334. Telegram From Secretary of State Kissinger to the Department of State1
Helsinki, August 2, 1975, 0640Z.
Secto 8109. Department pass to all CSCE capitals. Subject: CSCE III:Final day.
- Summary. CSCE closed at 6:00 pm on August 1, following signing of Final Act2 by thirty-five heads of state or government. Highlights of final day were President Ford’s speech, which was considered by many conference delegates as most forceful expression of Western view during three days of speeches, delayed appearance of Portuguese President Costa Gomes,3 apology by Maltese for their behavior during last days of the negotiations, and circulation by Cyprus of a statement in reply to Turkish reservation on Cypriot representation. Full verbatim records will be pouched to Department (EUR/RPM) when available. End summary.
- Portugal: Portuguese President Costa Gomes, who had postponed his appearance from July 31 for reasons of “force majeur,” gave standard review of conference results, but stressed Portugal’s “new path,” and stated that Portuguese foreign policy was now based on full [Page 975] respect for the principles of sovereign equality, non-intervention in the internal affairs of others, and the recognition of the right of all peoples freely to dispose of themselves.
- US: President Ford’s speech, which was considered by many to be strongest statement of Western view of CSCE heard during Stage III, emphasized that both sides have to benefit from détente, and that CSCE results would be a yardstick by which performance will be measured. The President stressed the deep devotion of the American people and their government to human rights and fundamental freedoms and said the US intends to participate fully in turning the results of the conference into a living reality. Like Wilson, Schmidt, and Giscard, he noted that CSCE results are also applicable to Berlin. The President closed by stating that history will judge the conference not by what is said but what is done to carry out the promises of CSCE.
- Malta: In absence of Mintoff, who was reportedly ill, Deputy Prime Minister Buttigieg concentrated on Mediterranean aspects of CSCE and Maltese role in ensuring that Mediterranean interest in the conference was fully reflected. Buttigieg apologized to all present “for any offense we may have given during the exciting days in Geneva.” All that Maltese did, he said, was “in a good cause,” and any animosity was due more to “our inexperience than to any bad intention.”
- Netherlands: Prime Minister Van Den Uyl was somewhat reserved but expressed hope that Basket III results would promote better understanding among peoples, and admitted that “some optimism” might be justified. He underlined that results of CSCE would have to be implemented if conference was to have any meaning, and looked for progress now in MBFR negotiations.
- Monaco: Minister of State Saint-Mleux4 stressed need for protection of environment in the Mediterranean.
- Norway: Prime Minister Bratteli5 reviewed conference results, expressed hope they would be implemented, and looked forward to continuation of multilateral process begun by CSCE.
- Romania: In a long speech in which he departed considerably from his prepared text, Ceausescu brought out the principal elements of Romanian foreign policy: equal rights and sovereignty of all states, renunciation of aggression or intervention in the affairs of other countries, banishment of the threat or use of force, and peaceful settlement of disputes. He called for further steps toward disarmament and cooperation, but qualified his endorsement of Basket III results, noting that information should serve the cause of friendship among peoples. [Page 976] Ceausescu thought CSCE results would be conducive to the elimination of NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
- Liechtenstein, San Marino: These countries gave standard review of conference results, emphasizing role of small states in CSCE.
- Luxembourg: Prime Minister Thorn also stressed role of smaller states at CSCE, and recalled that implementation of results would be real test of the success of the conference.
- Holy See: Archbishop Casaroli6 read personal message addressed to the conference by Pope Paul VI expressing hope for the success of the CSCE enterprise, “in the name of God.”
- Cypriot interpretive statement: In response to Turkish reservation on Cypriot representation circulated to the conference on July 31,7 Cyprus circulated a formal interpretive statement that participation in CSCE was on the basis of the full equality of states, and that Turkish statement that it will not apply CSCE results to relations with Cyprus “is of no effect.”
- Signing: Following last speech, all thirty-five heads of state or government gathered at broad horseshoe-shaped table and signed single original copy in all six languages of the Final Act of the conference. Completion of signing ceremony brought long round of applause. Finnish President Kekkonen made brief closing statement, and adjourned the CSCE.
- Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Limited Official Use; Immediate.↩
- For text of the CSCE Final Act, see Department of State Bulletin, September 1, 1975, pp. 323–350.↩
- General Francisco da Costa Gomes.↩
- Andre Leon Saint-Mleux.↩
- Trygve Bratteli.↩
- Archbishop Agostino Casaroli.↩
- Not found.↩