176. Editorial Note

On October 19, 1973, the French delegation to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe tabled a draft declaration of principles for the first part or “Basket I” of a potential agreement on security and cooperation in Europe. Point 1 of the French draft reads in part: “1. The participating states recognize each other’s sovereign equality with all the rights deriving therefrom.” The draft continues: “2. Each of the participating states will refrain from the threat or use of force, whether against the territorial integrity or political independence of another participating state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations and those of this declaration. No participating state will carry out movements or maneuvers of its armed forces for the purpose of inducing another state to renounce the full exercise of any of its sovereign rights. 3. The participating states regard one another’s frontiers, in their existing form and irrespective of the legal status which in their opinion they possess, as inviolable. The participating states consider that their frontiers can be changed only in accordance with international law, through peaceful means and by agreement, with due regard for the right of peoples to self-determination. 4. The participating states will mutually respect one another’s territorial integrity.” Point 6 states that “each of the participating states will abstain from any intervention or threat of intervention, direct or indirect, in matters falling within the national competence of any other participating state, whatever their particular relations may be,” and Point 7 that “the participating states consider that, as the charter of the United Nations indicates, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and without discrimination is also one of the bases of international cooperation and of the development of friendly relations among the nations. They accordingly proclaim their determination to respect and promote those rights and freedoms, especially freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief.” Point 9 reads in part: “The participating states will cooperate with one another in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific, commercial and other fields and with a view to promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They will encourage cooperation and contacts among individuals and groups in all these spheres of activity and generally foster the development of contacts and exchanges, both individual and collective, private and official, among their nationals.” Point 10 reads in part: “The participating states recognize that the obligations they have assumed towards one another in conformity with international law are binding on them and must be fulfilled in good faith. They note that this declaration cannot affect bilateral and multilateral treaties and agreements previously signed by the participating states.” Point 11 reads in part: [Page 526] “The participating states declare that the development of their relations and the progress of their cooperation in all fields depend on the strict observance of the principles set forth above. They recognize that these principles have equal value and that each of them must be interpreted in the context of the others.” (Telegram 5646 from Geneva, October 24; National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files)