22. Editorial Note

On November 21, Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson and Chairman of the State Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries Georgi A. Zhukov signed in Moscow an Agreement on Cooperation in Exchanges in the Fields of Science, Technology, Education, and Culture for 1960–1961. The agreement was the result of negotiations that had begun in Moscow on November 4. For text of the joint U.S.-Soviet communiqué and a statement issued by the Department of State on November 21, see Department of State Bulletin, December 7, 1959, pages 848–849. The text of the agreement and a memorandum on exchanges in atomic energy signed in Washington on November 24 are printed ibid., December 28, 1959, pages 951–959.

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The different positions that the two sides had taken on the various exchange issues in the preliminary talks earlier in the year preceding the formal negotiations were summarized in Sino-Soviet Affairs, November 1959, page 8. (Department of State, INR Files) In appraising the negotiations and the significance of the signed agreement, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research noted:

“The new agreement provides for a considerable increase in the exchange of industrial and technical delegations, including specialists in a number of diverse fields. Educational exchanges are to be significantly broadened, scientific contacts are to be further encouraged, and general approval is given to cooperation in the utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes (specific conditions being covered in the special US-USSR agreement on this subject). Another notable provision is that dealing with public health and medical science, which envisages cooperation between medical institutes and individuals of both countries and includes the possibility of joint studies on the problems of cancer, poliomyelitis, and cardio-vascular illnesses.

“Exchanges will be continued in a number of fields, such as agriculture, sports, the performing arts, and cinematography, and efforts will again be made to promote the exchange of radio and television broadcasts—a provision of the 1958 agreement which was never implemented. Both countries will further endeavor to encourage tourism and facilitate travel of ‘representatives of cultural, civic, youth and social groups.’ The two sides made virtually no progress in expanding exchanges of publications and in arranging direct air flights between the two countries.” (Sino-Soviet Affairs, December 1959; ibid.)