178. Telegram From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State1
207. Following text (unnecessary words omitted) delivered to me 22:40 local time July 15 by Foreign Minister as message from Bayar, Shah and Mirza to President Eisenhower with deep appreciation of US aid in their hour need (Embassy telegram 201).
- Bloody events which have taken place in Baghdad have, no doubt, greatly distressed free world. The legitimate head of state and the Government of Iraq, our ally within BP, have been overthrown as result of revolt of some army elements working for foreign powers, namely Egypt and Communist world. Thus, this situation which is result of external subversive activities, has created conditions which are seriously injurious to both Iraq and AU, our friend and ally. As result of this revolt, jointly prepared by Nasserism and Communism, the vital interests and security of regional members of BP, namely, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan, have been seriously shaken and breached and security and stability of entire free world has now been more exposed to danger of Communism.
- As is known, following tragic events which have taken place in Iraq, King Hussein has assumed powers of legal head of state of AU in accord with constitution, and has requested powers accredited to AU not to extend official recognition to the rebels who have taken control of Baghdad and to address all communications to Amman.
- Bloody and inhuman acts perpetrated in Baghdad following annexation of Syria and rebellion initiated in Lebanon are clear indication of extent of the aggressive policy pursued by Nasserism acting in unison with Communism. In fact, instigations of Egypt among Kurds in region through USSR encouragement, which have been undertaken even before attempts at subjugating Iraq, prove clearly that true objectives of both Nasser and international Communist are to create common frontiers between Soviet Russia and Egypt, in other words, to place entire ME under Soviet domination.
- In fact, regional pacts among which figures BP covering our region have been established with the support, and later, the physical participation of US, because of designs of USSR to dominate ME coupled with inability of UN to ensure fully security of its members as a result of Soviet veto.
- It is again for same reason that, following the Canal incident, US has proclaimed Eisenhower Doctrine which has been gratefully welcomed. Following Syrian events, and uprisings in Lebanon, bloody incidents in Baghdad are now taking place in our region which we believe is being defended against Soviet infiltration and subversive activities by BP on one hand and Eisenhower Doctrine on other.
- Turkey, Iran and Pakistan, allies of US and aligned with free world, are following above events and are intently watching whether Eisenhower Doctrine will operate in this instance or not. For, action taken by US in order preserve AU and Lebanon’s independence and territorial integrity which are at present jeopardized because of above-mentioned subversive activities, will not only indicate a measure of the guarantee of our own defense, in event it should become necessary, but also to such proportionate extent would cause either increase or decrease of audacity of Soviet Union and its partner Nasser.
For this reason, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan deem it necessary to state that, following gratifying decision taken by their friend and ally US, in order safeguard independence and territorial integrity of Lebanon, the implementation of Eisenhower Doctrine in case of the Iraqi-Jordanian Union’s situation is of vital importance for them.
At same time, all three countries stand ready to support with all means at their disposal decisions to be taken by the US for preservation of independence and territorial integrity of AU, as well as these already taken by US in case of Lebanon, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan, [Page 308]urge US to proceed with utmost vigor to take all such measures which may be considered necessary in light of such situations which may arise.
Comment: Message was originally drafted in Turkish before delivery our advice re landing in Lebanon. Later revised in part no doubt after being informed our intended aerial support movements. Then translated to English and submitted to heads of state. After latter’s approval, it was subject of consideration by Turkish Cabinet meeting after my arrival at Presidential Palace.
Joint message addressed by heads of state to Turkish Ambassador Washington will instruct latter express their gratitude to President.
They will await in Istanbul next one or two days President’s reply to their declarations.3
- Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, International Series. Top Secret; Niact; Presidential Treatment. Also sent to Istanbul. Received at 10:34 p.m. on July 15 and passed to the White House.↩
- Eisenhower replied in a personal message to Ankara on July 16, indicating that “Developments in Iraq have been receiving our closest attention and we have declared to His Majesty King Hussein our support for him in his forthright attitude in this crisis.” He added: “I have received with deepest gratification the statement of full support by your countries for measures which may be taken by the US on behalf of the Arab Union.” (Telegram 182 to Ankara; Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, International Series)↩