Editorial Note

The Nine-Power and Four-Power Conferences at London, September 28–October 3, involved a total of 14 plenary sessions of the 9 Foreign Ministers from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States and 5 meetings of the Foreign Ministers from France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, in addition to numerous other informal and formal bilateral and multilateral discussions. The editors have attempted to account for all the meetings which occurred during the conference, even if the subject discussed was exclusively related to non-EDC matters, in which case information is provided concerning where the document is printed if it does not appear in this compilation.

The most useful supplement to the Department of State Central files concerning this conference, especially file 396.1 LO, was the Conference files, lot 60 D 627. It included 14 folders of material relating to the meetings, the preparations, and relevant conference documents. The material is arranged as follows: folder 363—reference and position papers, CF 364–365—conference documents, CF 366–368—verbatim records of the meetings of the Nine-Power and Four-Power sessions, CF 369—the final act and annexes, CF 370–372—telegrams and memoranda of conversation, and CF 373–376—materials relating to the administrative arrangements for the conference. A principal supplementary file, not as complete as the Conference files, is the CFM files, lot M 88, box 169, which also has the preparatory papers, verbatim records, and conference documents.

The main telegram indicator series used at this conference was the SectoTosec series, which was utilized by the delegation for conference business between Washington and London; the first telegram in the series began with the departure of the Secretary of State for London. The DulteTedul indicator series was used to transmit personal messages from and to the Secretary of State while at the conference in London.

For personal accounts of this conference by some of the major participants, see the following: Adenauer, Erinnerungen 1953–1955, pages 328–354; Eden, Full Circle, pages 149–169; Macmillan, Tides of Fortune, pages 482–483; and Spaak, The Continuing Battle, pages 181–186. [Page 1295]For President Eisenhower’s account, see Mandate for Change, pages 403–407.

Most of the meetings of both the Nine-Power and Four-Power sessions were attended by the Foreign Ministers of the participating countries, assisted by staffs of experts from the various delegations. Since no records are available indicating which members of the various delegations attended the individual meetings to assist their Foreign Minister, the editors have attempted to list only the principal participants at such meetings. The leading representatives on the delegations of the participating countries were as follows:

Belgium

Paul-Henri Spaak Minister of Foreign Affairs
Andre de Staercke Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council
Robert Rothschild Chief of the Cabinet of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Canada

Lester B. Pearson Secretary of State for External Affairs
Norman Robertson High Commissioner in London
L. Dana Wilgress Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council

France

Pierre Mendès-France President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs
Roland de Moustier Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
André François-Poncet High Commissioner for Germany
René Massigli Ambassador to the United Kingdom
Roland de Margerie Director of Political Affairs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Germany

Konrad Adenauer Chancellor
Theodor Blank Member of the Bundestag and Adviser to the Chancellor
Walter Hallstein Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Herbert Blankenhorn Political Director of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Italy

Gaetano Martino Minister of Foreign Affairs
Manlio Brosio Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Massimo Magistrati Director General for International Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Luxembourg

Joseph Bech President and Minister of Foreign Affairs
Andrew Clasen Minister in the United Kingdom
Nic Hommel Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council
[Page 1296]

Netherlands

Johan W. Beyen Minister of Foreign Affairs
Dirk Stikker Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Jonkheer A. W. L. Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council

United Kingdom

Sir Anthony Eden Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick Permanent Under Secretary of the Foreign Office
Sir H. M. Gladwyn Jebb Ambassador in France
Sir Frederick Hover Millar High Commissioner for Germany
Sir Christopher Steel Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council
Sir Harold Caccia Deputy Under Secretary of State in the Foreign Office
Sir Frank Roberts Deputy Under Secretary of State in the Foreign Office

United States

John Foster Dulles Secretary of State
Winthrop W. Aldrich Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Robert R. Bowie Director of the Policy Planning Staff or the Department of State
David K. E. Bruce Ambassador to the Organization for European Economic Cooperation
James B. Conant High Commissioner for Germany
C. Douglas Dillon Ambassador in France
H. Struve Hensel Assistant Secretary of Defense
John C. Hughes Permanent Representative on the North Atlantic Council
Livingston T. Merchant Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs

A complete list of the United States Delegation is printed in the Department of State Bulletin, October 4, 1954, pages 489–490.