No. 667.
Mr. Caldwell to Mr. Fish.

No. 14.]

Sir: In my dispatch No. 12, of January 20, I gave you an account of the revolution of January 15, and the establishment of a provisional government. I have now to recount how this government has become legal and constitutional.

It is not to be supposed that so sudden a change of government as that of the 15th could take place entirely without opposition, though, owing to the improvision and supineness of President Ellauri, there was no opposition in the capital. In the country the chief of the “whites,” (Mancos,) Colonel Aparicio, began to collect forces, and soon got quite a a number of men under arms. The constitutional President, Dr. Ellauri, issued no proclamation, and, though besought, made no movement, but remained mute in his asylum, on board the Brazilian iron-clad. The provisional government, while making vigorous preparations for combat, proposed terms of compromise to Colonel Aparicio. They even permitted his agents to visit Dr. Ellauri on board the iron-clad, to receive his advice and orders for their chief. He declined to give any directions whatever, but let matters take their course. Under these circumstances [Page 1356] an arrangement was soon made, by which Colonel Aparicio was to disband his troops, the government paying the expenses incurred, the chiefs of three of the departments were to be “whites,” and the regular elections were to be held at the close of the year. In the mean time the legislature, by the absence of some of the “whites” and the calling up of their substitutes, had become entirely in the interest of the party in power. Thereupon the provisional governor, on the 22d of January, appeared before the legislature and resigned his office, offering to give a strict account of his acts. The legislature, in joint session, declared that Dr. Ellauri had ceased to be constitutional President, and unanimously elected, to replace him for the term of two years, Don Pedro Varela, late provisional governor, who at once took the oath of office, and the same day appointed as cabinet officers the same who had acted in the provisional government. On the 28th a Te Deum was chanted in the cathedral in “celebration of peace,” followed by a military review. Thus has ended this most remarkable revolution.

Colonel Aparicio has been rewarded with the grade of general.

The representatives of foreign governments resident here gave no official recognition to the provisional government, but on the 10th instant we called in a body on the President, and the Brazilian plenipotentiary, in our name, expressed desires for the peace and prosperity of the republic.

How long this government will last it is impossible to say, but, at present, there is no opposition to it in any quarter.

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I am, &c.,