76. Editorial Note

At midnight December 17-18, 1961, an estimated 30,000 Indian troops, under the command of Lieutenant General J.N. Chaudhury, marched into Goa and the smaller neighboring Portuguese territories of Damao and Diu. Portuguese forces were heavily outnumbered and surrendered in all three territories on December 19.

In Washington, Secretary of State Rusk reacted to the first reports of Indian troop movements by calling Indian Ambassador Nehru to protest against the resort to force. (Department of State, Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192, Telephone Conversations)

In response to an urgent request from the Portuguese Government, the U.N. Security Council met on December 18 to consider the Indian invasion of the Portuguese territories. (U.N. Document S/5030) Adlai Stevenson, U.S. Representative to the United Nations, criticized the Indian military action as a violation of the principles of the U.N. Charter. (U.N. Document S/PV.987) In the course of the debate, Stevenson submitted a draft resolution that called for a cease-fire, withdrawal of Indian forces, and the resumption of negotiations. The resolution was cosponsored by France, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. (U.N. Document S/5033) The resolution failed by a vote of 7 to 4, in that the negative vote cast by the Soviet Representative constituted a veto. (U.N. Document S/PV.987) For text of Stevenson’s statement in the Security Council and the draft resolution he submitted, see American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1961, pages 956-960.