedom from molestation of the former British Vice Consul. 829

Protection of American Institutions and Citizens in Turkey—Efforts in Behalf of Other Foreigners

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
724 Dec. 15, 1915 [Rec’d Feb. 1] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Transportation on American vessels of Americans and refugees from Beirut and Jaffa. 829
874 Jan. 21 [Rec’d Feb. 16] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Difficulties in the way of departure of United States citizens and others. 831
1800 May 12 [Rec’d May 17] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Military authorities are taking over the American college at Sivas for use of the wounded. Has cautioned Sublime Porte to take proper measures to provide for Americans. 832
1814 May 17 [Rec’d May 22] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports the taking over by Turkish military authorities of various American missions and schools. 833
1815 May 17 [Rec’d May 22] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports American college and hospital at Marsivan taken by authorities. Recommends that warning be sent Turkish Government. 834
1825 May 22 [Rec’d May 26] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Assurances given that the taking over of American institutions is a temporary measure; no intention of expelling Americans. 834
2628 May 27 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Enumerates series of unfriendly acts of Turkish authorities against American officers and interests. Desires prompt redress of grievances. 835
[Page CXXIII]1844 May 31 [Rec’d June 4] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Mission buildings at Marsivan, Talas, and Sivas requisitioned and missionaries sent to Constantinople. Protest made, reserving all U. S. rights. 836
1355 May 31 [Rec’d June 19] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Transmits copies of his protests against action of local authorities at Marsivan and elsewhere in seizing mission property and subjecting Americans to indignities. 838
1482 July 1 [Rec’d July 24] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Transmits Turkish note of explanation regarding the treatment of Americans, their institutions, and their property. 841
1502 July 4 [Rec’d July 25] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Remarks on Turkish note regarding American institutions and criticism of Turkish policy. 844
2333 Dec. 14 [Rec’d Dec. 19] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has taken up with Turkish authorities the arrest of Russian subjects and been informed that the measure is retaliatory. 845
2349 Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 26] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Arrest of Russians in Turkey due to capture of Moslems by Russian Fleet. They will be sent to interior unless Moslems are released. 846

Representations in Behalf of Armenians and Syrians

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1800 Feb. 4 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to express to the Turkish Government the horror and indignation of Americans over the persecution of Armenians in Turkey. 846
1852 Feb. 12 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Appeals to humanity and justice of Turkish Government and urges it to take steps toward amelioration of conditions caused by mistreatment of Armenians. 847
1794 Feb. 16 The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. Calls attention to outrages committed upon Armenians in Turkey, requesting that German influence be again exerted to end tragedy. 847
1576 Feb. 15 [Rec’d [Feb. 29] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs asserts that all deportation has ceased and that no more will take place. The Armenian situation, however, still very unsettled. 848
1672 Mar. 28 [Rec’d Mar. 30] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports conversation with Talaat Bey on renewal of Armenian deportations: explanations and promises. 849
[Page CXXIV]2484 May 9 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Quotes note of French Ambassador depicting extreme conditions in Syria. Requests information. 850
2600 May 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to urge Ottoman Government to protect Christians in Syria, if conditions are as reported. 851
1821 May 21 [Rec’d May 26] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report on conditions in Syria_ _ _ _ 851
1854 June 3 [Rec’d June 7] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Has urged Minister of Foreign Affairs to take immediate steps for the protection of Christian Syrians. 852
2758 June 16 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to urge Turkish Government again to alleviate condition of Armenians in Mesopotamia, if reports are true. 852
1973 July 21 [Rec’d July 25] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report on conditions in Mesopotamia and on the Aleppo massacre. Evident policy of Turkish Government is to prevent rehabilitation of Armenian race. 852
2978 Sept. 22 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Inquiry as to what action by Department would alleviate the condition of Armenians. 853
1757 Sept. 1 [Rec’d Sept. 25] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State. Reports additional deportations. Has sent notes on the subject to the Turkish Minister of the Interior and to the German Ambassador. Opposition of Turkish officials to foreign relief work. 853
2136 Oct. 1 [Rec’d Oct. 5] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests probable effect of a threat to withdraw U. S. diplomatic representatives from Turkey. To alleviate Armenian situation deportations must cease and restrictions placed upon neutral relief work must be removed. 856
2186 Oct. 17 [Rec’d Oct. 20] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Describes further the condition of Armenians. Suggests that the President write to the Emperors of Germany and Austria on the subject and that letter be published. 857
3535 Nov. 1 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Substance communicated to the Ambassador in Turkey. Instructions to call attention to the sufferings of Armenians at the hands of the Turks; expresses hope for favorable consideration and action by Germany. 858
[Page CXXV]

Representations in Behalf of Civilians Deported from Northern French Cities and from Belgium

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3111 June 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Belgium requests that the United States bring Germany’s attention to the fact that any deportation from Belgium would be in violation of international law. 858
4042 June 23 [Rec’d June 24] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that Hoover communicate to him through the London Embassy whether there is danger of Belgian deportations. 859
3899 Oct. 5 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests report from Hoover on deportations from France and Belgium, if any, and on the present situation. 859
4452 Oct. 10 [Rec’d Oct. 11] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). American Minister in Brussels states that Germany has demanded lists of Belgian unemployed with object of deporting them to Germany as laborers. Requests instructions. 859
3497 Oct. 19 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). If advisable, draw attention of Minister for Foreign Affairs to action of the military authorities in Belgium, reminding him of assurances given Gerard regarding deportations. 860
9 Oct. 18 [Rec’d Oct. 20] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports impressment and deportation of Belgian laborers in French Flanders; efforts to prevent this in Belgian occupied territory. 860
Oct. 10 [Rec’d Oct. 24] The Chairman of the Commission for Relief in Belgium to the Secretary of State. Account of the evacuation of congested sections of Lille. 860
4511 Oct. 23 [Rec’d Oct. 25] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Undersecretary of State for Foreign Affairs has promised an investigation of Belgian deportations. 862
4535 Oct. 27 [Rec’d Oct. 31] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report of an interview with Zimmermann concerning enforced labor of Belgian civilians; suggests representations to the Chancellor. 862
3539 Nov. 2 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Germany (telegram). Authorizes interview with Chancellor on subject of enforcing labor on Belgian civilians. 863
[Page CXXVI]12 Nov. 1 [Rec’d Nov. 3] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports number of Belgians unemployed and number sent to Germany. Quotes statement of German authorities. 863
14 Nov. 9 [Rec’d Nov. 15] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State (telegram). Indiscriminate impressment of workmen continues. Suggests measures for ameliorating situation and encloses opinion of Commission for Relief in Belgium. 864
15 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 15] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State (telegram). Suggests that Germany be urged to open camps of Belgian workmen in Germany to inspection of neutral powers. 865
16 Nov. 15 [Rec’d Nov. 17] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State (telegram). Impressment of workmen continues, though less rigorously. Members of relief organizations now respected. 865
4625 Nov. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). The Chancellor, in an interview with the Spanish Minister, seemed disposed to consider amelioration of measures for deporting Belgian workmen. No actual revocation of policy. 866
4635 Nov. 22 [Rec’d Nov. 23] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report of an interview with the Chancellor on enforced employment and deportation of Belgian civilians. 866
4645 Nov. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 25] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Points of amelioration adopted by Germany in carrying out measures of impressment and deportation of Belgian workmen. 867
21 Nov. 28 [Rec’d Nov. 29] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State (telegram). Recruitment of Belgian workmen continues without discrimination. Instances given. 867
4689 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 6] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Chancellor informally denies that deportation of Belgians is contrary to international law. Points out Entente forcing of Roumania and Greece. 868
4719 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 13] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Zimmermann promises amelioration of conditions and manner of carrying out deportation measures. Encloses German note in justification of these measures. 868
4756 Dec. 20 [Rec’d Dec. 21] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits German note: Owing to complaints of Belgian workmen, a number have been returned home from Germany. 870
[Page CXXVII]

Representations in Behalf of Irish Political Prisoners

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
3606 Aug. 2 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits, for presentation to the Foreign Office, text of Senate resolution expressing the hope that the British Government will show clemency in treatment of Irish political prisoners. 870
3608 Aug. 2 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to report whether Senate resolution was presented to Foreign Office; also any further details on Casement case. 871
4654 Aug. 3 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Senate resolution presented to Prime Minister. Casement executed this morning. 871

Correspondence Relating to Relief Work

belgian relief

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
279 Apr. 18 [Rec’d May 13] The Minister in Belgium to the Secretary of State. Transmits copy of correspondence with the Embassy in Great Britain and with German authorities regarding adjustments necessary to insure continuation of relief work in Belgium. 871
3885 May 30 [Rec’d June 12] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits Grey’s note giving assurance of British cooperation in Belgian relief work. 883
5089 Oct. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 6] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note concerning the distribution of foodstuffs in Belgium, considered in connection with the labor policy of the German Government of occupation. 884
5194 Nov. 23 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Grey’s personal appeal to the United States that Belgian relief work shall not be destroyed by the acts of Germany. 885

polish relief

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2658 Jan. 4 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiry as to arrangements made by Hoover with the Central powers for relief in Serbia and Poland. 886
3541 Jan. 11 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reasons why the Relief Commission sees little hope of helping Poland. Investigations in Serbia. 886
[Page CXXVIII]2926 Feb. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to inform Hoover that Polish relief organizations are inquiring what progress he is making in obtaining consent of belligerents for relief work in Poland. 886
2945 Feb. 26 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to advise Grey that American citizens desire to send relief to Poland through the Belgian Relief Commission. 887
3865 Feb. 28 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Cabinet has not yet reached a decision on the subject of Polish relief. Relief everywhere put in jeopardy by German conduct. 887
B 2258 Feb. 28 [Rec’d Feb. 29] The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Gives assurance that food for Poland will not be seized on way through Germany and will be distributed exclusively among Polish population. 887
3914 Mar. 6 [Rec’d Mar. 7] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germans will agree to Hoover-Walcott relief plan for Poland; asks that British approval be urged. 888
3966 Mar. 16 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British have referred question of Polish relief to Russia, and will act according to Russian decision. 888
3282 Mar. 20 [Rec’d Apr. 5] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits draft of plan submitted to Grey by Hoover and Walcott for relief in Poland. 889
906 Apr. 3 [Rec’d Apr. 5] The Austro-Hungarian Chargé to the Secretary of State. Burian gives assurance that food imported to Poland will not be requisitioned and approves of American committee for distribution. 890
788 Apr. 15 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Russia (telegram). Instruction to inquire unofficially as to the attitude of the Russian Government toward plan for relief of Poland. 890
517 Apr. 25 [Rec’d Apr. 27] The Chargé in Russia to the Secretary of State (telegram). Repeated to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Attitude of Russian Government favorable toward plan of Rockefeller Foundation for relief in Poland. 891
816 May 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Russia (telegram). Inquires whether Russia would favor extension over Poland of organization of Belgian Relief Commission and the conditions and guarantees required. 891
[Page CXXIX]561 May 20 [Rec’d May 21] The Ambassador in Russia to the Secretary of State (telegram). Russia consents to U. S. relief in Poland under guarantee that aid does not reach her enemies. 891
3741 May 12 [Rec’d May 22] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British memorandum on proposed plan for Polish relief and draft of guarantees to be signed by German authorities in Poland. 892
3028 May 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Instructions to furnish Foreign Office with copy of British memorandum on relief in Poland and to ascertain its attitude. 894
3031 May 25 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Same to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Transmits message of Rockefeller Foundation to Director of War Relief Commission in Stockholm announcing the availability of funds for relief work in Poland, Serbia, Montenegro, and Albania when arrangements satisfactory to Commission have been made. 895
3034 May 27 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to report on German attitude toward Polish relief. Breakdown of relief through inability of powers to agree on details would be a calamity. 895
3929 May 29 [Rec’d May 30] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Presented to Minister of Interior copy of the British memorandum regarding relief of Poland. Proposition will probably be rejected. 896
3038 May 31 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to present to Foreign Office substance of Department’s 3034, May 27, regarding relief in Poland. 896
3934 May 30 [Rec’d May 31] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Repeated to the Ambassadors in Great Britain, France, and Russia. Gives reasons why Germany can not accept proposition made by Great Britain in memorandum of May 10. Offers substitute proposition. 896
[Page CXXX]3992 June 13 [Rec’d June 14] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Germany can not accept conditions proposed by England for relief in Poland. Indicates form of relief work acceptable. 897
611 June 15 [Rec’d June 20] The Ambassador in Russia to the Secretary of State (telegram). Sazonov declines to pass on proposed plan of relief for Poland before conferring with the Allies. Objects to large number soldiers being maintained in Poland. 898
4017 June 16 [Rec’d June 26] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits telegrams from the Ambassador in Berlin on Polish relief and British note maintaining the responsibility of Germany and Austria-Hungary for conditions and adhering to original demands. 898
July 7 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassadors in Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Russia (telegram). Belligerents are asked to make mutual concessions to bring about relief in Poland. 899
4183 July 7 [Rec’d July 17] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note and memorandum on various points connected with present treatment of Poland by Germany and Austria. 900
July 20 The President of the United States to the Sovereigns of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Great Britain, and Russia, and the President of France. Deplores sufferings of non-combatants and suggests fresh consideration of ways and means for relieving distress in Poland. 903
4619 July 27 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits final British proposal of conditions upon which foodstuffs may enter occupied territory. Comments. 904
1506 July 28 [Rec’d July 29] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Allies are communicating through the British Government, a new proposal for relief work in Poland. 905
4171 July 29 [Rec’d July 30] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram) Transmits German note stating that Great Britain has prevented relief work and that the harvest will relieve the situation. 906
[Page CXXXI]1374 Aug. 7 [Rec’d Aug. 9] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Foreign Office note stating that military authorities will not remove supplies from occupied territory in such quantities as to jeopardize the population. 906
4688 Aug. 9 The Chargé in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Quotes British note discrediting German and Austro-Hungarian assertions regarding relief work and stating that further negotiations seem useless. 907
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 12] King George V to President Wilson. Has offered assistance in relief work upon reasonable conditions, which Germany has refused. 907
1554 Aug. 25 The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits copy of reply of the President of France to President Wilson, expressing willingness but inability to find means of relieving sufferings in Poland because of attitude of the enemy. 908
3904 Aug. 28 [Rec’d Sept. 11] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits Emperor’s reply to President Wilson: Russia responsible for Poland’s condition; relief measures taken; U. S. aid balked by Entente. 909
3934 Aug. 30 [Rec’d Sept. 11] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits German note: Wording and substance of British declaration regarding relief work makes discussion impossible. 911
263 Aug. 30 [Rec’d Sept. 20] The Ambassador in Russia to the Secretary of State. Transmits reply of the Emperor to President Wilson: Favors relief work in Poland but regrets that the enemy has opposed legitimate conditions submitted by Allies. Comments. 911
1920 Aug. 25 [Rec’d Sept. 25] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Transmits reply of the Emperor to President Wilson: Ready to make agreement for provisioning Poland; conditions have been communicated to American Embassy. 912

serbian relief

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Nov. 26, 1915 The Consul at Saloniki to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits report of the head of the Sanitary Commission to the Red Cross concerning relief in Serbia and other Balkan States. 913
1013 Dec. 8, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Red Cross wishes to know if Austria-Hungary desires cooperation in relieving distress of Serbia. 914
[Page CXXXII]2619 Jan. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary and the Chargé in Bulgaria. Instruction to report upon attitude of the German Government toward transportation of relief supplies by Red Cross from Holland to Serbia by land. 914
2760 Jan. 21 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France. Inquires attitude of British Government toward the transportation of relief supplies from the United States to Holland thence by land to Serbia. 914
3638 Jan. 24 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Consent of British depends upon adequacy of machinery in Serbia for distributing food. Suggests that Red Cross wait until machinery is set up. Grain in Roumania cheaper. 914
1171 Jan. 13 [Rec’d Feb. 1] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Transmits Austro-Hungarian note stating that the direction of Red Cross relief work in Serbia will be put in hands of Government General in Belgrade. Dr. Stuart will be permitted to return to Serbia. Comments. 915
1256 Feb. 6 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office states that it is incumbent upon Central Empires to assure feeding of the population of invaded countries. 916
1140 Feb. 9 [Rec’d Feb. 10] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Austro-Hungarian Government agrees in principle to shipments via Holland for Serbian relief, but delays final reply as to facilities and guarantees. 916
1137 Feb. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Inquires why members of the Red Cross have been ordered to leave Serbia. Requests that Dr. Stuart and committee may continue their efforts for relief of Serbians. 916
1167 Feb. 26 [Rec’d Feb. 27] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Quotes message to Dr. Stuart through Bucharest Legation giving reasons for expulsion of Red Cross from Belgrade, and reply from Vopicka assuring Austria that required supplies for Serbian relief will be furnished. Requests instructions. 917
[Page CXXXIII]1148 Feb. 29 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Instructions to communicate to Foreign Office Vopicka’s assurance of supplies for Serbia and to ascertain attitude of the Government. 917
3545 Feb. 29 [Rec’d Mar. 1] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits message for Red Cross: German Government will permit transportation through Germany of supplies for Serbia, but must be informed as to contents and amount of shipments. 918
1175 Mar. 4 [Rec’d Mar. 5] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits summary of official note containing specific instructions to Government General at Belgrade as to methods to be used in carrying out American relief work. 918
1215 Apr. 1 [Rec’d Apr. 2] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Dr. Stuart’s message to the Red Cross stating that he is proceeding to Belgrade. 919
1230 Apr. 18 [Rec’d Apr. 19] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Dr. Stuart’s report to the Red Cross on progress of relief work in Belgrade and interior Serbia. 919
Apr. 21 [Rec’d Apr. 22] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Forwards message for Dr. Ryan: British ready to approve sending of medical and sanitary mission to Serbia, but would not approve of the introduction of foodstuffs. 919
1375 Apr. 29 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Ryan’s message to Red Cross: France refuses to allow further transportation of relief supplies for Serbia. 920
1300 June 13 [Rec’d June 14] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits, for Red Cross, summary of agreement between Dr. Stuart and the Military Governor General in Belgrade for the distribution of supplies in Serbia. Comments. 920
267 July 5 [Rec’d July 8] The Minister in Roumania to the Secretary of State (telegram). Asks Department to try to influence British Government to withdraw its opposition to Red Cross shipments of flour to Serbia. 921
4596 July 22 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note stating that as Austria and Germany claim the ability to provide food for Serbia, importation from neutral countries is unnecessary. If need exists, however, the British Government will release the grain requested. 922
[Page CXXXIV]1373 Aug. 7 [Rec’d Aug. 8] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Dr. Stuart’s message to Red Cross stating that the Austrian Government accepts the agreement for shipment of supplies from Roumania instead of from America. 923
2237 Nov. 25 [Rec’d Dec. 26] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State. Transmits official note asking that American Red Cross activities in Serbia cease after distribution of supplies already on hand. 923

relief in turkish territories

[Page CXXXVIII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1710 Jan. 14 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to have the Des Moines at Piraeus ready to transport American Red Cross members and supplies to Beirut, also to obtain permission for the ship to enter port. 924
1494 Jan. 17 [Rec’d Jan. 24] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Turks do not authorize any ships to enter Beirut, as Syrian coast is blockaded by Allies; little hope that U. S. request will be granted. Asks for whom supplies are intended. 924
1758 Jan. 26 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Supplies are for the American Red Cross hospital at Beirut and the American community. 924
1520 Jan. 27 [Rec’d Jan. 31] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Syrian blockade prevents the Des Moines from proceeding to Beirut; the only route open is via Constantinople. 925
Feb. 4 The Secretary of State to the Consul at Jerusalem (telegram). Asks if arrangements can be made to land at Jaffa, supplies for hospitals at Jerusalem. 925
1840 Feb. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Red Cross inquires whether arrangements can be made with blockading squadron for Des Moines to pass blockade as others have done. 925
1570 Feb. 13 [Rec’d Feb. 25] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Turkish Government refuses permission for the Des Moines to visit Beirut. 925
1610 Feb. 26 [Rec’d Mar. 10] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). States conditions upon which medical supplies may be landed at Jaffa for Jewish hospital in Jerusalem. 926
[Page CXXXV]1422 Mar. 14 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Instructions to inquire whether the landing of medical supplies for Jewish hospitals in Jerusalem will be permitted. 926
4041 Mar. 27 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Foreign Office desires to know how it is to be assured that stores landed at Jaffa will reach the Jewish hospitals for which they they are intended. 926
1680 Mar. 23 [Rec’d Mar. 29] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits message of the Red Cross, Constantinople, to the Red Cross, Washington, urging relief for civilians of all races. 927
1344 Apr. 4 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). French can not modify blockade of Syrian coast by allowing Red Cross supplies to enter for Jerusalem. 927
1735 Apr. 12 [Rec’d Apr. 15] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Assurances given by Ottoman officials that medical supplies for Jewish hospitals will not be interfered with. 927
2332 Apr. 18 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Red Cross sends $50,000 to be used in cooperation with Red Crescent Society for relief work in Turkey. 928
2341 Apr. 19 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). American people consider it the duty of Germany to feed her allies. The Allies decline permission for America to send provisions to blockaded Turkish coast. 928
2376 Apr. 24 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Request for a suggestion as to a method of transporting Red Cross supplies from Athens to Beirut. 928
1486 Apr. 27 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Inquires if the French Government will permit a boat from Jaffa to meet American ship and receive medical supplies. 928
1771 Apr. 27 [Rec’d May 1] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). No means of transporting Red Cross supplies from Athens or Constantinople to Beirut. 929
4244 May 3 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). British Government unable to modify blockade of Syrian coast by permitting the landing of supplies for Jewish hospitals. 929
[Page CXXXVI]1412 May 24 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram.) French Government declines to permit a vessel to pass through blockaded port (Jaffa) with hospital supplies. 929
2678 June 3 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Inquires whether Ottoman Government has been urged to protect Christians and whether relief supplies will be permitted to enter Lebanon and other parts of Syria. Conditions serious. 930
2763 June 17 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to call attention of Turkish Government to the strong sympathy in the United States for the destitute of Syria, and to urge prompt reply. 930
1889 June 17 [Rec’d June 21] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Report of desperate situation in Syria, which Turkish officials deny. Promise of an investigation. 930
2779 June 23 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to continue to urge the Ottoman Government to grant permission for sending relief supplies to Syria. 931
2784 June 24 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). If Turkish Government is not attempting to starve inhabitants of Lebanon, what are objections to sending relief supplies there and to Syria? 931
2814 July 7 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Refusal of Turkish Government to permit relief for Syria may affect American sentiment toward Turkey. 932
1930 July 6 [Rec’d July 9] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs denies that famine exists in Syria; he has submitted proposal for relief to the Minister of Interior and is awaiting his decision. 932
1948 July 15 [Rec’d July 19] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of of State (telegram). Relief measures inadequate. Asks Department to appeal to Germany and Austria-Hungary to force Turkey to cease persecutions. 932
July 31 Memorandum communicated by the Third Assistant Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. Cooperation of Germany and Austria-Hungary in Syrian relief might be more readily obtained if Allies would allow Red Cross supplies to Germany and Austria-Hungary to pass through blockade. 933
1987 July 26 [Rec’d Aug. 1] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Government refuses to permit distribution of relief supplies in Syria and the Lebanon by neutrals; denies need for outside help. 934
[Page CXXXVII]1525 Aug. 11 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). French Government agrees to delivery of hospital supplies for Jerusalem under specified conditions. 935
2029 Aug. 12 [Rec’d Aug. 15] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Proposes an arrangement for the distribution of American relief supplies in Syria and the Lebanon by the Red Crescent conjointly with Red Cross. 936
1545 Aug. 22 The Chargé in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Vessel transporting supplies for Jerusalem must conform to measures prescribed by French naval authorities for passage of blockade. 936
Aug. 31 The Secretary of State to the Consul at Alexandria (telegram). Cholera reported in Palestine and Damascus. The Des Moines will transport supplies when passage of blockade is arranged. 937
Sept. 7 The Consul at Alexandria to the Secretary of State (telegram). Passage through blockade arranged for the Des Moines. 937
2949 Sept. 13 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Allies have given consent for the Des Moines to take medical supplies through the blockade. Instructions to request Turkish permission for American citizens to leave Palestine on the vessel. 937
2078 Sept. 9 [Rec’d Sept. 13] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Sublime Porte consents to the distribution of relief in Syria through Red Crescent and American Red Cross. Similar arrangement will be made with Spain. 938
2099 Sept. 16 [Rec’d Sept. 20] The Chargé in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits telegram to Consul General at Beirut and reply regarding arrangements for distribution of relief supplies through the Red Cross. 938
3034 Oct. 14 The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Turkey (telegram). Space will be reserved on the Des Moines for supplies for the Syrians. Requests information regarding method of distribution and assurances that the Red Cross will have controlling management. 938
2192 Oct. 18 [Rec’d Oct. 24] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Substance communicated to the French Ambassador. Inadvisable to discuss or publish details concerning the sending and distributing of relief supplies. 939
Nov. 25 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The French Ambassador to the Secretary of State. France grants free passage to the Caesar for carrying of supplies to the Syrians. Asks that all supplies be taken in one trip. 939
2276 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Nov. 28] The Ambassador in Turkey to the Secretary of State (telegram). Further arrangements for the importation and distribution of food for Syria and the Lebanon. 940
Dec. 19 The Secretary of State to the Ambassadors in Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Spain (telegram). The Caesar left New York Dec. 17 with relief supplies for Syria. First stop Cadiz. 940

The Exemption of Hospital Supplies from Seizure as Contraband of War: The Question of Their Shipment to the Central Empires

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2162 Jan. 3 [Rec’d Jan. 17] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Requests that British permission be obtained for shipment of rubber operating gloves to American medical expedition in Berlin. 941
Feb. 18 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain. Transmits letter from ex-President Taft requesting permits for Red Cross supplies for Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Instructions to obtain requested permits. 941
2986 Mar. 2 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to ascertain whether Government will permit passage of rubber medical supplies to Germany for American Physicians’ Expeditions Committee. 942
3627 Mar. 15 [Rec’d Mar. 16] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Asks that rubber gloves be sent through Embassy, and proposes to guarantee that they will be destroyed after use. 943
3642 Mar. 18 [Rec’d Mar. 19] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Rubber gloves used for work on military and civil prisoners. Need urgent. 943
2839 Mar. 23 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Improper to make guarantee regarding operating gloves. Ambassador in London will communicate fact to proper parties. 943
[Page CXXXIX]3080 Mar. 23 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Gerard states that it would be unfortunate if Germans had to cease caring for wounded prisoners for lack of rubber gloves. Instructions to notify proper parties. 943
4045 Mar. 28 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note regarding medical supplies for Germany: U. S. voucher for authenticity of the American Physicians’ Expeditions Committee in Germany essential to the granting of facilities for receiving supplies. 944
3317 Mar. 23 [Rec’d Apr. 5] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State. Transmits British note withdrawing list of hospital supplies which Great Britain had proposed to exempt from seizure as contraband, and stating reasons. 945
Apr. 20 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State. Has shown the British Ambassador the German note of Oct. 15, apparently accepting the British list of hospital supplies to be exempted from seizure; pointing out that it had been delivered to the British Embassy on Dec. 9 and that Grey’s note of March 22 was evidently sent in error. 946
2956 May 1 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inquires whether the German Government had ever given a definite reply to British proposal for exemption of hospital supplies. 946
3843 May 4 [Rec’d May 5] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). No correspondence relative to hospital supplies in transit subsequent to Nov. 10; Foreign Office has received no reply to note of Oct. 15 to Spanish Ambassador. 947
2982 May 8 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). British proposal regarding exemption of hospital supplies was sent with Department’s instruction of June 25, 1915. Inquires whether presented; whether note of Oct. 15 to Spanish Ambassador was an answer thereto; whether any other medium was used to convey the reply. 947
May 8 [Rec’d May 10] The Chairman of the Central Committee of the American Red Cross to the Secretary of State. Claims for Red Cross treaty rights to exemption of hospital supplies from interference as contraband. British withdrawal based on misconception of attitude of Central powers. 947
3877 May 11 [Rec’d May 12] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Proposal of British Government concerning hospital supplies was given to Germany Aug. 2, 1915. Reply was sent to Spanish and U. S. Governments with idea that they would inform the enemy. 949
[Page CXL]3013 May 19 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inquires whether German reply to British proposal concerning hospital supplies was sent to British Government through Spanish diplomatic officers. 950
3910 May 22 [Rec’d May 23] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). British proposal concerning hospital supplies was agreed to by Germany; note to that effect was sent to Spain. 950
3405 June 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiry regarding a possible understanding with Spanish Ambassador not to present to the British Government the German reply concerning hospital supplies. 951
June 10 [Rec’d June 12] The Chairman of the Central Committee of the American Red Cross to the Secretary of State. Proposal that the Red Cross send to the Central powers a commission of satisfactory persons to receive and distribute hospital supplies. 951
3430 June 16 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instruction to present to British Government the Red Cross proposal regarding shipments of hospital supplies to Central powers. 952
4482 June 21 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Explains why the German reply to the British proposal concerning hospital supplies was not presented to the British Government. 953
3486 July 3 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to present Taft’s note of May 8 to British Government without comment. 953
3487 July 3 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Disapproves of his action in expressing an opinion as to inutility of presenting the German reply to British Government. 953
4553 July 13 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note disapproving Red Cross suggestion to send a supervisory commission to Central powers, as no need exists. 954
3527 July 17 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Unfavorable impression created here by British failure to acquiesce in Red Cross proposition. 954
[Page CXLI]4598 Undated [Rec’d July 22] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Lord Robert Cecil repeats British refusal to admit Red Cross supplies to Germany. 955
4625 July 28 [Rec’d July 29] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note in justification of refusal to permit hospital supplies to be sent to Central powers, except to American Red Cross units. 955
Aug. 1 [Rec’d Aug. 4] The Acting Chairman of the Central Committee of the American Red Cross to the Secretary of State. Requests that the Central powers be asked to authorize the reestablishment of Red Cross hospital units. 956
3275 Aug. 8 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Inquiry regarding permission for the Red Cross to establish hospital units in Germany. 957
1450 Sept. 20 [Rec’d Sept. 22] The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary to the Secretary of State (telegram). Austro-Hungarian Government accepts offer of the Red Cross to send hospital units. 957
4489 Oct. 18 [Rec’d Oct. 19] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). German Government accepts offer of the Red Cross to send hospital units. 957
4074 Nov. 23 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Red Cross has been informed that, in view of the condition of British prisoners of war in Turkey, the British Government will not permit the establishment of American Red Cross units in Germany. Instruction to call attention of British Government to its unconditional assurances of July 28. 958
5264 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits British note suggesting that the United States put forward proposals under which British prisoners would receive no less consideration than is accorded Syrian and Jewish populations in Near East. 958
[Page CXLII]

The Shipment to the Central Empires of Milk for Babies

[Page CXLIII]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2639 Dec. 27, 1915 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France. Asks if British will permit transportation, from the United States to Germany and Austria, of milk for babies, to be distributed by the Red Cross. 959
1210 Jan. 13 The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits French refusal for the transit of milk from the United States to Germany and Austria. 959
2698 Feb. 11 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to make a report upon the importation of milk into Germany for the two years preceding the war. 960
3502 Feb. 18 [Rec’d Feb. 19] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Reports on Germany’s foreign milk trade during the years 1912 and 1913. 960
2946 Apr. 18 [Rec’d May 8] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits report of Doctor Taylor, Embassy camp inspector, regarding German milk supply and health conditions of infants and children. 960
3087 June 13 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Desires to know if there is any objection to the publication of Doctor Taylor’s milk report. 963
4001 June 15 [Rec’d June 16] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Sees no objection to publication of Doctor Taylor’s milk report. 963
3101 June 17 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instruction to ascertain if Germany will consent to the publication of Doctor Taylor’s milk report. 964
June 22 [Rec’d June 24] The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. Inquires whether Department has agreed to give clearance papers for cargo of condensed milk for Germany, Austria, and Poland, to be sent by Citizens’ Committee for Food Shipments. 964
1227 June 30 The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. Department has not approved or disapproved shipment of condensed milk to be sent by Citizens’ Committee for Food Shipments to Germany, Austria, and Poland. 964
July 14 [Rec’d July 17] Dr. Edmund von Mach, executive chairman of the Citizens’ Committee for Food Shipments, to the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs, Department of State. Declares that publication of Doctor Taylor’s milk report has wrought havoc and has necessitated a public statement regarding it. Encloses copy of the statement. 965
3208 July 20 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inquires if children are starving at such a rate that the United States may, on humanitarian grounds, ask for the removal of milk from the contraband list. 967
4150 July 24 [Rec’d July 25] The Ambassador in Germany to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits Doctor Taylor’s report of July 24 stating that the milk supply of Germany is sufficient. 967
Aug. 8 The Secretary of State to Dr. Edmund von Mach, executive chairman of the Citizens’ Committee for Food Shipments. Considers as conclusive Doctor Taylor’s report upon the milk situation in Germany. American rights in British blockade are in hands of Department officials. 968
4204 Oct. 3 [Rec’d Oct. 16] The Chargé in Germany to the Secretary of State. Transmits Doctor Taylor’s report of Sept. 30 bearing upon the milk supply of Germany. 968

The Economic Conference of the Allied Governments

[Page CXLIV]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
593 Mar. 9 The Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State (telegram). Efforts may be made at approaching conference at Paris to make restrictions on commerce; may possibly affect American interests. 972
1413 Mar. 10 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to ascertain results of the commercial conference at Paris, if it is held. 972
1336 Mar. 29 [Rec’d Mar. 30] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Transmits resolutions adopted at a conference of the Allies held at Paris, Mar. 27 and 28, to insure unity of military, economic, and diplomatic action in carrying on the war. 972
Apr. 17 The Ambassador in Japan to the Secretary of State (telegram). Japanese envoy to Entente economic conference is on the way to Paris; he does not favor suggested economic alliance between the Entente nations to regulate trade after the war. Suggests that American representatives in Paris get in touch with him. 973
Apr. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Would regret any combination which might restrict commerce between Japan and United States. 973
1494 May 3 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to report fully on progress of the economic conference of Allies. 973
1383 May 6 [Rec’d May 8] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). The (unofficial) International Parliamentary Commercial Conference at Paris, Apr. 27-29, 1916, discussed commercial relations, reparations, and international financial and judicial questions. 974
3311 June 22 [Rec’d July 5] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State. Transmits recommendations adopted by the Economic Conference of the Allied Governments held at Paris June 14-17, 1916. Comments. 974
3324 June 23 [Rec’d July 5] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State. Statement which the Minister of Commerce made to members of the press when delivering to them the official announcement of the recommendations adopted by the commercial conference of the Allies. Comments. 977
118 June 26 [Rec’d July 24] The Ambassador in Russia to the Secretary of State. Reports discussion with Sazonov of the economic conference of Allies at Paris, its object and effect. President Wilson’s speech to the League to Enforce Peace misconstrued by European press. 981
133 Aug. 24 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Russia. Instructions to keep the Department posted as to Russia’s attitude towards U. S. commerce as result of the economic conference. 982
4190 Dec. 20 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France. Inquires action of British Government on the resolutions of the Paris economic conference. 982
[Page CXLV]5378 Dec. 27 The Ambassador in Great Britain to the Secretary of State (telegram). Paris resolution approved by British Government. No ratification possible for this class of agreement. No new legislation on the subject since the conference. 983
1771 Dec. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 31] The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State (telegram). Resolutions adopted at (Paris economic) conference now ratified by all signatory powers, except Italy, Russia, and Japan. No French legislation yet enacted to carry out the resolutions. 983