23. Paper Prepared in the Department of State1
OPTIMAL OUTCOME FOR CAMP DAVID
Far-reaching understandings on the following five elements of a peace settlement: (1) arrangements for a transitional West Bank/Gaza [Page 68]regime; (2) main elements of a permanent solution for the West Bank/Gaza (what happens after the 5 years); (3) the principles by which the remaining Sinai issues might be resolved; (4) the relationship between a West Bank/Gaza agreement and progress toward an Egypt-Israel peace treaty; (5) the undertakings of peace that would be in a peace treaty.
1. Transitional West Bank/Gaza Regime
Agreement on the following arrangements for a transitional regime: (a) Israeli military government would be replaced by self-government by the inhabitants—i.e., an end of military occupation; (b) authority for the new regime would derive from agreement among the parties; (c) question of sovereignty would be resolved within 5 years; (d) Israeli forces would be withdrawn to designated areas; (e) Palestinian displaced persons and refugees would be allowed to return at an agreed annual rate and under agreed procedures; (f) during the 5 years negotiations would be conducted and agreement reached on a final treaty on the basis of Res. 242 including withdrawal, security measures and commitments to peace; (g) the inhabitants of the areas would participate in the negotiations through elected representatives and would express their consent to the terms of the final settlement; (h) Jordan and Palestinian representatives would be invited to join negotiations to conclude a detailed agreement on the transitional regime and to participate in negotiations for a final settlement.
2. Elements of a Permanent Settlement for the West Bank/Gaza (post 5 years)
Agreement that: (a) the area would be demilitarized; (b) Israel would retain its own security forces in specified numbers at specified locations, the arrangement to be subject to review after 10 years; (c) Israel would retain early warning installations (the U.S. could man these if necessary); (d) the locally-elected governing authority would undertake commitments to maintain peace and security and to prevent terrorist acts; (e) relationship with Jordan and/ or Israel would be defined; (f) there would be open borders with Israel in terms of movement of personnel and economic arrangements; (g) Israeli participation in inspection of Jordan River crossing points would be defined; (h) certain Israeli settlements would be allowed to remain and rights of Israelis to purchase land defined; (i) principles governing immigration of Palestinian refugees would be defined; (j) the consent of inhabitants to the terms of the settlement would be expressed by plebiscite or parliamentary ratification.
3. Resolution of Sinai Issues
Agreement that an Egypt-Israel peace agreement would be implemented in two main phases over a five-year period.
[Page 69](a) First phase. Peace treaty initialed. Line to which Israeli forces withdraw in first phase defined; Israel settlements allowed to remain under Israeli protection during this period; Israel would also retain use of airfields in Sinai; some concrete measures of normalization of relations would be instituted.
(b) Second phase. Peace treaty signed and ratified. Israeli withdrawal to international frontier; Israeli settlers allowed to remain under Egyptian jurisdiction; airfields dismantled or made into civilian airports; full normalization of relations completed; demilitarized and limited armament zones and third party presence in buffer zone defined.
4. Relationship Between Egypt-Israel Treaty and West Bank/Gaza
Agreement that: (a) Egypt would resume and continue to completion negotiations on Sinai issues; (b) when negotiations were completed Egypt and Israel would proceed with initialing of the peace treaty and implementation of the first phase, reserving the signing and ratification of the treaty, and implementation of the second phase to coincide with conclusion of a West Bank/Gaza treaty; (c) that if, however, Jordan and Palestinian representatives refused to join in negotiations on the West Bank/Gaza on the basis of the principles concluded at Camp David, Egypt and Israel would, after an agreed period, proceed with conclusion and full implementation of the Egypt-Israel peace treaty.
5. Peace Undertakings
Agreement on the main elements of peace undertakings that would be part of the peace treaties between Egypt and Israel and on the West Bank/Gaza, including: (a) end of economic boycott; (b) end of Arab efforts to isolate Israel in international fora; (c) free passage in international waterways; (d) Israeli rights of passage in Suez Canal; (e) cultural and people-to-people exchanges; (f) commercial and diplomatic relations.
Agreement to set up working groups to begin negotiations on the detailed terms of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.
- Source: Carter Library, Brzezinski Donated Material, Geographic File, Box 13, Middle East—Negotiations: (7/29/78–9/6/78). Secret; Nodis. The paper was found attached to an undated covering memorandum from Vance to Carter stating that this was a “refined version” of the paper “that we discussed at lunch today.” (Ibid.) Reference is presumably to Carter’s September 1 luncheon meeting with Mondale, Vance, Brown, Jordan, Brzezinski, Eilts, and Lewis to discuss the Camp David talks. The luncheon took place from noon to 1:11 p.m. in the Roosevelt Room at the White House. (Carter Library, Presidential Materials, President’s Daily Diary) No other record of this meeting has been found. Carter noted in his personal diary on August 31: “All the briefing books from the State Department, NSC, and CIA had set our expectations too low. I want to insist to the Middle East leaders that we resolve as many problems as possible at Camp David, not just come out with a declaration of principles leading to further negotiations.” (White House Diary, p. 215)↩