The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity of the United States Government. The series documents the facts and events that contributed to the formulation of policies and includes evidence of supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The Historian of the Department of State is charged with the responsibility for the preparation of the Foreign Relations series. The staff of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, plans, researches, compiles, and edits the volumes in the series. This documentary editing proceeds in full accord with the generally accepted standards of historical scholarship. Official regulations codifying specific standards for the selection and editing of documents for the series were first promulgated by Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg on March 26, 1925. These regulations, with minor modifications, guided the series through 1991.
A new statutory charter for the preparation of the series was established by Public Law 102–138, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, which was signed by President George Bush on October 28, 1991. Section 198 of P.L. 102–138 added a new Title IV to the Department of State’s Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 USC 4351, et seq.).
The statute requires that the Foreign Relations series be a thorough, accurate, and reliable record of major United States foreign policy decisions and significant United States diplomatic activity. The volumes of the series should include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government. The statute also confirms the editing principles established by Secretary Kellogg: the Foreign Relations series is guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy; records should not be altered or deletions made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made; the published record should omit no facts that were of major importance in reaching a decision; and nothing should be omitted for the purposes of concealing a defect in policy. The statute also requires that the Foreign Relations series be published not more than 30 years after the events recorded. The editor is convinced that this volume, which was compiled in 1994–1995, meets all regulatory, statutory, and scholarly standards of selection and editing.[Page IV]
Structure and Scope of the Foreign Relations Series
This volume is part of a subseries of volumes of the Foreign Relations series that documents the most important issues in the foreign policy of the 5 years (1964–1968) of the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson. The subseries presents in 34 volumes a documentary record of major foreign policy decisions and actions of President Johnson’s administration. This volume documents U.S. policy toward North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa, except for U.S. policy toward the Republic of the Congo, which will be presented in volume XXIII.
Principles of Document Selection for the Foreign Relations Series
In preparing each volume of the Foreign Relations series, the editors are guided by some general principles for the selection of documents. Each editor, in consultation with the General Editor and other senior editors, determines the particular issues and topics to be documented either in detail, in brief, or in summary.
The following general selection criteria are used in preparing volumes in the Foreign Relations series. Individual compiler-editors vary these criteria in accordance with the particular issues and the available documentation. The editors also apply these selection criteria in accordance with their own interpretation of the generally accepted standards of scholarship. In selecting documentation for publication, the editors gave priority to unpublished classified records, rather than previously published records (which are accounted for in appropriate bibliographical notes).
Selection Criteria (in general order of priority):
- Major foreign affairs commitments made on behalf of the United States to other governments, including those that define or identify the principal foreign affairs interests of the United States;
- Major foreign affairs issues, commitments, negotiations, and activities, whether or not major decisions were made, and including dissenting or alternative opinions to the process ultimately adopted;
- The decisions, discussions, actions, and considerations of the President, as the official constitutionally responsible for the direction of foreign policy;
- The discussions and actions of the National Security Council, the Cabinet, and special Presidential policy groups, including the policy options brought before these bodies or their individual members;
- The policy options adopted by or considered by the Secretary of State and the most important actions taken to implement Presidential decisions or policies;
- Diplomatic negotiations and conferences, official correspondence, and other exchanges between U.S. representatives and those of [Page V]other governments that demonstrate the main lines of policy implementation on major issues;
- Important elements of information that attended Presidential decisions and policy recommendations of the Secretary of State;
- Major foreign affairs decisions, negotiations, and commitments undertaken on behalf of the United States by government officials and representatives in other agencies in the foreign affairs community or other branches of government made without the involvement (or even knowledge) of the White House or the Department of State;
- The main policy lines of intelligence activities if they constituted major aspects of U.S. foreign policy toward a nation or region or if they provided key information in the formulation of major U.S. policies, including relevant National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates as may be declassified;
- The role of the Congress in the preparation and execution of particular foreign policies or foreign affairs actions;
- Economic aspects of foreign policy;
- The main policy lines of U.S. military and economic assistance as well as other types of assistance;
- The political-military recommendations, decisions, and activities of the military establishment and major regional military commands as they bear upon the formulation or execution of major U.S. foreign policies;
- Diplomatic appointments that reflect major policies or affect policy changes.
Sources for the Foreign Relations Series
The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. Many of the sources consulted in the preparation of this volume have been declassified and are available for review at the National Archives and Records Administration. With the exception of exempted records, which are defined in the Foreign Relations statute, the declassification review and opening for public review of all Department of State records no later than 30 years after the events is mandated by the same law. The Department of State and other record sources used in the volume are described in detail in the section on Sources below.[Page VI]
The editors of the volume sought to include documentation illuminating the foreign policymaking process of the U.S. Government, with emphasis on the highest level at which policy on a particular subject was determined. The documents include memoranda and records of discussions that set forth policy issues and show decisions or actions taken. The emphasis is on the development of U.S. policy and on major aspects and repercussions of its execution rather than on the details of policy execution.
President Johnson made major foreign policy decisions himself with the advice of top administration officials. The editors sought to document, as far as possible, the President’s decision-making. Although the foreign policy record of the Johnson administration is voluminous, many internal discussions between Johnson and his advisers were not recorded. The record of Johnson’s involvement as well as that of Secretary of State Rusk in the policy process often had to be pieced together from a variety of sources.
The volume focuses on the issues that primarily engaged high-level U.S. policymakers. Major topics include:
- U.S. efforts to strengthen North African ties to the West and forestall Soviet attempts to dominate any part of the region;
- the attempts of U.S. policymakers to find a basis for improved relations with Algeria without prejudicing the good relations enjoyed with Morocco and Tunisia;
- the desire of the United States to preserve Moroccan independence and unity;
- continuation of substantial U.S. economic and military aid to Morocco and Tunisia;
- U.S. efforts to preserve the independence and stability of Libya;
- renegotiation of the 1954 Wheelus Base agreement with the hope of prolonging U.S. retention of the base despite Libya’s announced intention of not renewing the agreement;
- U.S. efforts to strengthen ties with the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and prevent them from falling under Communist domination;
- a revitalized and strengthened policy toward Africa following a review of African development policies and programs (the Korry Report) ordered by President Johnson in May 1966;
- U.S. efforts to maintain friendly relations with Nkrumah’s successor following the February 1966 overthrow of his authoritarian and anti-Western regime in Ghana;
- U.S. support for peaceful resolution of Somali-Ethiopian border conflicts in the strategically important Horn of Africa;
- the U.S. effort to maintain a close relationship with Ethiopia, with its important U.S. military base at Kagnew Station and the largest Military Assistance Program in Africa, while maintaining good relations with Somalia;
- the U.S. policy of non-intervention and advocacy of negotiation and compromise following the July 1967 outbreak of civil war in Nigeria;
- the tension between U.S. support for reform and self-determination in Portugal’s African colonies of Angola and Mozambique, on the one hand, and the U.S. and Portuguese membership in NATO, which granted the United States important military base rights in the Azores, on the other;
- U.S. support for British efforts to guarantee universal adult suffrage before granting Rhodesia full independence, and for mandatory UN economic sanctions against Rhodesia following the white minority government’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence in November 1965;
- U.S. condemnation of apartheid while opposing mandatory UN economic sanctions against South Africa; and
- U.S. support for UN termination of South Africa’s mandate to administer South West Africa.
The editors included a selection of intelligence estimates and analyses seen by high-level policymakers, especially those that were sent to President Johnson.
The documents are presented chronologically according to Washington time or, in the case of conferences, in the order of individual meetings. Memoranda of conversation are placed according to the time and date of the conversation, rather than the date the memorandum was drafted.
Editorial treatment of the documents published in the Foreign Relations series follows Office style guidelines, supplemented by guidance from the General Editor and the chief technical editor. The source text is reproduced as exactly as possible, including marginalia or other notations, which are described in the footnotes. Texts are transcribed and printed according to accepted conventions for the publication of historical documents in the limitations of modern typography. A heading has been supplied by the editors for each document included in the volume. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are retained as found in the source text, except that obvious typographical errors are silently corrected. Other mistakes and omissions in the source text are corrected by bracketed insertions: a correction is set in italic type; an addition in roman type. Words or phrases underlined in the source text are printed in italics. Abbreviations and contractions are preserved as found in the [Page VIII]source text, and a list of abbreviations is included in the front matter of each volume.
Bracketed insertions are also used to indicate omitted text that deals with an unrelated subject (in roman type) or that remains classified after declassification review (in italic type). The amount of material not declassified has been noted by indicating the number of lines or pages of source text that were omitted. Entire documents withheld for declassification purposes have been accounted for and are listed by headings, source notes, and number of pages not declassified in their chronological place. All brackets that appear in the source text are so identified by footnotes.
The first footnote to each document indicates the document’s source, original classification, distribution, and drafting information. This note also provides the background of important documents and policies and indicates whether the President or his major policy advisers read the document. Every effort has been made to determine if a document has been previously published, and, if so, this information has been included in the source footnote.
Editorial notes and additional annotation summarize pertinent material not printed in the volume, indicate the location of additional documentary sources, provide references to important related documents printed in other volumes, describe key events, and provide summaries of and citations to public statements that supplement and elucidate the printed documents. Information derived from memoirs and other first-hand accounts has been used when appropriate to supplement or explicate the official record.
Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation
The Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation, established under the Foreign Relations statute, reviews records, advises, and makes recommendations concerning the Foreign Relations series. The Advisory Committee monitors the overall compilation and editorial process of the series and advises on all aspects of the preparation and declassification of the series. Although the Advisory Committee does not attempt to review the contents of individual volumes in the series, it does monitor the overall process and makes recommendations on particular problems that come to its attention.
The Advisory Committee reviewed the declassification decisions on portions of this volume.
The Information Response Branch of the Office of IRM Programs and Services, Bureau of Administration, Department of State, conducted the declassification review of the documents published in this volume. [Page IX]The review was conducted in accordance with the standards set forth in Executive Order 12958 on Classified National Security Information and applicable laws.
Under Executive Order 12958, specific information may be exempt from automatic declassification after 25 years if its release could be expected to:
- reveal the identity of a confidential human source, or reveal information about the application of an intelligence source or method, or reveal the identity of a human intelligence source when the unauthorized disclosure of that source would clearly and demonstrably damage the national security interests of the United States;
- reveal information that would assist in the development or use of weapons of mass destruction;
- reveal information that would impair U.S. cryptologic systems or activities;
- reveal information that would impair the application of state of the art technology within the U.S. weapon system;
- reveal actual U.S. military war plans that remain in effect;
- reveal information that would seriously and demonstrably impair relations between the United States and a foreign government, or seriously and demonstrably undermine ongoing diplomatic activities of the United States;
- reveal information that would clearly and demonstrably impair the current ability of U.S. Government officials to protect the President, Vice President, and other officials for whom protection services, in the interest of national security, are authorized;
- reveal information that would seriously and demonstrably impair current national security emergency preparedness plans; or
- violate a statute, treaty, or international agreement.
The principle guiding declassification review is to release all information, subject only to the current requirements of national security as embodied in law and regulation. Declassification decisions entailed concurrence of the appropriate geographic and functional bureaus in the Department of State, other concerned agencies of the U.S. Government, and the appropriate foreign governments regarding specific documents of those governments.
The final declassification review of this volume, which began in 1995 and was completed in 1999, resulted in the decision to withhold about 3 percent of the documentation selected; 19 documents were denied in full. All or portions of 5 documents concerning minor political action programs in support of U.S. policy regarding Mozambique, selected by the editors for inclusion in the volume, could not be declassified. Despite these omissions from the record as originally compiled, the documentation presented here provides an accurate account of U.S. policy toward North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of the Congo, during the 1964–1968 period.[Page X]
The editors wish to acknowledge the assistance of officials at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library of the National Archives and Records Administration, especially Regina Greenwell and Charlaine Burgess, who provided key research assistance. The editors also wish to acknowledge the assistance of historians at the Central Intelligence Agency, particularly Scott Koch.
Nina Davis Howland collected documentation, selected, and edited most of the volume and Daniel J. Lawler selected and edited the compilations on Ghana and Nigeria, under the general supervision of Harriet Dashiell Schwar. Gabrielle Mallon prepared the lists of names, sources, and abbreviations. Deb Godfrey, Shirley T. Taylor, and Rita M. Baker did the copy and technical editing. Max Franke prepared the index.
Bureau of Public Affairs