Sources

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. When this volume was being compiled, the Department of State records consulted were still under the custody of the Department, and the footnotes citing Department of State files suggest that the Department is the repository. By the time of publication, however, all the Department’s indexed central files for these years had been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (Archives II) at College Park, Maryland. Many of the Department’s decentralized office (or lot) files covering this period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, are in the process of being transferred from the Department’s custody to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Johnson and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

In preparing this volume, the editor made extensive use of Presidential papers and other White House records at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library. Numerous White House memoranda, including memoranda to the President, testify to President Johnson’s concern with issues relating to Africa, especially the maintenance of personal ties with various African leaders. The bulk of the foreign policy records at the Johnson Library are in the country files and other component parts of the National Security File.

The Department of State has arranged for access to the many audiotapes of President Johnson’s telephone conversations that are held at the Johnson Library. The original manuscript for this volume had been completed when most of these audiotapes became available in 1995 and 1996. Two transcripts of the President’s conversations related to Africa were subsequently added to the volume. With the exception of the Congo, [Page XVI]which is covered in a separate volume, very few of these taped conversations deal with Africa.

Second in importance only to the White House records at the Johnson Library were the records of the Department of State. The Department’s central files contain the cable traffic recording U.S. diplomatic relations with Africa, memoranda of diplomatic conversations, and memoranda proposing action or providing information. Some important documents are found only in the Department’s lot files. The Conference Files maintained by the Executive Secretariat contain briefing materials as well as records of conversations. Documentation on initiatives that were not approved is often found only in desk or bureau files. The Rusk Files contain records of Secretary Rusk’s telephone conversations.

The Central Intelligence Agency provides access to Department of State historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records in the custody of that Agency and at the Presidential libraries. This access is arranged and facilitated by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, pursuant to a May 1992 memorandum of understanding. Department of State and CIA historians continue to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of identifying the key portions of the intelligence record.

This volume includes a limited number of intelligence records. Among the intelligence records reviewed for the volume were files of the Directors of Central Intelligence, especially John McCone, 303 Committee records, the CIA Registry of National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates, and the Department of State’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research Historical Files.

Almost all of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of the agencies mentioned, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

The following list identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume. The declassification and transfer to the National Archives of these records is in process, and many of them are already available for public review at the National Archives. The declassification review of other records is going forward in accordance with the provisions of Executive Order 12958, under which all records over 25 years old, except file series exemptions requested by agencies and approved by the President, should be reviewed for declassification by 2000.

[Page XVII]

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • Lot Files. See also National Archives and Records Administration below.
      • INR/IL Historical Files
        • Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1970s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
      • S/S Files: Lot 68 D 451
        • Minutes of meetings and memoranda of the Special Group, Counterinsurgency, for July-December 1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 72 D 318
        • National Security Council files for 1966–1968, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
  • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
    • Subject-Numeric Indexed Central Files
      • AID PORT, Aid, general policy, plans, and coordination, Portugal
      • AID (US) BIAFRA, general policy, U.S. aid to Biafra
      • AID (US) LIBYA, general policy, U.S. aid to Libya
      • AID (US) MOR, general policy, U.S. aid to Morocco
      • AID (US) TUN, general policy, U.S. aid to Tunisia
      • AID (US) 8 MOR, grants and technical assistance, U.S.-Morocco
      • AID (US) 9 TUN, U.S. loans to Tunisia
      • AID (US) 15 MOR, PL 480, Food for Peace Program, Morocco
      • AID (US) 15–4 ALG, PL 480 agreements, U.S.-Algeria
      • DEF 1–1 LIBYA, contingency planning, The Congo
      • DEF 1–1 ZAMBIA, contingency planning, Zambia
      • DEF 7 GHANA–US, visits and missions, Ghana-U.S.
      • DEF 7 S AFR–US, visits and missions, South Africa-U.S.
      • DEF 12 AFR, armaments, Africa
      • DEF 12 TUN, armaments, Tunisia
      • DEF 12–5 ETH, procurement and sale of armaments, Ethiopia
      • DEF 12–5 GHANA, procurement and sale of armaments, Ghana
      • DEF 12–5 NIGERIA, procurement and sale of armaments, Nigeria
      • DEF 12–5 RHOD, procurement and sale of armaments, Rhodesia
      • DEF 12–5 S AFR, procurement and sale of armaments, South Africa
      • DEF 15 ETH–US, bases and installations, Ethiopia-U.S.
      • DEF 15 LIBYA–UK, bases and installations, Libya-U.K.
      • DEF 15 LIBYA–US, bases and installations, Libya-U.S.
      • DEF 15 S AFR–US, bases and installations, South Africa-U.S.
      • DEF 15–10 MOR–US, establishment, construction, and termination of bases
      • DEF 15–4 LIBYA–US, agreements and leases, Libya-U.S.
      • DEF 18–9 MEDIT, demilitarized and nuclear-free zones, Mediterranean
      • DEF 19 US–ETH, military assistance, U.S.-Ethiopia
      • DEF 19 US–MOR, military assistance, U.S.-Morocco
      • DEF 19 US–TUN, military assistance, U.S.-Tunisia
      • DEF 19–3 US–ETH, defense organizations and conferences, U.S.-Ethiopia
      • DEF 19–6 USSR-SOMALI, Communist bloc assistance, U.S.S.R.-Somalia
      • DEF 19–8 US–ETH, defense equipment and supplies, U.S.-Ethiopia
      • DEF 19–8 US–MOR, military equipment and supplies, U.S.- Morocco
      • DEF 19–8 US–PORT, defense equipment and supplies, U.S.-Portugal
      • DEF 19–8 US–TUN, military equipment and supplies, U.S.-Tunisia
      • FSE 12 GHANA, fuels and energy, electric power, Ghana
      • FT 11–2 RHOD, foreign trade, boycotts, Rhodesia
      • FT 18 S AFR, foreign trade, munitions control, South Africa
      • FT 18 S AFR–US, foreign trade, munitions control, South Africa-U.S. installations
      • IT 7–16 TANZAN–ZAMBIA, inland transport, highways, transportation network, Tanzania-Zambia
      • ORG 7 S, organization and administration, visits
      • OS 12–12 TANZAN, ocean shipping, movement of vessels, Tanzania
      • PET 17–2 RHOD, petroleum imports, Rhodesia
      • POL AFR, political affairs and relations, Africa
      • POL AFR, political affairs and relations, Africa
      • POL AFR–PORT, political affairs and relations, Africa-Portugal
      • POL AFR–US, political affairs and relations, Africa-U.S.
      • POL ALG–US, political affairs and relations, Algeria-U.S.
      • POL ARAB–ISR, political affairs and relations, Arab-Israeli dispute
      • POL BIAFRA–NIGERIA, political affairs and relations, Biafra-Nigeria
      • POL ETH–SOMALI, political affairs and relations, Ethiopia-Somalia
      • POL ETH–US, political affairs and relations, Ethiopia-U.S.
      • POL GHANA–US, political affairs and relations, Ghana-U.S.
      • POL LIBYA–US, political affairs and relations, Libya-U.S.
      • POL MOR–US, political affairs and relations, Morocco-U.S.
      • POL MOZ–TANZAN, political affairs and relations, Mozambique-Tanzania
      • POL NIGERIA–US, political affairs and relations, Nigeria-U.S.
      • POL PORT–US, political affairs and relations, Portugal-U.S.
      • POL RHOD–UK, political affairs and relations, Rhodesia-U.K.
      • POL RHOD–US, political affairs and relations, Rhodesia-U.S.
      • POL RHOD–ZAMBIA, political affairs and relations, Rhodesia-Zambia
      • POL SOMALI–US, political affairs and relations, Somalia-U.S.
      • POL TUN–US, political affairs and relations, Tunisia-U.S.
      • POL TUN–US, political affairs and relations, Tunisia-U.S.
      • POL UK-US, political affairs and relations, U.K.-U.S.
      • POL 1 AFR–US, general policy and background, Africa-U.S.
      • POL 1 ALG, general policy and background, Algeria
      • POL 1 ANG–US, general policy and background, Angola-U.S.
      • POL 1 ETH–US, general policy and background, Ethiopia-U.S.
      • POL 1 GHANA, general policy and background, Ghana
      • POL 1 GHANA–US, general policy and background, Ghana-U.S.
      • POL 1 MOR–US, general policy and background, Morocco-U.S.
      • POL 1 NIGERIA–US, general policy and background, Nigeria-U.S.
      • POL 1 PORT–US, general policy and background, Portugal U.S
      • POL 1 S AFR–US, general policy and background, South Africa-U.S.
      • POL 1 US–VIET S, general policy and background, U.S.-South Vietnam
      • POL 2 ETH, general reports and statistics, Ethiopia
      • POL 3 OAU, regional alignments and groupings, Organization of African Unity
      • POL 7 ALG, visits and meetings with Algerian officials
      • POL 7 ETH, visits and meetings with Ethiopian officials
      • POL 7 GHANA, visits and meetings with Ghanaian officials
      • POL 7 LIB, visits and meetings with Liberian officials
      • POL 7 LIBYA, visits and meetings with Libyan officials
      • POL 7 MOR, visits and meetings with Moroccan officials
      • POL 7 NIGERIA–US, visits and meetings, Nigerian-U.S. officials
      • POL 7 RWANDA, visits and meetings with Rwandan officials
      • POL 7 S AFR, visits and meetings with South African officials
      • POL 7 SOMALI, visits and meetings with Somali officials
      • POL 7 TUN, visits and meetings with Tunisian officials
      • POL 7 US/BALL, visits and meetings of George W. Ball
      • POL 7 US/HARRIMAN, visits and meetings of W. Averell Harriman
      • POL 7 US/HUMPHREY, visits and meetings of Vice President Humphrey
      • POL 7, NIGERIA, visits and meetings with Nigerian officials
      • POL 9 ALG–US, intervention, Algeria-U.S.
      • POL 9 EUR W–TANZAN, intervention, Western Europe-Tanzania
      • POL 10 PORT, colonialism and imperialism, Portugal
      • POL 10 PORT/UN, colonialism and imperialism, Portugal-U.N.
      • POL 12 ANG, political parties, Angola
      • POL 12 GHANA, political parties, Ghana
      • POL 12 THE CONGO, political parties, The Congo
      • POL 13 AFR, political organizations in Africa
      • POL 13 ETH, non-party blocs, Ethiopia
      • POL 15 NIGERIA, Government, Nigeria
      • POL 15 PORT, Government, Portugal
      • POL 15 SOMALI, Government, Somalia
      • POL 15–1 GHANA, Ghanaian Head of State, Executive Branch
      • POL 15–1 LIBYA, head of state and executive branch, Libya
      • POL 15–1 MOR, Head of State and Executive Branch, Morocco
      • POL 15–1 NIGERIA, Head of State and Executive Branch, Nigeria
      • POL 15–1 SOMALI, Head of State and Executive Branch, Somalia
      • POL 15–1 TUN, Head of State and Executive Branch, Tunisia
      • POL 15–1 US/Johnson, visits and meetings of President Johnson
      • POL 16 ALG, independence and recognition, Algeria
      • POL 16 CHICOM, recognition, People’s Republic of China
      • POL 16 GHANA, independence and recognition, Ghana
      • POL 16 RHOD, independence and recognition, Rhodesia
      • POL 16 RHOD/UN, independence and recognition, Rhodesia-UN
      • POL 17 ETH–US, diplomatic and consular representation, Ethiopia-U.S.
      • POL 17 LIBYA–US, diplomatic and consular representation, Libya-U.S.
      • POL 17 MOR–US, diplomatic and consular representation, Morocco-U.S
      • POL 17 US–AFR, diplomatic and consular representation, U.S.-Africa
      • POL 17 US–ALG, U.S. diplomatic representation in Algeria
      • POL 17 US–S AFR, diplomatic and consular representation, U.S.-South Africa
      • POL 19 ANG, government of dependencies, Angola
      • POL 19 PORT, government of dependencies, Portugal
      • POL 19 PORT/UN, government of dependencies, Portugal/U.N.
      • POL 19 RHOD, government of dependencies, Rhodesia
      • POL 19 SW AFR, government of dependencies, South West Africa
      • POL 19 SW AFR/UN, government of dependencies, South West Africa/UN
      • POL 23 ALG, internal security and counter-insurgency, Algeria
      • POL 23 TUN, internal security and counter-insurgency, Tunisia
      • POL 23–8 ALG, demonstrations, riots, and protests, Algeria
      • POL 23–9 ALG, rebellions and coups, Algeria
      • POL 23–9 GHANA, rebellions and coups, Ghana
      • POL 23–9 MOZ, rebellions and coups, Mozambique
      • POL 23–9 NIGERIA, rebellions and coups, Nigeria
      • POL 24 S AFR, sanctions, South Africa
      • POL 25 ALG, demonstrations and protests, Algeria
      • POL 27 ARAB–ISR, Arab-Israeli military operations
      • POL 27 BIAFRA–NIGERIA, military operations, Biafra-Nigeria
      • POL 27 VIET S, military operations, South Vietnam
      • POL 29 S AFR, political prisoners, South Africa
      • POL 29 SW AFR, political prisoners, South West Africa
      • POL 29 SW AFR/UN, political prisoners, South West Africa/U.N.
      • POL 30 MOR, defectors and expellees, Morocco
      • POL 30–2 ANG, exile political activities, Angola
      • POL 30–2 ETH, exile political activities, Ethiopia
      • POL 30–2 MOZ, exile political activities, Mozambique
      • POL 31–1 ETH–SOMALI, air disputes and violations, Ethiopia-Somalia
      • POL 32–1 ALG–MOR, Algerian-Moroccan boundary disputes
      • POL 32–1 ANG–ZAMBIA, Angola-Zambia boundary disputes
      • POL 32–1 ETH–SOMALI, Ethiopia-Somalia boundary disputes
      • POL 32–1 KENYA–SOMALI, Kenya-Somalia boundary disputes
      • SOC 14 S AFR/UN, human rights, race relations, South Africa-U.S.
      • SOC 14–1 S AFR, South Africa general policy in human rights
      • SOC 14–1 S AFR/UN, general policy, human rights and race relations, South Africa/UN
      • SP 15 S AFR–US, space vehicle tracking, South Africa-U.S.
      • STR 6–3 MOR, Presidential determinations, Morocco
    • Lot Files
      • Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192
        • Files of Secretary of State Dean Rusk, 1961–1969, including texts of speeches, miscellaneous correspondence files, White House correspondence, chronological files and memoranda of telephone conversations.
      • S/P Files: Lot 72 D 139
        • S/P and S/PC Country Files; W. Rostow and H. Owen memoranda.
      • S/S Files: Lot 65 D 330
        • Memoranda of the Secretary’s and Under Secretary’s conversations for 1961–1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S Files: Lot 70 D 217
        • White House and executive departments’ memoranda and letters to the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State for the years 1963–1966.
      • S/S Files: Lot 67 D 262
        • Correspondence of the President and the Secretary of State with various foreign statesmen for 1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S Files: Lot 70 D 263
        • Senior Interdepartmental Group (SIG) Memos, Agendas, Record Agreements and Policy Documents, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110
        • Records of official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and international conferences attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials for 1961–1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S Conference Files: Lot 66 D 347
        • Records of official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States, and international conferences attended by the President, Vice President, or Secretary of State for 1965, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S Conference Files: Lot 67 D 586
        • Collection of documentation on visits to the United States by ranking foreign officials and on major conferences attended by the Secretary of State, October 1966–May 10, 1967, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S Conference Files: Lot 68 D 453
        • Official International Conference chronologies of visits of U.S. officials abroad, foreign heads of state and government, and ranking foreign officials, May 10, 1967–January 11, 1968, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265
        • Master set of papers pertaining to National Security Council meetings, including policy papers, position papers, and administrative documents, 1961–1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316
        • Master file of National Security Action Memoranda for 1961–1968, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Williams Records
        • Records of the Bureau of African Affairs: Files of G. Mennen Williams, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, 1961–1966.
  • Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C.
    • DCI/McCone Files: Job 80–B01285A
    • ODDI Registry of NIEs and SNIEs: Job 79–R01012A
  • Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
    • Harriman Papers
      • Special files of W. Averell Harriman, Public Service, Kennedy and Johnson administrations.
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
  • Record Group 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
    • 842/534 (12 Sep 68) TR 5077, Sec. 1
    • 9118.3 (25 Jan 65)
    • 9118.4 (16 Feb 66) IR 5630, Sec. 1A
  • Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
    • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 68 A 306
      • Secret and lower-classified general files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1964.
    • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 68 A 4023
      • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1964.
    • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 70 A 3717
      • Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1965.
    • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 71 A 4546
      • Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1967.
    • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 72 A 1499
      • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1967–1968.
    • OSD Files: FRC 69 A 7425
      • Top Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1964.
    • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 1266
      • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1965.
    • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 4443
      • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1966.
    • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 4662
      • Top Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1966.
    • OSD Files: FRC 71 A 6489
      • Miscellaneous files and records of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and their assistants, 1951–1966.
    • OSD Files: FRC 72 A 2467
      • Top Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1967.
    • OSD Files: FRC 72 A 2468
      • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1967.
    • OSD Files: FRC 73 A 1250
      • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1968.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
    • Papers of Lyndon B. Johnson
      • National Security File
        • Country File
        • Files of Edward Hamilton
        • Files of Harold H. Saunders
        • Files of McGeorge Bundy
        • Files of Robert W. Komer
        • Files of Walt W. Rostow
        • Haynes Files
        • International Meetings and Travel File
        • Special Head of State Correspondence File
        • Memos to the President
        • Name File
        • National Security Action Memorandums
        • National Security Council Histories
        • NSC Meetings File
      • Recordings and Transcripts of Telephone Conversations and Meetings
      • Special Files
        • Meeting Notes File
        • President’s Daily Diary
      • White House Central Files
        • Confidential File
  • Other Personal Papers
    • George Ball Papers
    • Tom Johnson’s Notes of Meetings
    • Franklin H. Williams Papers