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Index

A.

  • Accession to the throne of—
    • Denmark: of King Christian X 333335
    • Japan: of Emperor Yoshihito 634642
    • Luxemburg: of Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide 702705
  • Accession. See also Presidents.
  • Adverse possession of a port renders nugatory a decree of closure 902
  • Agreements. See Treaties.
  • Agricultural credits XIVXV
  • Alsop claim XXIII
  • American Army officers designated to reorganize the Liberian frontier force 662667
  • American banks needed in foreign countries XXVI
  • American capital, value of, to Central America 589
  • American citizens—
  • American Conference, Third International (1906) 18
  • American diplomacy X, XXVII, 558, 571, 586, 589
  • American flag, display of, by consular officers 903905
  • American international law. See Brazil.
  • American newspapers needed in foreign countries. XXVI
  • American protégés. See Morocco.
  • American Public Health Service XXVI
  • American trade. See United States: trade.
  • Amiable compositeur, King George V as, in settlement of the Alsop claim. XXV
  • Ammunition. See munitions of war.
  • Anglo-Liberian frontier disturbances 652662
  • Apprehension in the United States of fugitives from justice of foreign countries 6
  • Arbitration:
    • China—Novel arbitration provisions of the opium convention 203, 218
    • Cuba—
      • fundamental features of the insurrectionary claims in relation to arbitration, pointed out by the United States 285, 288
      • text of draft agreement to arbitrate the “insurrectionary claims” of France, Germany and Great Britain 291293
      • proposal of France, Germany and Great Britain to arbitrate with Cuba certain insurrectionary claims of their nationals arising prior to 1898 276298
    • Dominican Republic—boundary dispute with Haiti 380387
    • Ecuador—Guayaquil & Quito Ry. Co. v. Ecuador; appointment of arbitrators by the United States and by Ecuador 412422, 421, 422
    • France. See Cuba.
    • Germany. See Cuba.
    • Great Britain—
      • special agreement for arbitration of pecuniary claims outstanding between Great Britain and the United States 494
      • See also Cuba and Guatemala.
    • Guatemala—proposal of Great Britain to arbitrate financial arrangements with Guatemala 500511
    • Honduras—proposals concerning arbitration of the Honduran debt and loan agreement 593, 615 et seq.
    • Mexico—Chamizal boundary 706
    • Panama—elections, United States as arbitrator of 1141, 11331165
    • Peru—Landreau v. Peru XXIV
  • Argentina:
  • Arms:
    • baggage, treated as 888 et seq.
    • definition 759, 771
    • exportation from the United States to Mexico 737, 739742, 744, 753
    • importation to Mexico by foreigners, conditions required 877878
  • Army. See United States Army, and American Army officers.
  • Army officers sent from Brazil to study in the United States. XXV
  • Arrangements. See Treaties.
  • Arrest. See Fugitives, and Detention.
  • Artistic property, protection of 175
  • Assault on American citizens in Panama 12501261
  • Assault on American diplomatic officer in Cuba 268276
  • Asylum, requests for and rights of 173174, 393, 860861, 924926
  • Austria-Hungary:

B.

  • Bahia Honda, release of rights of the United States at XXV
  • Balkan States See Turkey.
  • Beirut, American interests at XX
  • Belgium:
  • Belligerency:
  • Blockade:
    • must be effective to be entitled to respect 902
    • routing of mails 736
  • Bolivia:
    • good offices of the United States XI
    • See also Peru.
  • Bombardment endangering innocent foreigners protested against by the United States 853863
  • Bonds:
  • Boundary disputes between—
    • Bolivia and Peru 1279
    • Dominican Republic and Haiti; arbitration proceedings XXIV, XXV, 380387
    • Liberia and France 683, 687, 689691, 700
    • Liberia and Great Britain 652662
    • Mexico and the United States 706
  • Brazil:
    • American international law; report of the United States delegates to International Commission of Jurists at Rio de Janeiro 1843
    • Army officers sent to the United States to study XXIII
    • mediator between Ecuador and Peru XI
    • message of the President 18
    • See also Germany: Wireless telegraph convention; and Paraguay, 1267 et seq.
  • Bulgaria:
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C.

  • Canal:
  • Canals, interoceanic, treaties pertaining to 482 et seq.
  • Canal Zone officers sent to Guayaquil to recommend sanitation plan XXIII
  • Caribbean Sea. XII
  • Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 2
  • Central America XII
  • Central America and the Washington conventions of 1907 549
  • Central American Peace Conference of 1912 628
  • Chamizal boundary dispute with Mexico XIX, 706
  • Champlain celebration. See France.
  • Chemistry, Eighth International Congress of 1365
  • Chile:
  • China:
    • adoption of a national flag 181
    • arrangement between the United States and France for reciprocal protection in China of literary and artistic property 175178
    • asylum requested at the American Legation and the consulate at Foochow; temporary refuge offered 173174
    • claims of American citizens against China; joint procedure of the Powers for presentation of claims 171173
    • copyrights, American, infringement of 176
    • good, offices of the United States XI
    • Hukuang railway. XI
    • indemnity payments 159160
    • International Opium Conference 182224
    • international plan for defense of foreign settlements under the protocol of 1901 161171
    • loan negotiations; conclusion of the Hukuang Railway loan; correspondence concerning proposed currency-reform, industrial-development and reorganization loans; current-expense advances XI, XXII, 87159
    • open-door and concerted-action policies of the United States XI, XXII
    • provisional republican government: de facto relations of the United States with. XXIXXII
    • registration of the property of foreigners in China 178180
    • reservations made by Japan, Russia, and Great Britain of rights claimed in Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and elsewhere 5086 passim
    • revolution; abdication of the Manchu rulers; establishment of a provisional republican government; concerted action of the Powers; correspondence concerning recognition of the Republic of China XXI, 4686
    • search of foreign merchant vessels by rebel forces for contraband of war 174175
    • treaty pledges of reform XI
  • Chinese exclusion act cited 528530, 534, 928
  • Chinese subjects, protection of, in Ecuador and in Mexico by American diplomatic and consular officers 434438, 926929
  • Chosen. See Japan.
  • Chronological list of papers in this volume XXIX
  • Circulars:
    • death of Vice President James S. Sherman 5
    • interchange of professors and students among the universities of American States 2
    • invitation to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition to be held at San Francisco, Calif., in 1915 4
    • territorial integrity of American States 1
  • Citizenship:
  • Claims against:
    • China: Joint procedure of the powers for presentation of claims against China 171173
    • Colombia: Gonzalo Ramos Ruiz v. the United States 225226
    • Cuba: “Insurrectionary claims” of France, Germany, and Great Britain, arising prior to 1898 276293
    • Ecuador: Guayaquil & Quito Ry. Co. v. Ecuador 412
    • Great Britain 494
    • Guatemala 500
    • Haiti. 521522
    • Honduras 549
    • Liberia 652
    • Mexico—
      • damages to American citizens arising from revolutionary disturbances 929986; see also 708, 720, 722, 724725
        • resolution of Congress to investigate 966968
        • report of the claims commission appointed by the War Department, in pursuance of the joint resolution of Congress 969981
      • Mexican court of claims 930
    • Nicaragua 1071
    • Peru: Landreau v. Peru XXIV
    • United States 494
  • Closure of port. See Ports.
  • Coastwise trade. See Great Britain: Panama Canal tolls.
  • Coat of arms of Salvador 13391340
  • Cocaine. See China: International Opium Conference.
  • Collateral inheritance tax 323332
  • Colombia:
    • claim of Gonzalo Ramos Ruiz v. the United States 225226
    • message of the President 225
    • Monroe doctrine, memorandum on the, by the Colombian Minister to Great Britain 1
    • relations with the United States XI
  • Colorado River negotiations with Mexico. XVIII
  • Commerce:
    • act to regulate; amended by Panama Canal act 473 et seq, 488
    • Mexican condition and regulations of 736, 742
  • Commission of Jurists, International 18
  • Common carriers. See Great Britain: Panama Canal tolls.
  • Conferences and congresses, international:
    • Chemistry, Applied; Eighth Congress 1365
    • Hygiene and Demography; Ninth Congress 1365
    • Jurists, report of the United States delegates to the International Commission of, at Rio de Janeiro 1843
    • Mine explosions conference 1365
    • Navigation; Twelfth Congress 1365
    • Opium Conference 182224
    • Red Cross, Ninth Conference 1365
  • Confiscation of mail by Mexican authorities 777, 781, 792
  • Confiscatory taxes charged by:
    • Mexico on oil products 827
    • Mexican de facto authorities 907910
  • Congresses, international. See Conferences and Congresses, international.
  • Constantinople, arrangements for protection of foreign residents in, during Balkan war. See Turkey.
  • Constitutional guaranties suspended in Mexico 820, 828
  • Constitutions:
    • China: Provisional Constitution; adopted March 10, 1912 46
    • Nicaragua 9931011; text, 9971011
  • Consul, American:
    • protection of Chinese in Mexico by 926929
    • refused recognition by de facto authorities in Mexico 781, 787788, 792, 795
    • rights and duties of consuls 739740, 988
  • Consular jurisdiction; disposition of effects of deceased persons 494497
  • Consular officer, German, as receiver of Liberian customs 667701
  • Consular registration of title to land in Chosen 642647
  • Consulate, display of American flag over a 903905
  • Consultative claims commission of Mexico 934
  • Contraband of war 729730
    • search of foreign merchant vessels for 174175
  • Conventions. See Treaties.
  • Copyright:
    • arrangement between the United States and France 175178
    • convention between the United States and Hungary; text.7
    • convention between the United States and Japan; reference 177
  • Costa Rica:
  • Courts, prize 902
  • Court of Claims. See Claims: Mexico.
  • Court-martial, power of, over foreign nationals 987992
  • Crossing the Mexican border by United States troops; crossing of Mexican troops into the United States 725, 726, 727
  • Cuba:
    • assault upon the American Chargé d’Affaires 268276
    • claims, insurrectionary, arising prior to 1898; proposal of France, Germany and Great Britain to arbitrate 276293
    • naval station at Guantanamo 293297
    • text of agreement between the United States and Cuba for the enlargement of the Guantanamo naval station and relinquishment of the Bahia Honda station, concluded December 27, 1912 295297
    • negro uprising; attitude of the United States; protection of foreign colonies XXV, 242268
    • raising of the wreck of the U. S. S. Maine 304309
    • Platt Amendment and the treaty with Cuba containing it invoked by Cuba as warranting intervention of the United States in settlement of the “insurrectionary claims” 281; see also 310, 312, 591
    • Veteranista agitation; attitude of the United States 236242
    • visit of the Secretary of State to Cuba 297303
    • Zapata Swamp concession 309322
  • Customs:
    • Dominican Republic: reestablishment of customs administration by the United States XXV, 367 et seq.
    • Liberia: customs receivership 667701
    • Russia: customs regulations 1287
  • Customs tariffs:
    • instances of pledge of, to secure loan 591
    • instances of treaty obligations not to change 590, 595
  • Cyrenaica, sovereignty of Italy over 632

D.

  • Damages to American citizens in Mexico, claims for 929986;
  • Damages, reservation of rights of reclamation for, during an insurrection 250
  • Danish-American National Park in Jutland, Denmark 335338
  • De facto government:
    • attitude of the United States during uprising at Vera Cruz 854
    • definition of, by General Orozco 795796
    • exequatur issued by 795796
    • taxation of foreigners by 907910
  • Denmark:
    • death of King Frederik VIII and accession of King Christian X 333335
    • imposition in the United States of an inheritance tax on non-resident Danish heirs; application of Art. VII of the treaty of 1826 between Denmark and the United States 323332
    • presentation of a park to the Danish Government by American citizens of Danish descent 335338
    • See also Germany: wireless telegraph convention.
  • Detention in the United States:
    • fugitives from justice of foreign countries 6
    • Mexican insurrectionists 848849
  • Diplomatic officer, assault upon 268276
  • Discrimination against:
    • American citizens employed on Mexican railways 910924
    • American lubricating oils 917
  • Dominican Republic:
    • arbitration of the boundary dispute between the Dominican Republic and Haiti; good offices of the United States 380387; 349363 passim
    • customs administration reestablished by a special commission sent by the United States XXIV
    • customs arrangements with Italy, Spain and Germany 586
    • customs provisions of the convention with the United States 589
    • financial affairs 372380
    • message of the President 339340
    • Political affairs: border warfare with Haiti; maintenance of the status quo; insurrection; resignation of President Victoria; election of President Adolfo Nouel; good offices of the United States 340380
    • revenue arrangements of 559, 571, 585
    • visit of the Secretary of State to the 387390
  • Drugs, habit-forming. See China: International Opium Conference.

E.

  • Ecuador:
    • attacks on Chinese citizens; good offices of the United States 434438
    • boundary dispute with Peru. XI
    • claims of the Guayaquil & Quito Railway Co. v. Ecuador; attitude of the United States; proposal to arbitrate XXIII, 396400, 402, 412422
    • financial affairs 401
    • political affairs: insurrection; closure of ports; request for asylum; attitude of the United States; inauguration of President Plaza 391411
    • sanitation of Guayaquil; proposal by Ecuador of a convention with the United States; visit to Guayaquil of a United States inspection commission 422434
  • Educational relations of the United States with Latin-American countries 24
  • Elections in Panama supervised by the United States. XXV, 11331165
  • Enlisting of American citizens in foreign service, within the United States 815, 818820
  • Escort of American troops for Mexican troops passing over American soil 888 et seq.
  • Exchange of notes, character of, in wireless telegraph negotiations with Panama 1221
  • Exclusion act:
    • protest by a foreign government against; attitude of the United States.
    • waiver of, in behalf of Chinese subjects in Mexico granted temporary refuge by American diplomatic and consular officers 926929
  • Execution of judgments and letters rogatory 18, 40
  • Exemption of vessels in the coastwise trade of the United States from payment of Panama Canal tolls. See Great Britain: Panama Canal tolls.
  • Expositions:
    • Panama-Pacific 4
    • Tokyo, abandonment of 647648
  • Extradition conventions:
    • between the United States and Honduras; text 619
    • draft of, by International Commission of Jurists 3739
  • Extradition of Mexican officers from the United States 847, 850
  • Extraterritorial obligation of the United States in regard to its nationals in disturbed foreign territory 741742
  • Extraterritorial rights:
    • of the United States in Tripoli and Cyrenaica 632633
    • unaffected by blockade unless effective 902

F.

G.

  • German consular officer as receiver of customs in Liberia, status of 667701
  • Germany:
  • Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide of Luxemburg: accession and speech from the throne 702
  • Grand Duke William Alexander of Luxemburg, death of 702
  • Grants made by treaties 12231224
  • Great Britain:
    • arbitration with the United States—
    • claims against Cuba 276293
    • death of Mr. Whitelaw Reid, American Ambassador to Great Britain 497499
    • good offices in behalf of the United States during Balkan War 1347 et seq.
    • good offices of British Consul in behalf of American protégés at Fez 987992
    • good offices of the United States requested by Great Britain as to—
    • Liberia—
    • North Atlantic coast fisheries arbitration; agreement between the United States and Great Britain adopting with certain modifications the rules and method of procedure recommended in the award of September 7, 1910; text 489494
    • Panama Canal tolls; exemption of vessels in the coastwise trade of the United States from payment of tolls, and other features of the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912; objections thereto of the British Government 467489
    • Sierra Leone-Liberia boundary 649, 652662
    • wreck of the British vessel Titanic; consular disposition of effects of the deceased; recognition of the services of Capt. Rostron 494497
    • See also China: Revolution, Chinese International, loan plan for defense, International Opium Convention; Germany: Wireless telegraph convention; Russia.
  • Greece:
  • Guantánamo, United States naval station at XXV, 293297
  • Guatemala:
    • charges against President Estrada Cabrera 1012 et seq., 1317
    • financial affairs; demand of Great Britain for restitution of the coffee revenues; proposal of a new bond issue; good offices of the United States XXV, 500511, 559
    • visit of the Secretary of State to Guatemala 511520
  • Guayaquil, sanitation of XXIII, 422434
  • Guayaquil & Quito Ry. Co., claims of, against Ecuador XXIII, 412422

H.

  • Habeas corpus, writ of, refused in the case of Gen. Mena, of Nicaragua, by the Supreme Court of the Canal Zone 10651069
  • Hague Convention of 1907, referred to 502
  • Hague convention “respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers and persons in case of war on land”; reference 741
  • Hague Tribunal 489494
  • Haiti:
    • abrogation of the right of Syrians to trade in Haiti; rights of American citizens of Syrian birth 522, 523541
    • boundary dispute with Dominican Republic XI, XXIV, 340380, 380387, 523
    • death of President Leconte and recognition of President Auguste 547548
    • international commission for collection of foreign claims against 521522
    • message of the President 521
    • report of the Minister for Foreign Affairs 521
    • visit of the Secretary of State to Haiti 541547
  • Heroin (see Opium convention) 199, 215
  • Honduras:
    • Bonilla, Gen. Manuel; relations with President Estrada Cabrera of Guatemala. see Salvador: “Political disturbances.”
    • customs arrangements with Great Britain 586
    • extradition convention with the United States; text 619
    • financial affairs—
      • proposed loan convention between Honduras and the United States; proposed loans contracts; good offices of the United States; arbitration proposal. XXVI, 549619
      • manifesto of the Honduran Congress upon rejecting the loan convention 577
      • communication of the Secretary of State to various Senators concerning the loan convention, inclosing a copy of the Secretary’s address on “The Monroe Doctrine” 10821092
    • good offices of the United States XI
    • neutrality of 549, 557, 558, 572, 594
    • visit of the Secretary of State to Honduras 624631
    • See also Salvador: “Political disturbances”; see also Nicaragua.
  • Hukuang Railway loan, conclusion of 8788
  • Hungary, copyright convention between the United States and 78
  • Hygiene and Demography, Ninth International Congress of 1365

I.

J.

  • Japan:
    • abandonment of the proposed international exposition at Tokyo 647648
    • death of Emperor Mutsuhito; accession to the throne of Emperor Yoshihito XXII, 634642
    • land laws of Chosen; validity of consular registration of title 642647
    • treaty, fur seal, with the United States. XVII
    • trade with the United States XVII
    • See also China: 46 et seq.; 87 et seq.; 182 et seq. Germany, 444. Russia, 1287 et seq.
  • Jurisdiction:
    • American protégés triable only by an American tribunal 987992
    • consular 494497
    • Interstate Commerce Commission 473 et seq.
    • United States; neutrality statutes 741742, 744
    • territorial waters 1289 et seq.
  • Jurists, International Commission of XIX, 18

K.

  • King Christian X of Denmark, accession of 333335
  • King Frederik VIII of Denmark, death of 333
  • King George V as amiable compositeur in settlement of the Alsop claim XXV
  • Korea (Chosen). See Japan.

L.

  • La France, presentation to the United States of a bust of 439443
  • Land laws of Chosen. See Japan.
  • Landreau, John Celestine, arbitration of claim against Peru of; good offices of the United States XXIV
  • Latin America, relations of the United States to XI, XIIXIV, XVIIIXIX, XXIIIXXVI, 14, 555 et seq.; 586 et seq.; 10821092
  • Liberia:
    • Anglo-Liberian boundary 652662
    • financial affairs; conclusion of the refunding loan of 1912, to refund the registered external and internal debt of Liberia as of Dec 31, 1910; constitution of the customs receivership,. XXI, 650652, 667701
    • Franco-Liberian boundary 683, 687, 689691, 700
    • good offices of the United States XXI, 650, 652662, 667701
    • Message of the President 649652
    • Reorganization of the Liberian frontier force under American officers XXI, 652, 662667
    • Sierra Leone boundary disturbances 649, 652662
  • Libya, sovereignty of Italy over 632
  • Literary property, protection of 175
  • Loans:
  • Luxemburg: death of the Grand Duke William Alexander and ascension to the throne of the Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide 702705

M.

  • Mails, routing of, through a port in the hands of insurgents not prohibited; mails not deliverable to a consul; foreign postmaster or consul can not handle mails in United States territory 736
  • Maine, raising of the wreck of the 304309
  • Marine Hospital Service. See Peru: “Sanitation of Iquitos,” 1281 et seq.
  • Maritime law:
    • municipal seizures beyond the three-mile limit 1289 et seq.
    • Twelfth International Congress of Navigation 1365
  • Measures to prevent firing across the boundary line by Mexican troops 878888
  • Measures taken by Americans in Mexico to protect themselves. See this item under Mexico.
  • Measures to protect Americans in Constantinople. See Turkey.
  • Mediation of the United States, Argentina, and Brazil between Ecuador and Peru. XI
  • Mediation of the United States requested by Cuba in regard to the “insurrectionary claims” (q. v.) 281
  • Mediation of the Powers in the war between Turkey and Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece. See Turkey.
  • Merchant vessels. See Great Britain: Panama Canal tolls.
  • Merchant vessels, search of foreign, by rebel forces for contraband of war 174175
  • Merchant marine, need of the United States for a XXVI
  • Messages of the President of the United States:
    • Annual VIIXXVII
    • Special—
      • Honduras—
        • January 26, 1911, transmitting to the Senate a loan convention between the United States and Honduras 555560
        • June 28, 1911, urging upon the Senate the ratification of the loan conventions with Honduras and Nicaragua 10761077
      • Nicaragua—
        • June 7, 1911, transmitting to the Senate a loan convention between the United States and Nicaragua 10721074
        • June 28, 1911, urging upon the Senate the ratification of the loan conventions with Nicaragua and Honduras 10761077
        • July 15, 1911, suggesting to the Senate certain amendments to the loan convention 10771078
      • opium—
        • January 11, 1911, transmitting to the Senate a report of the Secretary of State giving reasons for amending the opium-exclusion act of February 9, 1909, and reviewing the history of the anti-opium movement 182183
        • May 31, 1912, transmitting to Congress a communication from the Secretary of State, covering the report of the American delegation to the International Opium Conference held at The Hague, December 1, 1911, to January 23, 1912 204205
      • Panama Canal—
        • December 21, 1911, extract pertaining to the Panama Canal from the message to Congress on the financial condition of the Treasury, etc 467469
        • August 19, 1912, suggesting to Congress the passage of a joint resolution reciting that the canal act shall not be deemed to impair the Hay-Pauncefote treaty, and providing for trying its provisions before the Supreme Court 479, footnote
        • August 24, 1912, memorandum submitted to Congress accompanying the Panama canal act 475480
  • Messages of the Presidents of:
  • Mexico:
  • Mine explosions, international conference on 1365
  • Monaco. See Germany: Wireless telegraph convention.
  • Monroe doctrine X, XII; 1, 470471, 559, 582, 588
    • letter from the Secretary of State to various Senators transmitting his address before the New York State Bar Association, Jan 19, 1912, on “The Monroe Doctrine and some incidental obligations in the zone of the Caribbean” 10821092
    • (See also speeches by the Secretary of State in various Latin-American countries; indexed under “Visit of the Secretary, etc.”)
  • Montenegro: War with Turkey XX, 13411354
  • Morocco:
    • Legation of the United States in Tangier, reference to XXI
    • relation of American protégés to the French authorities at Fez; good offices of the British Consul in the case of Mohammed ben Lehsen el Filaly 987992
  • Morphine. See China: International Opium Conference.
  • Most-favored-nation treatment in relation to the Panama Canal 476 et seq.
  • Munitions of war:

N.

  • Naturalization:
    • Abrogation of the right of Syrians to trade in Haiti 523541
  • Naturalization conventions between the United States and—
  • Naval station at Guantanamo XXV, 293297
  • Navigation, Twelfth International Congress of 1365
  • Navy Department. See Cuba: “Naval station at Guantanamo,” and “Raising of the wreck of the U. S. S. Maine.”
  • Negro uprising in Cuba; attitude of the United States; protection of foreign colonies 242268
  • Netherlands. See China: International Opium Convention; Germany: Wireless telegraph convention.
  • Neutrality:
    • act, neutrality 1344
    • arrest and detention of Mexican insurgents under section 14 of the United States Penal Code 848, 850
    • asylum, rights of 924926
    • attitude of the United States during uprising of Felix Díaz at Vera Cruz 854
    • belligerency. See “Belligerency.”
    • closure by a sovereign power of a port held by an enemy, conditions required for 902
    • crossing of American troops into Mexico 880
    • distinction between enforcement of neutrality statutes of the United States and observance of the rules of international neutrality, on the one hand and, on the other, activities amounting to cooperation with a foreign government in putting down rebellion 709
    • distinction between the international laws involved and the neutrality statutes of the United States 741
    • exportation of arms. See “Arms.”
    • firing across the boundary line by Mexican troops 878888
    • Honduras, neutrality of 549, 558
    • Panama Canal, neutralization of 476 et seq.
    • permission for Mexican troops to pass over American soil 888900
    • recruiting in the United States for a foreign service 741, 815816, 818820
    • temporary refuge, rights of 924926
    • temporary refuge granted to Chinese by American diplomatic and consular officers in Mexico 926929
    • United States, neutrality of XIXIV, XX, XXII, XXIV, 632, 1313, 1341
    • Neutralization of interoceanic canals 484
  • Nicaragua:
    • arrest and detention of General Mena 10531071
    • canal project 10951099
    • Chamorro, General Emiliano.1012 et seq.
      • letter to the Department of State 1017
    • claims commission, protection of, by the United States 1036
    • Constitution of Nicaragua, promulgated January 12, 1912 9931011; text, 9971011
    • customshouses, protection of, by the United States. 1036
    • Dawson agreements of 1910, breach of 10121071, 10131015, 10201022, 1024
    • election of Adolfo Díaz to the presidency 1016, 1063 et seq.
    • Estrada, General J. J. 1014 et seq.
    • Financial affairs—loan convention between Nicaragua and the United States submitted to the Senate of the United States and ratified by Nicaragua; loans to Nicaragua by American bankers; good offices of the United States XIV, 589, 10711105
    • measures taken by the United States for the protection of foreigners 10121071
    • Mena, General 10121071
    • naturalization conventions with the United States; text 11051109
    • policy of the United States—
      • officially stated 10431044, 1048
      • address by the Secretary of State before the New York State Bar Association on “The Monroe doctrine” 10821092
      • speeches in Nicaragua 11141117, 10201122
    • political affairs—revolutionary plots; the Mena insurrection; breach of the Dawson agreements and of the Washington conventions; measures taken by the United States for protecting life and property of foreigners; arrest and detention of Mena; election by direct popular vote of Adolfo Díaz as constitutional President from January 1, 1913 10121071
    • relief of famine; good offices of the United States XIII, 11271132
    • rump Assembly of Aug 3, 1912 1034
    • Solórzano, Fernando 1015 et seq.
    • visit of the Secretary of State 1, 11091127
    • Washington conventions of 1907 10121071
    • See also Salvador: “Political disturbances.”
  • North Atlantic fisheries settlement with Great Britain XVIII; text, 489494
  • Norway. See Germany: wireless telegraph convention.
  • Notes. See Exchange of notes.

O.

  • Oils, American lubricating (see Belgium) 9
  • Opium Conference, International (Dec 1, 1911–Jan 23, 1912) XIX, 182224
    • Report of the delegates of the United States, dated May 15, 1912 207221
    • Opium convention signed at The Hague Jan 23, 1912; text 196204
    • Opium-exclusion act of Feb 9, 1909, report of the Secretary of State giving reasons for amendment of 183187
  • Ottoman Government. See Turkey.

P.

  • Panama:
    • assault on American citizens 12501261
    • boundary dispute with Costa Rica XI
    • canal tolls 467489
    • immigration law cited 530
    • elections, supervision by the United States of XXV, 11331165
    • police dismissed at request of the United States 12501261
    • policy of the United States in relation to railroad concessions 11711185, 1200
    • presidency of Rodolfo Chiarí 1135
    • railroad concessions to foreigners and their relation to the canal; attitude of the United States 11671206
    • tariff relations with the United States 599
    • Visit of the Secretary of State to the Republics of Central America and the Caribbean Sea 2, 12401250
    • wireless telegraph installation in Panama; treaty rights of the United States 12061240
  • Panama Canal:
  • Panama Canal Act: text of sections pertaining to tolls 471475
  • Panama Canal Commission, relation to proposed sanitation of Guayaquil 426, 430
  • Panama Canal Zone, relation thereto of proposed sanitation of Guayaquil 426, 430
  • Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco in 1915 4
  • Pan American Union: conclusion of a supplementary agreement relating to the time of meeting of the International Commission of Jurists 19
  • Paraguay: Political affairs; insurrection of February-March, 1911; coup d’état of July, 1911; various insurrections of 1911 and 1912; presidential successions of Gondra, Jara, Rojas, Peña, Navero, and Schaerer; recognition of President Schaerer by the United States 12651278
  • Pecuniary claims arbitration with Great Britain. XVII
  • Peru:
    • boundary dispute with—
    • claim of Landreau, arbitration of XXIV
    • sanitation of Iquitos; employment of American engineers; good offices of the United States XXIV, 12801286
  • Persia. See China: International Opium convention; Germany; Wireless telegraph convention.
  • Philippine Islands in relation to the opium traffic 183 et seq.
  • Platt Amendment, invocation of 281, 310, 312, 591
  • Police:
    • control of the Panaman police by the United States 11451165, 12501264
    • reorganization of Liberian police under United States officers 662666
  • Policy of the United States in–
  • Ports, closure of 392394, 736, 742, 900903
  • Portugal. See China: International Opium convention; Germany: Wireless telegraph convention.
  • Postal Union, Universal 195
  • Postal regulations in insurgent territory 736
  • Presentation by France to the United States of a bust of “La France” at the Champlain celebration 439443
  • Presentation of a park to the Danish Government by American citizens of Danish descent 335338
  • Presentation of a statue of George Washington to Mexico by American citizens 905907
  • President of the United States:
  • Presidents of:
    • Brazil: Message of President Marshal Hermes R. da Fonseca, to the Congress 18
    • China—
      • Sun Yat Sen as Provisional President 46, 60
      • Yuan Shih Kai as Provisional President 46, 66, 75
    • Colombia: Message of President Restrepo to the Congress 225
    • Costa Rica: Message of President Jiménez to the Congress 227
      • speech of welcome to the Secretary of State 231
    • Cuba: reception of the Secretary of State by President Gómez 298 et seq.
    • Dominican Republic—
      • Victoria, Eladio—
        • message to Congress 339
        • reception of the Secretary of State 389 et seq.
        • resignation 372, 375, 376
      • Nouel, Archbishop Adolfo: election of 376377
    • Ecuador—
      • Alfaro, Eloy; resignation of 391
      • Estrada, Emilio; death of 391
      • Montero, General; provisional government of 391 et seq.
      • Freile Zaldumbide, provisional government of 394 et seq.
      • Marin, Doctor: president ad interim 404405
      • Plaza, General: first term, 401; election and inauguration in 1912, 409410; recognition by the United States 411412
    • Guatemala: reception of the Secretary of State by President Estrada Cabrera, 513514, 519; charges against President Estrada Cabrera 1012 et seq., 1317
    • Haiti—
      • Leconte, Jean Jacques: message to the Congress, 521; death 547
      • Auguste, Tancrède: recognition by the United States 547548
    • Honduras: reception of the Secretary of State by President Bonilla 630631
    • Liberia: message of President Howard to the Legislature 649
    • Mexico: messages of President Madero to the Congress 706
    • Nicaragua—
      • Estrada, J. J.; coup d’état of, 1014; resignation 1014
      • Díaz, Adolfo; provisional presidency, 1014; election 1016, 1063 et seq.
    • Panama—
      • Chiarí, Rodolfo; provisional presidency of, 1135; reception of the Secretary of State 12471249
      • Porras, Dr. Belisario; election and inauguration of 1165
    • Paraguay—
    • Salvador: reception of the Secretary of State by President Araújo 1329 et seq.
    • Venezuela: reception of the Secretary of State by President Gómez 1355 et seq.
  • Press censorship in Mexico 762, 766767, 770, 773, 777, 779
  • Prize court, adjudication of seizure of vessels running a blockade 902
  • Property:
  • Protection of American life and property in foreign countries:
  • Protection by the United States of life and property of foreigners in—
  • Protection of British and French subjects in Mexico by British and French vessels 802, 804
  • Protection of literary and artistic property in China; arrangement between the United States and France 175178
  • Public Health and Marine Hospital Service. See Peru: “Sanitation of Iquitos.”
[Page 1384]

R.

  • Railroads:
    • Mexico: discrimination against American employees 910924
    • Panama: railroad concessions to foreigners and their relation to the Canal 11671206
    • United States: regulation of, by Interstate Commerce act 478
  • Receivers, British, French, and German consuls as, of Liberian customs 667701
  • Reciprocity concessions, list of 595 et seq.
  • Recognition by the United States of new governments in—
  • Recognition by the United States of sovereignty of Italy over Tripoli, Cyrenaica, and Libya 632
  • Recruiting in the United States for a foreign service 714, 744, 815, 818820
  • Red Cross, American:
    • Nicaragua: relief of famine XIII, 11091126
    • Ninth International Conference 1365
    • Turkey: relief given in Turco-Balkan war XX
  • Registration of property of foreigners in China 178180
  • Registry of foreign-built vessels 478 et seq.
  • Reid, Mr. Whitelaw, death of the American Ambassador 497499
  • Retaliatory murder by Mexican authorities protested against by the United States 788, 792
  • Revenue Act of Aug 27, 1894, referred to in Panama Canal Act 474
  • Revolutions:
  • Rights implied by terms of treaty 1224 et seq.
  • Rostron, Captain Arthur Henry, recognition of the services of 496497
  • Roumania. See Germany: wireless telegraph convention.
  • Russia:

S.

  • Salvador:
    • political disturbances; attitude of the United States 13101328
    • visit of the Secretary of State, 13281338
    • the coat of arms and the flag of Salvador 13391340
    • effect on Salvador of Honduran relations with the United States 593
    • offer of financial assistance to Honduras and Nicaragua 618
    • See also Nicaragua: 1012 et seq; 10371040, 1042, 10461050, 1067.
  • Sanitation of—
  • Scorpion, U. S. S. stationnaire at Constantinople. XX
  • Search of foreign merchant vessels by rebel forces for contraband of war 174175
  • Secretary of State, visit of the, to the countries of Central America and the Caribbean Sea:
  • Seizure of vessels. See Russia, 1288 et seq.
  • Self-preservation, treaty restrictions of the right of 1224 et seq.
  • Serbia: war with Turkey. XX, 13411354
  • Sherman Antitrust Act 474, 479, 488
  • Sherman, Vice President James S., death of 5
  • Slam. See China: International Opium Convention.
  • Siege, state of 746
  • Sierra Leone. See Liberia.
  • Smuggling of munitions of war 753
  • Smyrna, American interests at XX
  • South America, relations of the United States with the nations of XXIII
  • Sovereignty:
    • closure of port by a sovereign power, conditions required for 902
    • infringed by recruiting for a foreign service 815816, 818820
    • Italy, recognition by the United States of the sovereignty of, over Cyrenaica and Libya 632
    • Panama Canal 486
    • treaty restrictions of the rights of sovereignty, property, or self-preservation; opinion of the Solicitor 1224 et seq.
    • territorial waters, provisions of Revised Statutes of the United States in relation to customs regulations 1287
  • Spain. See Germany: wireless telegraph convention.
  • Speech from the throne by the Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide of Luxemburg 706
  • Spitzbergen, protection of American interests in XX, 13051313
  • State and Federal authorities, cooperation of, in relation to the revolution in Mexico 888 et seq.
  • Statue of “La France” presented by France to the United States 439443
  • Statue of Washington presented to Mexico 905907
  • Students’ Congress, Third International, at Lima. XXIV
  • Submarines ordered by Peru in the United States. XXIV
  • Subsidy of shipping. See Great Britain: Panama Canal tolls.
  • Sweden. See Germany: wireless telegraph convention.
  • Syrians in Haiti 522, 523541

T.

  • Tacna-Arica dispute between Chile and Peru XI
  • Tariff:
    • tariff conventions, list of 595600
    • minimum tariff extended and subsequent trade discrimination (see Belgium) 9, 12
    • reductions in Dominican Republic 564, 592
    • admission without duty of shipbuilding materials 478 et seq.
  • Taxation:
    • collateral inheritance tax imposed in the United States on nonresident Danish heirs 323332
    • confiscatory taxation of foreigners by insurrectionary forces exercising de facto authority 907910
    • confiscatory taxation by Mexico on oil products 827
  • Telegraph. See Wireless telegraph.
  • Temporary refuge:
    • offered to the mandarins and the Manchu rulers by American diplomatic and consular officers 173174
    • granted to Chinese subjects by American diplomatic and consular officers in Mexico 926929
    • rights of 924926
  • Territorial integrity of American States (circular) 1
  • Territorial waters extended by Russia to twelve miles for customs purposes and control of fisheries 12871309
  • The Hague. See Hague.
  • Third Pan American Conference. XIX
  • Titanic, wreck of the 494497
  • Title:
    • registration of title to property of foreigners in China 178180
    • consular registration in Chosen 642647
  • Tolls. See Panama Canal.
  • Trade:
    • Central America, total annual trade of the United States with 1332
    • oils, American lubricating (see Belgium) 9
    • rights in Haiti of American citizens of Syrian birth 522, 523541
    • United States: general remarks. X, XII, XVXVII, XXVI
    • coastwise. See Panama Canal.
  • Trade and commerce, Act to protect, of July 2, 1890; reference in the Panama Canal Act 474
  • Trade-marks, protection of, in China; reference 177
  • Treasury Department. See Peru: “Sanitation of Iquitos,” 1281 et seq.
  • Treaties1: by country2
    • Austria-Hungary. See Hungary.
    • Bolivia and Peru: protocol relating to boundary dispute, reference 1279
    • Costa Rica and the United States: naturalization; text 227229
    • Cuba with France, Germany and Great Britain: draft agreement to arbitrate insurrectionary claims against Cuba; text 291293
    • Cuba and the United States: agreement of Dec 27, 1912, amending agreements of 1903, relating to Bahía Honda and Guantánamo naval stations; text 295297
    • Denmark and United States: inheritance tax; interpretation of article 7 of treaty of 1826 323333
    • Dominican Republic and Haiti: citation of treaty of 1874 371
    • Dominican Republic and United States: customs revenues convention of 1907 referred to 367, 368, 372
    • Ecuador and the United States: sanitation of Guayaquil; proposed bases for a convention 422434;text,424
    • France and the United States: arrangement for the reciprocal protection in China of literary and artistic property; correspondence and texts 175178
    • France, Germany and Great Britain with Cuba: draft agreement to arbitrate insurrectionary claims against Cuba; text 291293
    • Germany, France and Great Britain with Cuba: draft agreement to arbitrate insurrectionary claims against Cuba; text 291293
    • Great Britain and Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (1859 and 1860); reference 556
    • Great Britain and Liberia: Sierra Leone-Liberia (Kanre-Lahun) boundary agreement referred to 654 et seq.
    • Great Britain and the United States—
      • boundary waters treaty (1909); cited 483484
      • claims, outstanding pecuniary; memorandum of confirmation (Apr 26, 1912) of special agreement for arbitration; reference. XVII, 494
      • North Atlantic coast fisheries agreement of July 20, 1912, adopting with certain modifications the rules and methods of procedure recommended in the award of Sept 7, 1910; text 489494
      • fisheries convention of 1818 referred to 490, 1297
      • Clayton-Bulwer treaty (1850); cited 482487, 556
      • Hay-Pauncefote treaty (1901); cited 482486
      • treaty of Washington (1871); cited 484
    • Great Britain, France, and Germany with Cuba: draft agreement to arbitrate insurrectionary claims against Cuba; text 291293
    • Guatemala and Great Britain (1859 and 1860); reference 556
    • Haiti and Dominican Republic, citation of treaty of 1874 371
    • Honduras and Great Britain (1859 and 1860); reference 556
    • Honduras and the United States—
    • Hungary and the United States: copyright convention of January 30, 1912; text 78
    • Italy and Turkey: peace; notice of signing treaty of October 18, 1912 632
    • Liberia and Great Britain: Sierra Leone-Liberia (Kanre-Lahun) boundary agreement referred to 654 et seq.
    • Mexico and the United States: treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848); reference 1290
    • Nicaragua and Great Britain (1859 and 1860); reference 556
    • Nicaragua and United States—
    • Panama and the United States—
      • understanding concerning wireless telegraph installations; correspondence 12061240
      • convention for the construction of a ship canal (1903); cited 1221 et seq.
    • Peru and Bolivia: protocol relating to boundary dispute; reference 1279
    • Russia and the United States: convention ceding Alaska (1867); referred to 1295
    • Turkey and Italy: peace; notice of signing the treaty of October 18, 1912 632
    • United States and Costa Rica: naturalization; text 227229
    • United States and Cuba: agreement of December 27, 1912, amending agreements of 1903 relating to Bahia Honda and Guantanamo naval stations; text 295297
    • United States and Denmark: inheritance tax; interpretation of article 7 of treaty of 1826 323332
    • United States and Dominican Republic: customs revenues convention of 1907 referred to 367, 368, 372
    • United States and Ecuador: sanitation of Guayaquil; proposed bases for a convention 422434; text, 424
    • United States and France: arrangement for the reciprocal protection in China of literary and artistic property; correspondence and texts 175178
    • United States and Great Britain—
      • boundary waters treaty (1909); cited 483484
      • claims, outstanding pecuniary; memorandum of confirmation (Apr 26, 1912) of special agreement for arbitration; reference XVII, 494
      • fisheries: North Atlantic coast fisheries, agreement of July 20, 1912, adopting with certain modifications the rules and method of procedure recommended in the award of September 7, 1910; text 489494
      • fisheries convention of 1818 referred to 490, 1297
      • Clayton-Bulwer treaty (1850); cited 482487, 556
      • Hay-Pauncefote treaty (1901); cited 482486
      • treaty of Washington (1871); cited 484
    • United States and Honduras—
    • United States and Hungary: copyright convention of January 30, 1912; text 78
    • United States and Mexico: treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848); reference 1290
    • United States and Nicaragua—
    • United States and Panama—
      • understanding respecting wireless telegraph installations 12061240
      • convention for the construction of a ship canal (1903); cited 1221 et seq.
    • United States and Russia: convention ceding Alaska (1867); referred to 1295
    • United States and various, countries: tariff; citations of instances of governments obligating themselves respecting tariff changes 590600
  • Treaties: by subject—
    • arbitration. See “claims, outstanding pecuniary,” and “claims, insurrectionary.”
    • boundary—
      • Bolivia and Peru: protocol appointing commission; reference 1279
      • Great Britain and Liberia: special agreement relating to the Kanre-Lahun (Sierra Leone-Liberia) boundary; concluded in January, 1912, reference 654 et seq.
    • boundary waters—
      • United States and Great Britain—
        • treaty of 1909; cited 483484
        • treaty of Washington (1871); cited 484
    • canal, Panama—
      • Great Britain with Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua; reference 556
      • Clayton-Bulwer treaty referred to 482487, 556
      • Hay-Pauncefote treaty referred to 482486
    • canal, Suez, convention of 1888; references 482, 484, 485
    • claims, insurrectionary, Cuba with France, Germany, and Great Britain, Britain; draft agreement to arbitrate 291293
    • claims, outstanding pecuniary—United States and Great Britain; special agreement to arbitrate; confirmed April 26, 1912, by exchange of notes; reference XVII, 494
    • copyright—
    • customs revenues, United States and Dominican Republic; convention tion of 1907 referred to 340380, 367, 368, 372
    • customs. See Tariff.
    • extradition—
      • draft on extradition, submitted to the International Commission of Jurists at Rio de Janeiro; text 3739
      • United States and Honduras; text 619624
    • financial. See Loans.
    • fisheries—
      • United States and Great Britain—
        • North Atlantic Coast fisheries agreement of July 20, 1912, adopting with certain modifications the rules and method of procedure recommended in the award of September 7, 1910; text 489494
        • “Convention respecting fisheries, etc.” (1818); reference 490
    • friendship, commerce and navigation: United States and Denmark; treaty of 1826; invocation of article 7 (taxes), 323332; interpretation by District Court of Iowa 329330
    • inheritance tax. See Friendship, commerce and navigation.
    • loans—
      • United States and Honduras; text of proposed convention 560562
      • United States and Nicaragua; text of proposed convention 10741075
    • naturalization—
      • United States and Costa Rica; convention of June 10, 1911; text 227229
      • United States and Nicaragua; conventions of December 7, 1908, and June 17, 1911; texts 11051107, 11071109
    • naval stations at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo: United States and Cuba; reference, xxv; text of agreement, signed December 27, 1912, amending agreements of February 1623 and July 2, 1903 295297
    • peace, Italy and Turkey; notice of signing the treaty of October 18, 1912 632
    • protection, reciprocal, in China, of literary and artistic property; arrangement between the United States and France for; correspondence and texts 175178
    • reciprocity. See Tariff.
    • sanitation of Guayaquil, United States and Ecuador; proposed bases for a convention 422434; text, 424
    • sovereignty—
      • Great Britain with Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; reference 556
      • Haiti and Dominican Republic; citation of treaty of 1874 371
    • tariff—
      • United States with various countries; citations of instances of governments obligating themselves respecting tariff changes 590600
      • instances of treaty obligations not to change customs tariffs 590, 595
    • territorial waters—
      • instances of treaty provisions relating to territorial limits of municipal authority 1289 et seq.
      • United States and Great. Britain; convention respecting fisheries, boundary, etc. (1818) referred to 1297
      • United States and Russia; convention ceding Alaska (1867) referred to, 1295
    • wireless telegraph—
      • United States and Panama; understanding respecting wireless telegraph installations 12061240
      • United States and Panama; treaty of 1903 cited 1221 et seq.
  • Treaties, international: by subject—
    • China; final protocol of 1901 invoked in defense of foreign settlements 161171
    • claims; “Convention respecting the limitation of the employment of force for the recovery of contract debts” (Second Hague Conventions; Oct. 18, 1907); reference 502
    • Fur-seal Convention of July 7, 1911, between the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan; reference. XVII
    • Hague Conventions of 1907; references—
      • limitation of the employment of force for the recovery of contract tract debts 502
      • rights and duties of neutral powers and persons in war on land 741
    • International Commission of Jurists, convention for establishing an; concluded by the Third International American Conference August 23, 1906; references XXI, 18 et seq.
    • neutrality, “Convention respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers and persons in war on land” (Second Hague Conventions; October 18, 1907); reference 741
    • opium, morphine, and cocaine—
      • international opium convention signed at The Hague January 23, 1912; text 196204
      • protocol de clôture of the International Opium Conference, January 23, 1912; reference, XXI; text 193196
    • peace and amity, Central American States. The “Washington conventions of 1907;” reference to the “General treaty of peace and amity concluded at the Central American Peace Conference of 1907, between Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador” 549, 557, 558, 572, 594
    • tariff, various countries; lists of treaties relating to changes of tariffs 590600
    • telegraph; extract from the International Telegraph Convention signed at St. Petersburg July 10/22, 1875 465466
    • telegraph. See also Wireless telegraph.
    • territorial waters, 1287; London Naval Conference referred to 1290
    • Turco-Balkan war; application of the Treaty of Berlin (1878) 1341
    • wireless telegraph; texts of the convention, supplementary agreement, final protocol, and service regulations, with supplement to article 38 thereof, signed at Berlin November 3, 1906, and proclaimed May 25, 1912 444465
  • Treaties, international—
    • novel provisions for signing and ratifying and providing for arbitration 202203, 217219
    • construction of, 330; opinion of the Solicitor as to the proper form of negotiations with Panama relative to wireless telegraph installation in view of the Panama Canal treaty of 1903 12211233
  • Tripoli, sovereignty of Italy over 632
  • Troops, Mexican, permitted to pass over American soil 888900
  • Turkey:
  • Understanding between the United States and Panama concerning wireless telegraph installations 12061240
  • United States:
  • Universal Postal Union in relation to transmission of habit-forming drugs 195
  • Universities; interchange of professors and students in the American States 2
  • Uruguay XXIV
  • Venezuela:
    • claims under the Washington protocols, payment of XXIV
    • visit of the Secretary of State to Venezuela 13551364
  • Vera Cruz, closure of port of 900903
  • Veteranista agitation in Cuba; attitude of the United States 236242
  • Visit of the Secretary of State to—
  • Wireless telegraph:
    • international convention; texts 444466
    • treaty rights of the United States in Panama 12061240
  • War:
  • Wars between—
    • Italy and Turkey 632
    • Turkey and Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece 13411354
  • War Department. See Mexico: American claims, 969 et seq; see also Peru: “Sanitation of Iquitos,” 1281 et seq.
  • Washington conventions of 1907 549, 557, 558, 572, 594, 1310
  • Washington, statue of, presented to Mexico by Americans 905907
  • Zapata swamp concession in Cuba 309322
  1. Including agreements, arrangements, and understandings.
  2. See also, post, “Treaties: by subject” and “Treaties, international: by subject.”