190. National Security Decision Memorandum 441 2


  • The Vice President
  • The Secretary of State
  • The Secretary of Defense
  • The Director, Central Intelligence Agency
  • The Director, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
  • The Director, Office of Emergency Preparedness
  • The Director, Office of Science and Technology’


  • United States Policy on Toxins

Following a review of United States military programs for toxins, the President has decided that:

The United States will renounce the production for operational purposes, stockpiling and use in retaliation of toxins produced either by bacteriological or by chemical synthesis.
The United States military program for toxins will be confined to research and development for defensive purposes only.
The Secretary of Defense will submit recommendations concerning the disposal of existing stocks of toxin weapons and/or agents. These recommendations should accompany the recommendations pursuant to National Security Decision Memorandum 35 regarding the disposal of bacteriological/biological weapons.
The Under Secretaries Committee’s annual review of United States chemical warfare programs and public information policy, as directed by National Security Decision Memorandum 35, will include review of United States military toxins programs.
Henry A Kissinger
  1. Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 363, Subject Files, NSDMs (1–50). Secret. A copy was sent to Wheeler
  2. The NSDM listed the President’s decisions, in accordance with Option III of NSSM 85, on U.S. policy on toxins.