The Ambassador in Turkey (Warren) to the
Department of State
557. For Byroade. Delivered Ghulam Mohammed substance priority Wirom 587, November 27,1 immediately after his arrival Ankara November 28, about same time he received telegram from his Ambassador in Washington, quoting conversation Erkin had with Amjid Ali to effect that Ghulam Mohammed would find atmosphere in Ankara favorable for discussions on a community of defense interest, between Turkey and Pakistan.
During next 36 hours, Ghulam Mohammed had extensive conversations, first with Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, and later with [Page 434]President Bayar, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister. This a.m., before leaving Ankara for Cairo, his next stop on his homeward journey, Ghulam Mohammed told me President Bayar confirmed, in presence his two Ministers, Turkey willingness to enter immediately into defense pact with Pakistani and Turks, further willingness to include Iran in a tripartite defense instrument, if and when, conditions in Iran indicate sufficient stability for Turks to support defense buildup there. Bayar told Ghulam Mohammed would expect United States to give signal when, in opinion, Iran in suitable condition be included in proposed arrangement.
Ghulam Mohammed said he then sounded out Bayar on his attitude towards Arab States and found Turks are completely unwilling to include any of Arab States in their defense thinking. Bayar told him, in effect, that if Iraq were to be considered, the result would be only to involve the whole Arab League, one by one, and interject the Israelite problem into the defense concept from which, in his opinion, it should be excluded. Bayar expressed view, if arrangement as suggested above could be entered into, then problems of inter-relations of Arab League States, as well as relations with Palestine might well be insulated behind a defense organization, and with passage of time, might well fall into the limited importance which Turks feel is all they merit. Some passing reference was made about Egypt, but Bayar was highly critical of Egyptian Government’s action in expropriating property people of dual Turkish–Egyptian nationality. He was inclined to feel Egyptians and British might well worry out their relations without any live Turkish interest and reiterated view that if a defense organization could be extended from Turkey through to Pakistan, the significance of Anglo-Egyptian irritations might well be measured in the perspective of time.
Ghulam Mohammed expects arrive Karachi December 5, in time to meet Vice President Nixon December 6. He told me he intends to suggest to Vice President desirability of United States sending survey team to Pakistan to appraise capacity of Pakistan defense and potential contribution to Middle East defense, in light of her soldier’s contribution under British commanders in Iran and Iraq, in World Wars One and Two. He said he felt a survey by a competent American team would be more immediately useful to him than discussion on specific amount of military aid.
Incidentally, for your information, some of my colleagues, including Egyptian, Iranian and Nationalist Chinese, are already gossiping about commitment to a defense pact as result of Ghulam Mohammed’s visit.
- Not printed; it asked the Ambassador to inform Ghulam Mohammed that there had as yet been no decision on military aid to Pakistan, but the Department of State hoped to have a decision in a few days.↩