List of Sources

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    1.
    Indexed Central Files. The principal source of documentation for this volume was the indexed central files of the Department of State. The most important of these files were the 500 (cultural relations), 600 (international relations), 700 (internal political and national defense affairs), and 800 (internal economic and social affairs) series. Other files and related subfiles searched included 033 (official visits), 110.11 (Department of State senior officials files), 123 (Department of State personnel files), and various files in classes 300 (international organizations and conferences) and 511 (information programs). Most of the documents from the central files were selected from the following files:
    • 748.00: Poland, political files
    • 764.00: Hungary, political files
    • 611.48: U.S.-Polish relations
    • 611.49: U.S.-Czechoslovak relations
    • 611.64: U.S.-Hungarian relations
    • 611.66: U.S.-Romanian relations
    • 611.69: U.S.-Bulgarian relations
    • 661.48: USSR-Polish relations
    • 661.49: USSR-Czechoslovak relations
    • 661.64: USSR-Hungarian relations
    • 661.69: USSR-Bulgarian relations
    • 661.66: USSR-Romanian relations
    • 100.4–OCB: files of an interagency committee on Soviet and related problems operating under the aegis of the Operations Coordinating Board
    • 748.5–MSP: U.S.-Polish economic negotiations
    2.
    Lot Files. Documents from the central files have been supplemented by materials from decentralized office files, the lot files of the Department of State. A list of the lot files used or consulted for this volume follows:
    • Bohlen Files: Lot 74 D 379
      • Records maintained by Charles E. Bohlen, 1942–1970.
    • Budapest Embassy Files: Lot 75 F 163
      • Classified and unclassified files relating to Cardinal Mindszenty, 1956–1972, as maintained by the U.S. Embassy in Budapest.
    • Conference Files: Lot 60 D 627
      • Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the years 1953–1955, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
    • Conference Files: Lot 62 D 181
      • Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the years 1956–1958, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • Conference Files: Lot 63 D 123
      • Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the years 1955–1958, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • Daily Summaries: Lot 60 D 530
      • Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Daily Secret Summary and Daily Top Secret Summary for the years 1953–1958, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • EE Files: Lot 57 D 514
      • National Security Council documents relating to Soviet and satellite vulnerabilities, as maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
    • EE Files: Lot 67 D 238
      • Economic and political files relating to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Poland for the years 1946–1965, as maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
    • EE Files: Lot 76 D 232
      • Economic files relating to Eastern Europe and Poland, 1951–1960, including the U.S.-Polish economic talks, 1956–1957, as maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
    • EE Files: Lot 79 D 55
      • Miscellaneous files pertaining to Hungary, 1945–1971, as maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
    • EUR Files: Lot 59 D 233
      • Files of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs for the years 1945–1957.
    • Hungary Desk Files: Lot 75 D 45
      • Miscellaneous Hungarian files, 1949–1972, including material on the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty and his asylum in the U.S. Mission.
    • INR Files: Lot 58 D 776
      • Miscellaneous files of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research for the years 1946–1957.
    • INR Files: Lot 61 D 67
      • Miscellaneous files of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research for the years 1950–1957.
    • INR-NIE Files
      • Files of National Intelligence Estimates, Special Estimates, and Special National Intelligence Estimates retained by the Directorate for Regional Research, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
    • INR Files, Soviet Affairs
      • Master set of the classified Department of State monthly publication, Soviet Affairs, December 1948-May 1959, as maintained by the Office of Research and Analysis for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
    • IO Files
      • Master files of the Reference and Documents Section of the Bureau of International Organization Affairs of the Department of State, comprising the official U.N. documentation and classified Department of State records on U.S. policy in the U.N. Security Council, Trusteeship Council, Economic and Social Council, and various special and ad hoc committees for the period from 1946 to currency.
    • OCB Files: Lot 61 D 385
      • Master set of administrative and country files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • OCB Files: Lot 62 D 430
      • Master files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • P Files: Lot 61 D 318
      • Files of the Deputy Assistant Secretaries of State for Public Affairs, 1954–1959, accessioned by the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Maryland, as part of FRC 64 A 867.
    • P/PG Files: Lot 60 D 605
      • Files of the Policy Plans and Guidance Staff, Bureau of Public Affairs, 1952–1959, accessioned by the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Maryland, as part of FRC 72 A 248.
    • P/PG Files: Lot 60 D 661
      • Subject files containing OCB and NSC documents retired by the Policy Plans and Guidance Staff in the Bureau of Public Affairs.
    • Poland Desk Files: Lot 58 D 386
      • Files of the Poland Desk Officer, 1955–1956.
    • Poland Desk Files: Lot 60 D 55
      • Files of the Poland Desk Officer, 1955–1956.
    • Poland Desk Files: Lot 61 D 77
      • Files of the Poland Desk Officer, 1957.
    • PPS Files: Lot 65 D 101
      • Master file of documents, drafts, records of meetings, memoranda, and related correspondence of the Policy Planning Staff for the year 1954.
    • PPS Files: Lot 66 D 70
      • Subject files, country files, chronological files, documents, drafts, and related correspondence of the Policy Planning Staff for the year 1955.
    • PPS Files: Lot 66 D 487
      • Subject files, country files, chronological files, documents, drafts, and related correspondence of the Policy Planning Staff for the year 1956.
    • PPS Files: Lot 67 D 548
      • Subject files, country files, chronological files, documents, drafts, and related correspondence of the Policy Planning Staff for the years 1957–1961.
    • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 64 D 174
      • Exchanges of correspondence between President Eisenhower and heads of foreign governments, excluding the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the Soviet Union, for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 204
      • Exchanges of correspondence between the President and heads of foreign governments for the years 1953–1964, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • President’s Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149
      • Chronological record of memoranda of conversations between the President and foreign visitors for the years 1956–1964, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • S/P-NSC Files: Lot 61 D 167
      • Serial file of memoranda relating to National Security Council questions for the years 1950–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
    • S/P-NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1
      • Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1948–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
    • S/S-NSC Files: Lot 63 D 351
      • Serial master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence and related Department of State memoranda for the years 1947–1961, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • S/S-NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95
      • Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council documentation, including NSC Records of Action, for the years 1947–1963, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • Secretary’s Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 64 D 199
      • Chronological collections of the Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation and the Under Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation, for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • Secretary’s Staff Meetings: Lot 63 D 75
      • Chronological collection of the minutes of the Secretary of State’s Staff Meetings for the years 1952–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • SOV Files: Lot 69 D 162
      • Subject files of the Bilateral Political Relations Branch of the Office of Soviet Union Affairs on various aspects of Soviet-U.S. relations, 1943–1966.
    • State-JCS Meetings: Lot 61 D 417
      • Top secret records of meetings between representatives of the Department of State and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the years 1951–1959 and selected problem files on the Middle East for the years 1954–1956, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
    • USIA/IAE Files: Lot 60 D 439
      • Files of the Office of Eastern European Affairs, U.S. Information Agency, 1955–1957, accessioned by the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Maryland, as FRC 63 A 190.
    • USIA/IAE/E Files: Lot 64 A 536
      • Miscellaneous files of the Office of Eastern European Affairs, U.S. Information Agency, 1955–1961, accessioned by the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Maryland, as FRC 64 A 536.
    • USIA/IBS Files: Lot 59 D 242
      • Files kept in the Office of the Director, International Broadcasting Service, U.S. Information Agency, covering all phases of the Voice of America for the years 1948–1957, accessioned by the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Maryland, as FRC 63 A 190.
    • USIA/IOP/G Files: Lot 70 D 398
      • Alphabetical subject files containing Policy Guidance records as maintained by the Policy Guidance Staff, Office of Policy and Plans, U.S. Information Agency, for the years 1952–1967, accessioned by the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Maryland, as FRC 72 A 5121.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
    • CFEP Chairman Records
      • Records of the Office of the Chairman, Council on Foreign Economic Policy (Joseph M. Dodge and Clarence B. Randall), 1954–1961.
    • Dulles Papers
      • Papers of John Foster Dulles, 1952–1959. Dulles was Secretary of State, 1953–1959.
    • Hagerty Papers
      • Papers of James C. Hagerty, Press Secretary to the President, 1953–1961.
    • President’s Appointment Books
      • Daily appointment books of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, 1953–1961.
    • Project Clean Up
      • Project “Clean Up” collection. Records of Gordon Gray, Robert Cutler, Henry R. McPhee, and Andrew J. Goodpaster, 1953–1961.
    • Special Assistant for National Security Affairs Records
      • Records of the Office of the Special Assistant, 1952–1961, including records of Robert Cutler, Dillon Anderson, and Gordon Gray.
    • White House Office, Office of the Staff Secretary Records, 1952–1961
      • Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary (Paul T. Carroll, Andrew J. Goodpaster, L. Arthur Minnich, and Christopher H. Russell), 1952–1961.
    • Whitman File
      • Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, 1953–1961, as maintained by his Personal Secretary, Ann C. Whitman. The Whitman File includes the following elements: the Name Series, the Dulles-Herter Series, Eisenhower Diaries, Ann Whitman (ACW) Diaries, National Security Council Records, Miscellaneous Records, Cabinet Papers, Legislative Meetings, International Meetings, the Administration Series, and the International File.
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • See the following under Department of State:
      • P Files
      • P/PG Files: Lot 60 D 661
      • USIA/IAE Files
      • USIA/IAE/E Files
      • USIA/IBS Files
      • USIA/IOP/G Files
  • Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey
    • Dulles’ Appointment Book
      • Daily appointment books of John Foster Dulles as Secretary of State, 1953–1959.

Published Sources

  • Documentary Collections
    • Gruliow, Leo, ed. Current Soviet Policies: The Documentary Record of the 20th Communist Party Congress and Its Aftermath(New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1957)
    • House of Commons. Parliamentary Debates, 5th Series.
    • Royal Institute of International Affairs. Documents on International Affairs, 1955. (London: Oxford University Press, 1958)
    • ___. Documents on International Affairs, 1956 (London: Oxford University Press, 1959)
    • ___. Documents on International Affairs, 1957 (London: Oxford University Press, 1959)
    • Russian Institute, Columbia University, ed. The Anti-Stalin Campaign and International Communism: A Selection of Documents (New York: Columbia University Press, 1956)
    • U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy, 1950–1955: Basic Documents. 2 vols. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957)
    • ___. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1956 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959)
    • ___. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1957 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961)
    • ___. Department of State Bulletin, 1955, 1956, and 1957, Vols. XXXIII, XXXIV, and XXXV (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955–1957)
    • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1955 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957)
    • ___. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1956 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1958)
    • ___. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1957 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959)
    • Zinner, Paul E., ed. National Communism and Popular Revolt in Eastern Europe: A Selection of Documents on Events in Poland and Hungary, February-November 1956 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1956)
  • Memoirs
    • Note: The following memoirs were consulted at the time this volume was prepared in 1980. The Department takes no responsibility for their accuracy nor endorses their interpretation of the events.
    • Bain, L.B. Reluctant Satellites (New York: Macmillan, 1960)
    • Beam, Jacob D. Multiple Exposure (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978)
    • Bohlen, Charles E. Witness to History, 1929–1969 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1973)
    • Cline, Ray S. Secrets, Spies, and Scholars: Blueprint of the Essential CIA. (Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1976)
    • Eden, Anthony Full Circle: The Memoirs of Anthony Eden. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960)
    • Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House Years. Mandate for Change, 1953–1956 (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1963)
    • ___. The White House Years. Waging Peace, 1957–1960 (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1965)
    • Hughes, Emmet John The Ordeal of Power. (New York: Atheneum, 1963)
    • Talbott, Strobe, ed. Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1970)
    • Micunović, Veljko. Moscow Diary, translated from Serbo-Croatian by David Floyd (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1980)