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Note on sources

Unpublished

Information cited as Korean Conflict refers to a special historical collection of material entitled American Policy and Diplomacy in the Korean Conflict prepared in the Division of Historical Policy Research of the Department of State shortly after the occurrence of the events recorded.

This source has been used to provide information on dates and times as well as on the substance of meetings and communications for which no documentary record has been found in the Department of State files.

Another unpublished source, herein cited as Record of the Actions Taken by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, contains the record of actions taken by the JCS relative to the U.N. operations in Korea from June 25, 1950 to April 11, 1951. This record was prepared by the JCS for the Senate Armed Forces and Foreign Relations Committees in April 1951 for use in the so-called MacArthur Hearings which are listed below in the “Published Sources” under the title Military Situation in the Far East, etc.

United Nations Material

United Nations documents are cited according to their U.N. designations. Thus, Security Council and General Assembly meetings are identified by symbol and the number of the meeting (e.g., S/PV.473, A/PV.294); similarly identified are Security Council and General Assembly documents (e.g., S/1752, A/1583). The Security Council and General Assembly meetings may be found in Official Records of the Security Council, Fifth Year, and Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifth Session, respectively. Most of the individual U.N. documents cited are found printed in Official Records of the Security Council, Fifth Year, Supplements, and Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifth Session, Annexes.

Also referred to frequently are the Report of the U.N. Commission on Korea, covering the period from December 15, 1949 to September 4, 1950 (cited as U.N. document A/1350), printed as Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifth Session, Supplement No. 16, and the Report of the U.N. Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea, covering the period from October 7, 1950 to September 5, [Page VIII]1951 (cited as U.N. document A/1881), printed as Official Records of the General Assembly, Sixth Session, Supplement No. 12.

Published Sources

Listed below are some of the published sources which proved helpful in the preparation of this volume. The list is a partial one and is not intended to be definitive. No responsibility is taken by the Department of State for the truth or accuracy of events set forth in unofficial sources. Some of these accounts, however, were written by direct participants in the events; others were written by persons having access to official materials, occasionally supplemented by oral interviews of participants in the decision making processes.

Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1969).

John M. Allison, Ambassador from the Prairie (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973).

Roy E. Appleman, South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu (June–November 1950) a volume in the series United States Army in the Korean War (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1961).

Malcolm W. Cagle and Frank A. Manson, The Sea War in Korea (Annapolis, United States Naval Institute, 1957).

J. Lawton Collins, War in Peacetime: The History and Lessons of Korea (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969).

Cmd. 8078, Korea No. 1 (1950). Summary of Events Relating to Korea, 1950 (London, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1950).

Cmd. 8366, Korea No. 2 (1951). Further Summary of Events Relating to Korea, October 1950–May 1951 (London, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1951).

Department of State publication 7446. A Historical Summary of United States Korean Relations, With a Chronology of Important Developments, 1834–1962 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1962).

Department of State publication 4266. The Conflict in Korea: Events Prior to the Attack on June 25, 1950 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1951).

Department of State publication 7084. The Record on Korean Unification, 1943–1960: Narrative Summary With Principal Documents (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1960).

Department of State publication 3922. United States Policy in the Korean Crisis (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1950).

Department of State publication 4263. United States Policy in the Korean Conflict, July 1950–February 1951 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1951).

James A. Field, Jr., History of United States Naval Operations: Korea (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1962).

Robert Frank Futrell, The United States Air Force in Korea (New York, Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1961).

Leland M. Goodrich, Korea: A Study of U.S. Policy in the United Nations (New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 1956).

Leon Gordenker, The United Nations and the Peaceful Unification of Korea: The Politics of Field Operations, 1947–1950 (The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1959).

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Walter G. Hermes, Truce Tent and Fighting Front, a volume in the series United States Army in the Korean War (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1966).

Trumbull Higgins, Korea and the Fall of MacArthur: A Précis in Limited War (New York, Oxford University Press, 1960).

Walter Karig, Malcolm W. Cagle, and Frank A. Manson, Battle Report: The War in Korea (New York, Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1952).

George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 1925–1950 and Memoirs, 1950–1963, Volume II (Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1967 and 1972).

Robert Leckie, Conflict: The History of the Korean War, 1950–1953 (New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1962).

Martin Lichterman, “To the Yalu and Back,” in Harold Stein, ed., American Civil-Military Decisions: A Book of Case Studies (Birmingham, University of Alabama Press, 1963).

Douglas MacArthur, Reminiscences (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964).

S. L. A. Marshall, The River and the Gauntlet: Defeat of the Eighth Army by the Chinese Communist Forces, November, 1950, in the Battle of the Congchon River, Korea (New York, William Morrow & Company, 1953).

Military Situation in the Far East: Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty-Second Congress, First Session, To Conduct an Inquiry Into the Military Situation in the Far East and the Facts Surrounding the Relief of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur From His Assignments in That Area (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1951). Herein cited as Hearings.

Glenn D. Paige, The Korean Decision [June 24–30, 1950] (New York, The Free Press, 1968).

K. M. Panikkar, In Two Chinas: Memoirs of a Diplomat (London, George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1955).

Mike: The Memoirs of the Right Honourable Lester B. Pearson, Volume 2, 1948–1957, edited by John A. Munro and Alex. I. Inglis (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973).

David Rees, Korea: The Limited War (New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1964).

Matthew Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1967).

Robert K. Sawyer, Military Advisors in Korea: KMAG in Peace and War (edited by Walter G. Hermes), a volume in the United States Army Historical Series (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1962).

James F. Schnabel, Policy and Direction: The First Year, a volume in the series United States Army in the Korean War (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1972).

Beverly Smith, “The White House Story: Why We Went to War in Korea”, The Saturday Evening Post, November 10, 1951.

John W. Spanier, The Truman-MacArthur Controversy and the Korean War (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1959).

Memoirs by Harry S. Truman, Volume Two, Years of Trial and Hope (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1956). Herein cited as Truman, Years of Trial and Hope.

United States Participation in the United Nations: Report by the President to the Congress for the Year 1950 (Department of State publication 4178; Washington, Government Printing Office, 1951).

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Allen S. Whiting, China Crosses the Yalu: The Decision To Enter the Korean War (Stanford, California, Stanford University Press, 1960).

Courtney Whitney, MacArthur: His Rendezvous With History (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1956). Herein cited as Whitney, MacArthur.

Charles A. Willoughby and John Chamberlain, MacArthur, 1941–1951 (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1954).