Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, Transmitted to Congress, With the Annual Message of the President, December 5, 1881
Pin to Mr. Evarts.
Washington, January 21, 1881.
Sir: Referring to the recent riot and attack upon the Chinese residents in Denver, Col., I had the honor to address you a note on the 10th of November last, stating the facts petitioned to me from the Chinese there; and at the same time I had authorized the consul-general at San Francisco to appoint a member to proceed to Denver for making investigations on this subject.
According to the report of Mr. F. A. Bee, Chinese consul, who went personally to Denver and investigated thoroughly the case, I learn that the occurrence of the riot was owing to the incompetency of the authorities, and that it resulted in a homicide and the wholesale robbery of the property of the Chinese, Mr. Bee also procured the statements of the losses sustained by the Chinese, each signed by the individual sufferer; a copy of the verdict of the jury, and the evidence of the witnesses taken before the coroner’s jury at the inquest over the dead body of Look-Young, otherwise Sing Le; and the statement of Mr. Pomeroy.
The above-named documents were forwarded to me by the consul-general at San Francisco, and while I was preparing to send you copies of the same, I received your note of the 30th ultimo, which I read and considered carefully. I find some parts of it highly gratifying, and some which I do not quite comprehend. Allow me, sir, therefore to mention to you what these are.
It is stated in your note that “these Chinese residents are to receive the same measure of protection and vindication under judicial and political administration of their rights as our own citizens,” and that “our government will, upon every occasion, as far as it properly can, give its continued attention to every just and proper solicitude of the Chinese Government in behalf of its subjects established here,” and “not only in Denver, but in every other part of the United States, the protection of this government will always be, as it always has been, freely and fully given to the natives of China resident in the country, in the same manner and to the same extent as it is afforded to our own citizens,” and that “the President, upon the receipt of the information that in this outbreak of the mob violence, the Chinese residents of Denver had been made a special object of the hatred and violence of the lawless mob, felt much indignation and regret, and that in common with my colleagues in the executive government, I shared fully in the sentiment of the President.”
The above extracts indicate the friendly and kind feeling of your government, and I need not assure you that I feel gratified by their avowal, and that my government on learning of them will share that sentiment with me.
As regards the arrest and punishment of the persons guilty of destroying life and property, it is stated in your note that “the brutal and lawless composed such mob.” It is clear that these guilty persons are detested throughout the country, and ought to be punished severely in order to give a warning against Similar recurrences. But I regret to learn from your note that the powers of direct intervention on the part of the United States Government are limited by the Constitution.[Page 322]
It appears to me that treaties as well as the Constitution are the supreme law of this land. The Chinese residents who were subjected to the wanton outrage of the mob, came to this country under the right of treaties between China and the general Government of the United States, and not with Colorado or any individual State.
Thus the case under consideration should be a question of intercourse between China and the United States, and different from that to be dealt with under the ordinary internal administration of a State. It was with this view that I had in my last note requested you to cause this, case to be examined. But I fail to learn from your note the number of the guilty persons that have been arrested, and how they have been punished or dealt with, and how the general Government of the United States has exercised, or intends to exercise, its power in executing the treaty obligations to protect the Chinese. Indeed I cannot see where these residents should seek for protection.
As regards the indemnity of losses of property, I noted from your dispatch that:
Such incidents are peculiar to no country, and as the local authorities brought into requisition all the means at their command for the suppression of the mob, you know of no principle which renders it incumbent on the Government of the United States to make indemnity to the Chinese residents.
It is therefore manifest, whether the indemnity shall be made or not, depends upon whether the local authorities had brought into requisition all the means for the suppression of the mob. According to the report of investigation, I learn that the Chinese residents of Denver have been made a special object of the hatred, violence, and bitter persecution of the lawless mob, which is quite different from the sudden attack of a band of depredators directed against the whole community of the place, involving (as you have intimated) for the moment the lives and property of all alike; and that the local authorities knew well at the beginning of the outbreak that this mob was directed solely against the Chinese; but instead of meeting the mob with a proper force, they ordered the firemen to throw water on them, and took no measures to cause the immediate arrests of the rioters then and there; and during the prevalence of the riot they put the Chinese in jail, and most of them, as it is asserted, remained there three days for safety, and no guard was placed over their property or places of business; thus the mob had free access to rob at their leisure. These are real facts, known to all. I beg to call your attention to the following verdict of the coroner’s jury:
The evidence shows that the said mob could have been suppressed by the regular force had they fearlessly arrested the ringleaders; but which, owing to the disorganized condition of the police force of the city and the incompetency and inefficiency of its government by the proper authority and the failure of the county authorities to render the necessary aid and assistance required in such emergencies, the mob assumed such proportions as culminated in the destruction of human life and the disgrace of the city in not affording protection to life and property.
This verdict shows clearly that the local authorities had not brought into requisition all the means for the suppression of the mob. The treaty between China and the United States says:
Article I. There shall be, as there has always been, peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Taching Empire and their people respectively. They shall not insult or oppress each other, &c.
The Chinese residents came to this country under the right of the treaty, and were peaceably pursuing their calling. In this present case there was no other cause for the murderous outrage than the hatred of [Page 323]the mob which brought on them the loss of life and property. The local officials failed to render necessary, timely, and proper protection to the innocent sufferers at the beginning and greater part of the outbreak, nor have they since exerted their utmost in the recovery of the plundered goods and making reparations for their losses. I do not see that this can be considered as full protection according to the treaty stipulations.
I have the honor to send you herewith two copies of Consul Bee’s reports and other papers, and requesting you again that you will be so good as to take the matter into your impartial consideration, and that you will deal with this case in a reasonable and satisfactory manner, justifiable to the moral sense, and when you reach a conclusion I hope you will favor me with a reply, that I may report to my government.
Accept, sir, &c.,
Report of F. A. Bee, Chinese consul.
San Francisco, December 8, 1880.
Sir: I have the honor to report to your excellency that in accordance with your instructions given me to “visit the city of Denver, State of Colorado, and investigate the acts of a mob that destroyed the lives and property of Chinese subjects residing there on the 31st day of October, 1880, and communicate the result of such investigation to you.”
In conformity therewith, I left this consulate on Tuesday, November 23, arriving at Denver at midnight of the 27th, having been detained en route twenty hours by snow storms. Returning, I left Denver December 1, arriving here on the 5th, having been delayed twenty-four hours by extreme cold weather and snow storms.
The city of Denver is distant by rail from San Francisco 1,530 miles; the city proper has a population of nearly 40,000 souls, including about 450 Chinese.
Immediately upon my arrival, I called a meeting of the resident Chinese and made known to them my mission as well as your instructions, requesting that they should promptly furnish me a true and correct statement of their losses by the mob of October 31, 1880. In due time and in compliance with my request I received one hundred and forty-one vouchers of losses in detail, each article lost or destroyed, as well as money, being given, and value carried out. To obviate and condense this large number of claims I caused to be made a balance-sheet of the true total of each claim, requiring each one to make oath to its correctness after signature. I herewith transmit to your excellency these sworn statements, numbered respectively from 1 to 141.
That you may see what the property lost generally consists of, I refer you to claims No. 1 and from 136 to 141; the articles being specified will give you a good idea of all.
To further carry out your requests, I called upon prominent citizens of Denver to obtain information as to the cause that led to this mob violence against the Chinese, its origin, &c.
For a full and correct (as I was informed) history of the outrage, I call your excellency’s attention to Document A, consisting of four pages of printed matter, extracts from the press of Denver giving full details published the day following the riot. Also Document B, containing the statement of M. M. Pomeroy, esq., a prominent citizen of Denver, to whose endeavors may be credited what action was taken to quell the riot, however weak and unsuccessful.
To enable you to judge as to the action of the city and county authorities towards the punishment of the leaders in this riotous proceeding, I procured after considerable delay the evidence of several witnesses, taken before the coroner’s jury at the inquest over the dead body of Look Young. (See Document C.) Page 1 contains the verdict or findings of the jury. I call your attention therein to the strong language used towards the authorities.
Your attention is respectfully called to my letter to their excellencies, the Chinese ministers, giving the particulars in reference to the deceased Chinaman, place of nativity, age, &c.
I desire to call your attention to the case of Wong Tan Chung, whose claim for losses [Page 324]is numbered 86. He received most brutal treatment from the mob; a rope was placed about his neck, and he was dragged through the street, at the same time being beaten and bruised in a most cruel manner, and would no doubt have been murdered had not a citizen cut the rope and thus enabled him to escape from his would-be murderers. Many other cruel deeds might be enumerated. I was informed that seven Chinamen were temporarily stopping in Denver over Sunday (the day of the riot), intending to leave on Monday for China; that they came from the Black Hawk mine, where they had been engaged in mining; each one had from $700 to $1,000 in money, all of which was taken from them by the mob, as well as having their personal effects destroyed. These men had left Denver when I arrived, and I could not get such information as would enable me to present to you their loss. I would suggest that efforts be made to find their present place of residence.
I learned from an officer of the city government of Denver that upwards of 400 Chinese were placed in the county prison and kept there for three days as a measure of precaution. In fact during the prevalence of the riot 150 were taken out of their houses by citizens and placed in jail. As no guard was placed over their property or places of business the mob had free access to rob at their leisure.
The utter incompetency of the authorities to put down the mob was evident, and such was the opinion expressed to me by all.
I took occasion to call upon the mayor of Denver (Mr. Sporis), with the view of obtaining further information in this connection. In this I failed, as the whole interview was taken up by the mayor in describing to me how he dispersed the mob by the use of water. To quote his words: “When I found that they were determined to kill as well as rob, I ordered the firemen to throw the water upon them, which made them scatter.”
Thus you can judge what protection the Chinese residents of Denver had from its officials when they were being robbed and murdered by a drunken mob.
In this connection I call your attention to the fact that the entire police force of the city consists of only 15 men, with no discipline or organization to cope with an emergency; but the facts show that the mob had no opposition from 2 o’clock until 10 p.m., when their murderous work was complete.
I also called upon his excellency Governor Pitkin, but found him engaged with the State board of canvassers, and therefore failed to see him.
In reference to the cause that brought about this riot, there was but one opinion among all classes of good citizens—that the Chinese residents had given no cause for the outrage, but, on the contrary, were law-abiding and peaceable. My attention was directed to the fact that not one of the 400 resident Chinese had ever been before the courts of Denver for the crime of theft; therefore the only object the mob had was rapine and murder.
I have, &c.,
His Imperial Chinese Majesty’s Consul.
His Excellency Chen Shu Tang,
His Imperial Chinese Majesty’s Consul-General, San Francisco, Cal.
Mr. Bee to the Chinese ministers.
Sirs: I have the honor to inform your excellencies that I have obtained the following facts in reference to the Chinaman who was so brutally murdered by the mob at the city of Denver, State of Colorado, on the 31st day of October, 1880.
The name of the deceased was Look Young, and employed at the Sing Lee laundry. His native place is in Hock Sun, about 80 miles from the city of Canton, China. His age was twenty-eight years. He leaves a wife, father, and mother in China, who were wholly dependent upon him for support. Had been a resident of the United States for four years and six months, and had resided in Denver for six months previous to his death.
For your information in relation to his murder please see inclosed statements from the newspapers. I have, &c.,
His Imperial Chinese Majesty’s Consul.
Estimate of losses sustained by Chinese residents during the riot in Denver, October 31, 1880.
|No.||Name.||Estimated loss.||No.||Name.||Estimated loss.|
|1||Quong Wah||$1,780 80||73||Lin Kong||$259 50|
|2||Wah Hing||713 45||74||Sing Lee||100 50|
|3||Chu Mung Lang||264 45||75||Quon Sam Kee||188 50|
|4||Ah Ou||164 00||76||Len Chee||300 75|
|5||Wah Kee||575 87||77||Ah Ming||848 50|
|6||Quong Fing||108 50||78||Yan Kim||289 85|
|7||Hop Kee||53 75||79||Ah Gau, Ah Fee’s wife||2,260 50|
|8||Hop Lee||88 85||80||Ah Yot||150 00|
|9||Gee Wa||68 00||81||Yee Ah Hop||544 50|
|10||Ling Sing (wife)||260 50||82||Chin Miai Nam||569 50|
|11||Yee Ah Foe||367 50||83||Chin Wah Him||361 50|
|12||Ah John’s wife||264 00||84||Hop Lee||196 00|
|13||Hong Wau||515 00||85||Chin Lum Hing||149 00|
|14||Yee Yot||139 50||86||Wung Yau Chung||615 50|
|15||Ah Yung||77 75||87||Wau Yee Sen||447 25|
|16||Sam Sing||333 85||88||Sam Kee||375 00|
|17||Hum Bark||416 50||89||Dou Dock||469 50|
|18||Sing Kee||263 65||90||Yee Foy||293 50|
|19||Wah Lee||750 00||91||Lee Hong||1,646 00|
|20||Ah Quong||240 50||92||Sam Wah||71 00|
|21||Co Wah||127 50||93||Say Kim||647 75|
|22||Same Kee||165 00||94||Wee Chung||216 30|
|23||Cheng Yung||279 25||95||Ah Oy’s||99 50|
|24||Loo Hing||159 75||96||Ah Moon||204 00|
|25||Lee Doe||94 00||97||Yok Hi On||358 75|
|26||See Lee||73 20||98||Yee Chaw||350 00|
|27||Ah Gee||280 75||99||Un Sing Lee||140 50|
|28||Lun Shing||96 25||100||Sung Lung||305 50|
|29||Gim Som Sin||366 50||101||Yee Sick Youn||471 50|
|30||See Chung||100 35||102||
|31||Yee Shee Chung||647 75||537 50|
|32||Ah Wie||557 00||103||Ping Hing||368 00|
|33||Don Jah||192 00||104||Ah Yee||68 00|
|34||Sam Lee||85 75||105||Yee Ah Quon||228 50|
|35||Sing Lee’s partner||91 00||106||Yee Gee Wah||697 00|
|36||Yee Ah Chung||290 50||107||Ah Gah||28 00|
|37||Ying Wah||253 60||108||Yee Kee||186 50|
|38||Sing Lee’s partner||50 00||109||Yee Qua Wah||1,159 00|
|39||Sam Long||46 25||110||Ah Song||181 50|
|40||Yee Chune||271 00||111||Loui Hop Shoung||84 75|
|41||Ah Yong||42 50||112||Nu Hlueien||474 00|
|42||Yee Lock||1,907 10||113||Leon Fong||1,304 00|
|43||Un Faun||207 00||114||Len Yuen||592 00|
|44||Yu Ha (woman)||701 00||115||Choi Wing||190 75|
|45||Eu Ah Soi||1,020 50||116||Lee Gang||95 60|
|46||Di Hal (woman)||454 50||117||Woo Ah Jim||330 50|
|47||Sing Kee||321 25||118||Loo Chung||226 00|
|48||Yee Gum Yum||470 00||119||Lim Jung||158 00|
|49||Yee Tung Sing||156 50||120||Yee Young Wah||586 00|
|50||Yee Ah Joo||492 00||121||Hop Kee||487 75|
|51||Un Qui||875 00||122||Yee Sin||176 00|
|52||Lieu Fouk||349 50||123||Wah Lee Yee Che Quong||136 72|
|53||Hung Wan||261 45||124||Yee Taw||342 35|
|54||Sing Wah||281 40||125||Ah Joe||711 50|
|55||Wau Ching||13 00||126||Yee Sing Chung||291 00|
|56||Chin Kee||947 00||127||Chin Chow||166 00|
|57||Yau Chung||487 70||128||Ah Lang||532 00|
|58||Yee Chin Young||235 50||129||Koung Nee||312 75|
|59||Yee Ah Joe||492 00||130||Ah Bow||267 25|
|60||Shun Baun||731 00||131||Sing Lee||454 15|
|61||Yee Ah Fu||352 50||132||Ah Jim||119 00|
|62||Ham Tip||248 00||133||Yak Man||134 00|
|63||Sing Long||630 00||134||Soue Quie||584 80|
|64||Wy Chung||331 75||135||Bang Kee||993 50|
|65||Sou Sing||416 50||136||Ah You||160 75|
|66||Sam Leong||221 50||137||Quong Sing||744 50|
|67||Ah Kee||35 75||138||Ah Fee||282 00|
|68||Ah Ken||115 50||139||Ah Wie||107 75|
|69||Chov Yee||160 00||140||Low Get||127 70|
|70||Ah Show||269 00||141||Ed Shun||136 00|
|71||Sam Sing||46 00|
|72||Ah Au’s wife||65 50||Total||53,655 69|
Testimony before the coroner’s jury sitting on the body of Sing Lee.
State of Colorado,
County of Arapaho, ss:
An inquisition held at Denver on November 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 15, A. D. 1880, before Thomas Linton, coroner of said county and State aforesaid, on the body of Sing Lee, lying there dead.
The jurors, whose names are hereto subscribed, after having first viewed the body and heard the evidence adduced at the inquest, on their oaths do say:
That the said Sing Lee came to his death at the office of Dr. O. G. Cranston, in the Moffat and Rassler block, in the city of Denver, on the 31st day of October, A. D. 1880, at 8.30 o’clock p.m., from compression of the brain, caused by being beaten and kicked by——Corrigan, Ed. Wendell, Fred. Miller, and——Krieger, aided and abetted by other parties to the jury at present unknown, at the corner of Arapaho, and Nine teenth, and between Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets, in the city of Denver and county and State aforesaid, about 7 o’clock p.m. of said day.
And we further find that the said mob was but the outgrowth of a drunken attack by two or three white men on some Chinese in the rear of their quarters between Blake and Wazee streets, near Sixteenth, and, which the evidence shows, could have been suppressed by the regular police force had they fearlessly arrested the ringleaders; but which, owing to the disorganized condition of the police force of the city, and the incompetency and inefficiency of its government by the proper authority, and the failure of the county authorities to render the necessary aid and assistance required in such emergencies, the mob assumed such proportions as culminated in the destruction of human life and the disgrace of the city in not affording protection to life and property.
- GEO. TRITCH.
- JOHN T. IRELAND.
- G. P. McARTHUR.
- J. A. J. BIGLER.
- JAMES A. MILLER.
- J. C. McKEE.
Thomas Linton, Coroner.
Stephen Gill, being duly sworn, says:
I live at 364 Wellon street, and work for Higgins, the ice man. I was present on Arapaho and Sixteenth street on last Sunday eve, and was there when the mayor arrived. I saw the mob there present, and heard the leader of the mob say to throw the Chinaman in the wagon or they would finish him. He was put in the wagon, and I believe he was then dead. I believe the dead body here is the same Chinaman, by his size and general appearance. At the time I saw him in the wagon he was lying cramped up, and bruised on the head and face. The crowd and the leader directed the driver to take the Chinaman down to headquarters and to the undertakers. Someone suggested that they ought to serve the mayor, when he came, in the same way. After the body was taken away the mob fell back, but I don’t know where they went. I next saw a mob at the corner of Fifteenth and Arapaho, and they went over towards the Chinese house back of Parham’s drug-store. The man whom I considered as the leader was about 5 feet 10 inches high, and rather heavy set, but, I think, had no whiskers. I met, the next day on Wazee street, a man by the name of James McCann, who said to me that, “We cleaned them out yesterday; we gave them hell; God damn them; they have got to go.” I don’t know the driver of the wagon. The wagon had an oil-cloth top, but no side curtains. It looked like a market wagon. I think I would know the man who made the remark, “They would finish him if he was not taken away,” if I would see him again. He had on a dark old-style cloth coat, the balance of his clothes being dark. I have seen the prisoners in the county jail, and I recognize a man there whom I believe to be the man whom I heard make the remarks I have heretofore spoken of. He gave his name as Ed. Trondell.
Nicholas G. Kendall says:
I live at 507 Stout street, this city. I am working at a shoe-store near the corner of Nineteenth and Larimer. On last Sunday I came down town about 7 o’clock from home and saw the mob come from Blake street to Nineteenth street and up Nineteenth street as far as Lawrence. During the time I was behind the mob until near Nineteenth and Holliday and then I went ahead of the mob to the corner of Nineteenth and Lawrence. [Page 327]They went straight to Sing Lee’s house and commence breaking in the windows. A portion of the mob went into the house in the rear. They proceeded to break up everything and throw it out. There were about ten went into the house. They caught one Chinaman and brought him out with a rope around his neck, and they were dragging with the rope while he was on his back. The Chinaman got the rope off and run around the building and out across the lot. While he was being dragged I saw one man strike him with a chair or table and take down a lamp from a bracket. I don’t believe I would recognize the man. The man who struck the Chinaman had on an old-fashioned stiff square-top hat. His clothing was light colored. After going out back I saw the same Chinaman, I believe, across on the other side of the alley on the steps of a brick house attempting to get up the stairs and struggling to release himself from a white man. There were two white women trying to defend the Chinaman, but the white man got possession of the Chinaman, and the crowd then came up and cried, “Cut.off his cue; cut off his nose,” &c. I saw a man open his pocket-knife when a man said, “Cut off his cue.”
I then left and did not see what was done to him until ten or fifteen minutes afterwards. I saw them throw him into the wagon at Eighteenth and Arapaho. The crowd following the wagon went down Arapaho toward Fifteenth street. This is all I saw of the affair. I have seen the prisoners at the jail and at the sheriff’s office but I don’t recognize any of them as having seen them at the mob. During part of the time spoken of there were with me two men by the name of James Smith and—— Gilmore who live at Nineteenth and Holliday, and I afterwards saw Smith again at Lawrence and Nineteenth street during the riot.
Dr. C. C. Bradbury:
I live at 533 Arapaho street in this city; am a physician. About half past seven last Sunday I was attracted by the noise of the mob, and I went out of the house and down to Nineteenth street, and first met the mob, in the rear of Sing Lee’s place. I went into the crowd and saw that one man had the Chinaman (deceased) by the cue, and another had a rope around deceased’s neck. They were then moving towards the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho. I made every remonstrance that I could with the mob. I was pushed away repeatedly by them. The mob took deceased to the corner with the avowed purpose of hanging him. When they got there I took hold of the leader and endeavored to persuade them not to hang him; in doing so I was pushed across the ditch. I made my way to deceased and he was pulled out of the ditch by the mob by the rope and by the cue. While being held up by one of the mob his cue was cut off by another. Deceased was at that time nearly insensible, he having been beaten by part of the mob with a large oak stick. At the time his cue was cut off, my wife and Mrs. Cale then stepped between the deceased and the mob. The crowd then fell back except these two leaders. I grappled one of the leaders and released the Chinaman (deceased) and with the help of some parties who appeared on the ground he succeeded in getting across the street when he was again seized by the mob. They then dragged him down Arapaho toward Eighteenth by the rope and the collar or the remainder of his cue. About halfway between Eighteenth and Nineteenth on Arapaho, and while near the fence they stopped again and commenced beating and kicking him. I again made my way to him, and while they were beating him I got between one of the leaders and deceased again. One of the leaders (the short one), then told me to get out of the way or he would kill me, and at that time one of the crowd struck me from behind three times on the side of the head with his fist. At that time I was standing between one of the leaders and the deceased and leaning over the deceased when the blood from deceased spurted over my clothing. Deceased was then on his knees held in that position by one of the leaders who was kicking him and the other was pounding him on the head with his fists. I then got deceased released again and he was grasped by some young men whom I had urged to assist and take around the corner, and while I was between the principal leader and deceased, he was thrown into a wagon and taken away down Arapaho street, and I did not see him again.
I have seen the prisoners in the jail, but I cannot positively say that I recognize any of them as members of that mob. One of them answers the description of one of the leaders except in height.
I have seen two prisoners in the sheriff’s office and am rather positive they are the two leaders of the mob above spoken to.
I live at 212 Tenth street, and am a newsboy. I have lived in Denver two years. I saw the mob at the corner of Wazee and Sixteenth streets last Sunday, and on Blake and Seventeenth. While I was there the water was thrown on the mob and they dispersed. I then left and returned about half-past five to Wazee and Sixteenth streets, [Page 328]and saw that all the Chinese quarters were destroyed, and they were in charge of the police. There were a good many boys and men standing around. After I left there Henry Eichoff and I went up to Nineteenth and Arapaho, where the mob were then collected. The first thing I saw was the mob in charge of a Chinaman near a lamppost, at corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho. I had first seen them take the Chinaman from the rear of the house to the lamp-post. He had been beaten and was all bloody. One man was holding him by the cue, and I heard him say, “I have got his cue.” I saw a man also with a hatchet; he was a short man. The man who cut off the cue was tall and wore a stiff hat, but crushed down at the top. Some of the crowd wanted to release him and the tall man hallooed for a rope to hang him. The short man wanted to kill him. I think I would know the two men if I was to see them. I did not know any of the men in the mob.
I have been over to the sheriff’s office and seen the prisoners there and recognize the tall man as the man who cut off the cue and called for the rope to hang him, but I cannot say positively that the small man was the other. The tall one I afterwards saw carrying off clothing from the Chinese house in the rear of the Grand Central Hotel, between 8 and 10 o’clock p.m. This house was destroyed by the same mob that attacked Sing Lee’s house at the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho.
Dr. O. G. Cranston:
I live at 545 Curtis, and am a physician. On last Sunday night about half-past eight or nine o’clock, the body of a man was brought in a wagon to the hall in front of my office. I examined him and found him still alive, and he was carried up into my room (No. 13 Moffatt and Kassler block) and laid on a lounge, and I went to work to try and resuscitate him by giving him stimulants. I found a cut on the left side of his head through the scalp clear to the skull. As far as examined I did not consider the skull fractured. By rubbing and counter-irritants we succeeded in raising his pulse and he breathed easier. He had a wound on his forehead, over the right eye, and the right side of his face was swollen considerably. His teeth were mostly all loose, and we took out some which were entirely broken out. He was bruised all over the body as though he had been kicked. His feet and hands and limbs to his body were cold, and he was in a cold sweat when brought there. The indications were that he was hurt internally and probably some rupture of a blood vessel. I think the cause of his death was concussion of the brain. There was no fracture of the skull, but concussion frequently occurs from a jar of the brain, as being struck by a broad instrument, jaring and paralyzing the brain. There were marks on his neck as though caused by strangulation, but don’t think that the cause of his death. I attended him to near his death in company with Dr. Park and Dr. Coburn. He was in my office about one and a half hours before he died.
I live on Fifteenth, near the bridge; I am fifteen years old; I am a newsboy Last Sunday I saw the crowd on Fifteenth and Blake about dusk. I afterwards went up to the corner of Nineteenth and Lawrence and saw the mob have a Chinaman at the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho, and heard them crying to hang him. I had followed the crowd to see what they were going to do, and I heard them say, “Now for Nineteenth and Lawrence.” When I got to Nineteenth and Lawrence, I saw that the windows were broken in, and they had run the Chinese out, and the crowd had the deceased at the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho at a lamp-post, and were threatening to hang him, and were calling for a rope. They then told him to run for his life, and he started to run, and he was moaning as he ran, and the crowd followed and struck him, and caught him again between Eighteenth and Nineteenth, on Arapaho. They afterwards threw him into a wagon at the comer of Eighteenth and Arapaho. I heard some one say, “Cut off his cue,” and I heard the large man say, “I have; I have got it in my pocket.” This man had on a stiff hat. I afterwards saw this same man carrying away clothing from the Chinese house in the rear of Grand Central hotel. I had seen this man striking and kicking the deceased at Arapaho and Nineteenth, and between Eighteenth and Nineteenth on Arapaho. He took the clothing down Seventeenth street past the Grand Central Hotel. I have seen two men in the sheriff’s office but don’t recognize them as having seen them in the mob. I did not see the rope oh the Chinaman’s neck. From the corner of Arapaho and Nineteenth the Chinaman was released and told to run for his life, and started to run, but was overtaken about halfway to Eighteenth and seized again by the mob and beaten again. He ran and was dragged to Eighteenth, and was there thrown into the wagon, and the wagon started down Arapaho towards the ’bus barn. I saw the same man who seemed to be the leader at Arapaho and Nineteenth down at the Chinese house in the rear of the Grand Central Hotel carrying away clothes under his arm down past the Grand Central. I followed the crowd down to the Grand Central from Arapaho and Nineteenth.
I live at the corner of Nineteenth and California, and am a barber. Last Sunday about 6 or 7 o’clock p.m., I was passing the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho on my way home, and saw the mob at that place near the lamp-post in charge of a Chinaman. One of the mob had the Chinaman by the cue and said he would cut his throat, and put his hand in his pocket. Not wanting to see the man’s throat cut, I moved away. The man who made the threat had a sandy mustache, and a soft hat, dark coat, rather tall. I don’t believe I would recognize him again. I think from his appearance he might have been an Irishman. I saw another man kick the Chinaman while he was down on the ground, and as the Chinaman raised up another man struck him. I then crossed over the street and could not see anything more, but I noticed the Chinaman had wounds on the right side of his head, and the blood was running from the wounds. I noticed an old gentleman with white beard remonstrating with the men who were holding the Chinaman, and one man standing near said to him, to “Stand back,” “Go away,” and pushed the old man away.
I live at 289 Twentieth street. I am collector for James Duff, and agent for Mr. Horr’s property, occupied recently by the deceased on Lawrence and Nineteenth. Last Sunday eve, about 7 o’clock, on the corner of Nineteenth and Larimer, I first saw the mob attempting to destroy a Chinese house. After breaking in that building they went to the corner of Nineteenth, and Lawrence. I was knocked down at the corner of Nineteenth and Larimer by a man while I was trying to protect the property for Mr. Horr. I did not know the man, and he escaped in the crowd. I was told by the crowd that if I attempted to assist the Chinese that they would serve me the same as the Chinese. I think my assailant was an Irishman. I heard some parties then call out to the mob to come on and they would go to the corner of Lawrence and Nineteenth, and clean out that place. When they got there they attacked Sing Lee’s place with axes, hatchets, stones, & c., and broke in the windows and doors. I saw two men with hatchets, and one of them took the hatchet from his overcoat pocket.
- One of these men with hatchets I saw seize the Chinaman in the rear of the building, and drag him to the lamp-post at the corner of Arapaho and Nineteenth. I heard him say he was going to take the town in and kill every damned son of a bitch of a Chinaman he could find. I saw the same man cut off the cue of the Chinaman. This man was a dark complexioned man, tall, with dark beard and mustache, and about thirty-five or forty years of age.
- I saw another man assisting in dragging the Chinaman by the arm. He was a short man, sandy complexioned, dark coat, dark brown pants, and black soft hat, short stubby whiskers. I have been over to the sheriff’s office, and have seen two prisoners there, and I recognize one of the prisoners there as the tall man I have heretofore spoken of (Corrigan). He was the third man who entered Sing Lee’s building and found deceased under the lounge and commenced beating him, and dragged him out and said, “Here is one of them, the son of a bitch; we will kill him.” He helped drag him out by the collar, and two others assisted and got him into the back yard, and there they beat him again. They then got the clothes-line, and Corrigan said, “We will hang him to the tree,” and the others said to hang him to the lamp-post. They dragged him by the rope which they had put around his neck, across the ditch and street to the lamp-post, and a dark-complexioned man went to the lamp-post to throw the rope over, and a lady present begged them not to hang him. I also asked them not to hang him, and they said they would hang me if I did not keep still. I have been to the county jail, and among the prisoners I recognize a man there as the same man as heretofore marked No. 2. I also saw another man there that I have heretofore spoken of as No. 3 I also saw another man there (Craigen), that I recognize as having seen at the head of the mob on Larimer street. He is a tall young man, no whiskers. He was present aiding the mob and throwing into the house on Larimer street. He gave his name as Gregory (Craiger) at the jail. The crowd at Larimer street then shouted to go to Lawrence street, and hallooed for Hancock. When I left the lamp-post where they were trying to hang Sing Lee, I did not see anything more. I heard the man described as No. 2 tell Sing Lee they were going to kill him.
I live at 497 Arapaho street, and am a baker; I saw the mob first at the corner of Nineteenth and Larimer, about 7 o’clock in the evening, on their way to Sing Lee’s place. I went home and returned in a short time, and saw the crowd in possession of a Chinaman whom they were dragging toward the lamp-post; I followed the mob, and saw them attack Sing Lee’s place. When they got him to the lamp-post, I first noticed two men in particular; one was a tall man with a light mustache, a dark hat, [Page 330]and dark clothes; the other man was short and heavy set, dark clothing. They had hold of the Chinaman, and were beating and kicking him; the tall man I saw cut off the cue. I then saw them dragging him toward Eighteenth street. These two men and the crowd were shouting to hang him. I saw several ladies there trying to persuade the crowd not to kill him. I have been over to the sheriff’s office, and seen the prisoners there, but I do not recognize any of them as having seen them before; I recollect seeing Dr. Bradbury in the crowd trying to persuade the mob to release the Chinaman, and he finally succeeded in getting him away and into a wagon, and got him away.
Geo. C. Hickey:
I live at the Taney House, 341 Holladay street, and am a printer. I saw the mob on Blake street, between Sixteenth and Seventeenth streets, when the water was thrown on them. The mob still remained there, and I came to Hop Lee’s at 416½ Blake street, and remained there half an hour. The small boys commenced throwing stones at the windows, and then the men commenced kicking in the doors and windows. I then went to the rear of the house, and Officer Ryan and a citizen were there trying to keep back the crowd. A. Tom then came out and said to get carriages and a policeman, and they would go away with us. The mob then threw stones so fast we had to retreat from the building. Another man and myself then went into the building, and Ryan and a citizen were trying to beat back the mob. I went through the house to the front to admit a policeman, and it being fastened, it had to be broken open to admit them. After the officer came in I went to the sleeping room and found there and urged them to run out. They all did so but Ah Chung, who remained and hid under the table. The mob then broke past the officers at the door and got into the building and found Ah Chung and put a rope around his neck and threw him and dragged him out. I followed him out, and Officer Ryan tried to release Ah Chung, but being unable, some one cut the rope. Ryan and the citizen then ran him across the lot to Seventeenth street and down Holladay until again stopped by the mob. We got him into a doorway, the door being fastened, near Sixteenth.
The sheriff then ordered the mob to disperse, and Ryan, the citizen, and Ah Chung then moved on. I kept behind the party down Sixteenth street and into a place in the rear of the American House. I then went up to my room and changed clothes and returned to the scene, which was then on Wazee street attacking the Chinese houses in that quarter. The mayor and a squad of police then appeared and fired several shots, when the mob fell back. Two specials were left, and the main body of police left. The mob, after completing the destruction after the police left, darted for Eighteenth and Larimer, going up Wazee to Seventeenth, thence to Blake, thence, to Nineteenth. On the way to Nineteenth they attacked and demolished two Chinese houses. They then shouted, “For Nineteenth and Lawrence!” I knew they were going to Sing Lee’s, and I ran ahead to warn him, and when I got here and called to him he locked the door and would not come out. The mob then came and attacked the place with sticks and stones, and commenced breaking in the windows and doors in the rear. I went around to the front of the house, and while I was there they broke open the building, and one of the mob entered through a window, and I followed him. The crowd by that time had forced the back door and entered. I saw Sing Lee on his knees, and when he saw me he came and dropped down in front of me for protection, and I endeavored to shield him and prevent them from putting the rope around his neck. The crowd then commenced kicking him, and said I was a damned Chinaman, and they would hang me if I did not get away, and attempted to put the rope over my neck.
I noticed one man in the crowd who was very active; tall, light hat, rather poorly dressed, and, I think, an Irishman. I did not notice any other one particularly so that I can describe them. I saw them take Sing Lee out with a rope around his neck, but could not recognize any of the men who had charge of him. They caught Ah Sin and took him out, and I followed and I hallooed to him to run, and he ran and I pulled my revolver and kept the crowd back until Ah Sin was hidden away in a coal-shed, and I afterwards washed him and brought him to headquarters. I saw the mob pounding Sing Lee with cord wood, but I could not get to him on account of the crowd. I have seen the body of Sing Lee at the coroner’s, and identified it as Sing Lee’s. The crowd called me a damned half Chinaman, and said they would hang me if I did not clear out. They were shouting for Hancock.
I am fourteen years old and live in the alley between Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth and Lawrence and Larimer. About one o’clock I came down Larimer street and I saw a crowd of people running down the alley by the American House. I did not see anything there, but that night about 7 o’clock I saw the mob up on Nineteenth and [Page 331]Lawrence. I went up to the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho, and saw the crowd dragging the Chinaman by the cue across the street from the Chinese house at the corner of Nineteenth and Lawrence toward the corner of Nineteenth and Arapaho. They were taking him to hang him to a tree, as the crowd announced. A lady stood by and requested that they release him, and after beating him with clubs and kicking him in the face they released him, and after letting him run a short distance they again caught him and beat him again, and he was again released, and he ran to the corner of Eighteenth and Arapaho and fell. He was there thrown into a wagon that came along and the driver directed to take him to the jail.
I did not see any one in the mob that I knew personally, but I saw one man with long hair and wide-brimmed hat, rather tall, and think I should know him if I should see him again. A man there by the name of Burke whom they called (“Captain”) “Colonel” Burke, on horseback, was hallooing to “Hang the Chinese,” and I heard him say to the crowd that “He was the first man to go to a Chinese house.” He announced that his name was not “Colonel” Burke, that it was “Mr.” Burke. He rode a bay or brown horse and very fine appearance. This man Burke was of medium size. When I first saw Burke he was coming up Nineteenth toward Arapaho, and was crying to “Come on, boys,” “Hang the Chinese.” He was in front of the mob, and when the mob got the Chinaman out, he dismounted and another man held his horse. I next saw Burke with the crowd, on his horse, with the mob going down toward the Clifton House. After the Chinaman was put in the wagon, I saw him in front of the mob at the Arapaho-street school-house. The crowd were continually shouting for “Hancock,” and “Down with the Chinese,” and I heard Burke shouting to the mob to come on.
Mrs. W. M. Cole:
I live at 529 Arapaho street. Last Sunday eve, about half-past seven o’clock in the evening, Dr. and Mrs. Bradbury and myself had started down town, and before we reached the corner of Nineteenth, we saw the mob and were told that they had attacked the house of Sing Lee. They came to the lamp-post with the Chinaman with a rope around his neck shouting to hang him, and just as he got to the ditch he fell, as I believe, of strangulation. Mrs. B. and I went into the crowd to try to get him released, but the crowd were so close that we could do nothing. Some one asked Mrs. B. if she wanted to see him hung, and she said “No, and he shall not be hung here.” I noticed one boy, whom I believe I recognize as the boy here shown, who was very active and pointed out a place to hang him, and called on them to come on. I heard them shout to cut off the cue and saw one of the men cut it off. He seemed to be nearly insensible. They then got him up and started him off, and I thought they were going to let him go. One man, a large man with a sandy mustache, said “No, kill him; don’t let him go.” And the crowd surged forward down Eighteenth street, and caught him again. The mob were beating and kicking him all the time, but there seemed to be two principal men doing most of the beating and kicking. The mob were shouting all the time to kill him, and I heard them repeatedly say they were a democratic crew, and they were continually shouting for Hancock.
T. J. Ryan:
I live at 372 Delgany street, and am a policeman. Last Sunday I first saw the mob at the corner of Sixteenth and Wazee, and I assisted in getting the mob up Sixteenth and into Blake, where the water was thrown on the mob. Judge Welborn then appeared and requested the mob to disperse if they would, and I suggested to Welborn to go ahead and halloo for Hancock, and I thought the crowd would follow, and he went up Sixteenth, and 200 or 300 followed him when he cheered for Hancock. He told the crowd that “To-morrow is the day to vote for Hancock.” The balance of the crowd then attacked Hop Lee’s house, on Blake, between Sixteenth and Seventeenth, and destroyed it. There was no policeman that I saw present there but myself, and I tried to persuade the mob to cease their attack, but the mob directed me to get away or I would get hurt. The mob in the meantime got a Chinaman out with a rope around his neck, and I attempted to release him. Another man and I then got to the Chinaman, and he cut the rope, and we got the Chinaman from the crowd and started into the alley, and the crowd then got to us again. We succeeded in getting the Chinaman along into the front of Louis’s ten-pin alley, when the door was shut against us. Some one then attempted to quiet the mob by addressing the mob, and attracted the attention of the mob, and I got away with the Chinaman down to Sixteenth and down to the American House, where I got the Chinaman into the rear of the hotel.
The mob then came down and attacked the Chinese houses in the rear of the American Hotel, and I went out into the mob and attempted again to pacify the crowd. Some man then broke in the door of the Chinese store, and the mob attempted to get in. Four shots were then fired, and a white man appeared, holding up his arm bleeding, [Page 332]and cried, “See the white man’s blood,” and the crowd rushed into the house. They then went through the Chinese house near the corner. The mob then moved around to Wazee, and I remained in charge of the house at the alley. I did not see Captain Burke at all, nor did I see any one whom I recognized, as I was so busy that I could not stop to look at any one in particular. The man who was shot in the arm I think was one of the mob. On Wazee street I tried to disperse the crowd from the sidewalk near John’s place. I saw a man by the name of Jim Lewis, and I ordered him away also, and he told me “No; I am a ‘special’ under Spangler;” and I said, “All right,” and I did not see him again until about 5 or 6 o’clock in the back part of the Chinese house at the corner of the alley, between Blake and Wazee, when I ordered a man away from a truuk he was trying to get into. I don’t know what he was doing, but he was making himself busy there in some way. He had on a broad-brimmed hat, and wears long hair, black coat, and brown mustache and goatee. I was not up to. Nineteenth and Arapaho at any time during the attack there, and did not see anything there.
Ah Sing (through Chee Quong, interpreter):
I live at the corner of Nineteenth and Lawrence. I keep a wash-house. I was in the house last Sunday evening when the mob came, and I was lying under the ironing-table. I saw the parties, but could not recognize them as it was dark. I did not see them take out Sing Lee, as the mob put a rope around my neck and dragged me out of the house, but it was so dark I could not see them to identify them. Sing Lee was in the house at the time the mob entered the house. The mob cut off my cue after they got me outside of the house. I could not identify any of the prisoners if I should look at them. They took me out before they seized Sing Lee.
George Le Clair:
I live at the corner of Thirteenth and Holladay, west Denver, and am a bar-tender. On last Sunday, on Blake between Sixteenth and Seventeenth, on the south side of the street, in the rear of a Chinese house, the same house attacked by the mob, I saw a man by the name of Kinney or McKinney throwing stones and bricks at the building during the attack on the building. He then advanced on the building and urged the crowd to follow, and was shortly after that arrested by Mr. Hawley and taken away, and is now in jail. Another man, who gave his name as Smith, arrested on last Saturday night by Officer Sherman on Blake street, I saw on the Sunday eve of the riot, while myself, Sherman, Welch, and Clarke were bringing two Chinamen from the Chinese house on Blake street above described to the American House; he made an attempt to rescue the Chinese from us, and said, “I will take the God damned Chinamen from them; I am no ‘tenderfoot.’” This was near the American House. I afterwards saw this same man at the head of the mob at the corner of Fourteenth and Lawrence when they were dispersed by the officers, and also saw a man with a yellow hound, named Poole, who was also throwing stones, and saw him kicking at the door and break in the windows of the Chinese house above spoken of. He appeared to be very active, and was in the lead of the mob. I also saw a man by the name of Eisenhart, who was mounted and was leading the mob at the corner of Fourteenth and Lawrence, and when the mob came in sight of the Chinese house at Fourteenth and Lawrence, I heard him say to the mob, pointing to the Chinese house, “There is one of them now.” After the mob were fired into and dispersed, this man Eiseahart rode up in front of the Chinese house, and he was asked by a party there what he was doing there, and he said he “was working for the city,” and when asked his name he said it was none of their business. He was asked to show his badge or authority, and he said he “did not have any and did not need any.” He was arrested and taken off his horse and taken to jail by Officers Sherman and Levy. I did not see any attack made or ordered by any one in charge of the police at any place during the day except at Fourteenth and Lawrence, when the police were ordered to fire on the mob.
I live at 404½ Wazee street, and keep the saloon known as “John’s Place.” I was present at my saloon last Sunday, the last of October, when the riot occurred on Wazee street and Sixteenth, near my place, about 2 o’clock. There was in my place at the commencement of the row, George E Shalle and two Chinamen playing pool. Shalle works at 406 Arapaho street. They were playing quietly when three or four men came in who were drunk and went up to the table and commenced to disturb the game. One of the Chinamen asked them to quit; the men then commenced abusing the Chinamen, and I remonstrated with them, and they said they were as good as Chinamen, and they came up to the bar and got some beer. Whilethey were drinking [Page 333]I advised the Chinamen to go out of the house to prevent a row, and they went out at the back door. After a few minutes one of the white men went out at the back door and struck one of the Chinamen without any provocation. Another one of the crowd called to one of the same gang inside to “come on Charley, he has got him,” and he then picked up a piece of board and struck at the Chinese, which the Chinese defended against as well as they could, and tried to get away. This was the beginning of the riot. I then closed the doors and would not admit any one, and did not see any more of the riot. These men were strangers to me, and I had never seen them before, nor have not since. I saw Jim Lewis in the saloon at the time the row commenced, and he tried to get out of the back way, which I tried to prevent, but he got out by me and immediately he got out I heard the bricks flying. He tried afterwards to get back, but I would not let him in. The man who went out with Lewis I don’t know by name.
I certify that the foregoing is a correct and true copy of the evidence, so far as taken by the coroner over the dead body of the Chinaman murdered at Denver, Colo., October 31, 1880.
His Imperial Chinese Majesty’s Consul.
I hereby certify that the foregoing evidence is a true and correct copy, so far as taken, of the evidence given before the coroner’s jury at the inquisition held of the body of Sing Lee, in the city of Denver on the dates given in the verdict above.
Statement of M. M. Pomeroy.
Sunday I was in North Denver dining with friends. The first I heard of the riot was about 5 p.m., when Mr. Nichols who had come over from the city, reported that a mob had gathered in Blake street to kill the Chinese, and had been partially quieted. I hastened to the city, left my wife at our home, and then drove to the stables of Elledge & Co., on Holliday street between Sixteenth and Seventeenth. At this time about 3,000 persons were assembled back of these stables, about the houses occupied by Chinese on Blake street; the houses were entirely surrounded by a surging, infuriated mob of brutal cowards, with clubs, stones, &c. They were breaking in windows and doors, cursing, howling, and yelling “Kill the Chinese! Kill the damned heathens! Burn the buildings! Give them hell! Run them out! Shoot them; hang them!” &c.
I saw doors broken, saw men enter the houses and with impromptu torches look for those who inside were hiding; saw clothes and other articles brought out and thieves run away with them.
I appealed to men standing a little back to rush in and save life and property and prevent the starting a conflagration, but those appealed to stood as benumbed or answered by curses and cries, “The Chinese must go!”
Then I saw two men wounded by bricks thrown towards the house, and was glad that two of the rioters were hit. Just then a Chinaman was found in one of the houses and dragged out to be knocked down, kicked, jumped upon, and beaten with clubs by the rioters, who were filling the air with horrid curses, yells, cheers, and cries. A rope was thrown over the head of the Chinaman and the crowd started with him on the run, to the cries of “Hang him! hang him! hang him!”
I saw one policeman trying to beat the mob back, but could not get to him. I then ran to the executive department on Larimer street and found Governor Pitkin in his office, having just come. I asked him if he could do nothing to save the city from destruction and to the preservation of life. He wanted to know what was going on; he said that he could not move, could not call out the militia till called upon by the civil authorities, but offered to go in person and assist the police, appeal to the mob, or do whatever he could to stop the riot. I asked him to remain where he was till I could find the mayor. He agreed, and directed me where to find the office of the mayor on Lawrence street. As I started to go there Governor Pitkin asked me to ask Mayor Sopris to at once appoint General Cook chief of police. I at once ran to the office of the mayor and found there a number of gentlemen smoking; asked if the mayor was in, and Alderman Austre, I think it was, pointed to a man sitting by a desk and introduced me to him as Mayor Sopris. Hurriedly I reported what was going on, told [Page 334]of my call upon the governor, and of his request to appoint General Cook, and of his being in his office ready to act officially when called upon. The mayor replied that he had quelled the riot in the afternoon all that he could, but had no force at his command to preserve the peace. I urged him to go in person to the heart of the mob and command it to disperse, and then if it persisted in disregard of law to call upon the State for the use of its militia. After a time he said he would go. He put on his overcoat and hat, took his cane, swore in as special police two men who had come into his office with myself. General Cook came in, and he at once appointed him chief of police and asked him to go with us.
Then we hastened out upon the sidewalk. General Cook ran for his pistols; with the help of W. J. Sprague we formed into line, two by two, quite a sqnad of citizens, who were willing to go with us to protect the mayor in the discharge of his duty. By this time General Cook, the new chief of police, came up and took the lead, Mayor Sopris and my self arm-in-arm following him with a number of brave men, formingacompact squad. As we marched down Sixteenth street from Lawrence I called on all who would to join us, and many, to their credit be it said, fell in line. We marched down the center of the street, and turned into the one where the mob was breaking in a row of houses, pushing ahead through the swaying mob till we neared the house. General Cook commanded the mob to disperse, and began firing in the air. The crowd broke and ran. The mayor then spoke, counseling regard to law and public decency. We stopped the demolition of property. When something like quiet was restored, the mayor returned to his office, and I ran to inform the governor that I believed the mob was broken, and that General Cook and the special police being sworn in, could preserve the city and hold the people to respect for law without his aid. Then I ran to the office of the mayor. Learning on the way that a mob was gathering near the Lawrence House to attack a Chinese laundry there, I ran to the mayor, and he came out again, went into the crowd, begged of those assembled to disperse. He was greeved by cheers, hoots, oaths, curses, &c., and stood there powerless, unable to be heard or respected. He offered to deliver the city over to the governor, and we hastened over to the governor’s office, where, at five minutes before eight, Mayor Sopris formally asked Governor Pitkin to take the responsibility, to call out the troops, and protect the innocent from the guilty. Governor Pitkin at once telegraphed to the sheriff and to the headquarters of certain troops to be in readiness at once. I then hastened to my office and armed, returning to the governor’s office for duty. He said all was in readiness, but that Sheriff Spangler thought that his increasing force of specials would be able to disperse the rioters; that if not, he was ready, and that the Governor’s Guards and one or two batteries were ready to move. Governor Pitkin hoped the necessity could be averted, but was ready to issue orders if called upon by the sheriff. He asked me to get a horse and ride over the city, assisting the special police, and reporting to him of the condition of the streets.
I went to the stable of Philips & Son, procured a horse, and for two hours, with other special police, mounted or on foot, assisted all I could in the restoration of order, calling upon crowds to disperse, clearing saloons, &c. I found the Governor’s Guards, under arms, in an alley, ready to move if called upon. I told crowds in the street that the militia was ordered out, and to hasten home to save bloodshed. Sometimes I was greeted with hoots and curses; at other times was thanked for the information. By eleven o’clock all was comparatively quiet. The specials having dispersed several riotous crowds, I helped to run Chinamen into places of safety, including the office of the mayor. I saw but one dead Chinaman on Lawrence street. I believe that the rioters dispersed when they realized in General Cook and the regulars and extra force under him, and in the governor, they had stern men to deal with. Had there been a prompt meeting of the mob with lead instead of streams of water at two o’clock in the afternoon, the riot would have died a-borning.