893.00/3–1346: Telegram

The Counselor of Embassy in China (Smyth) to the Secretary of State

478. New Communist line which began shortly after publication in Yenan of communiqué on Manchuria February 1411 has further developed in Yenan broadcasts for week ending March 8. This involves drastic change in approach and interpretation of developments in political situation. Whereas previously opposition had been referred to as reactionary or die-hard or conservative all opposition is now referred to as Fascist and interpretation of developments not only in Chinese political scene but also in Manchuria is interpreted on straight Moscow party line. Attacks on Soviet Union or Manchuria as well as disturbances in Chinese [cities?] are labeled as anti-Soviet, anti-Communist, anti-democratic and anti PCC. It is charged there can be no peaceful solution in Manchuria unless wishes of people are taken into consideration and Fascist elements in China are suppressed but no direct stand is taken on presence of Russian troops in Manchuria.

One editorial from Emancipation Daily is quoted as stating that Chinese Fascist clique is challenge to Chinese people, principles of Sun Yat-sen and PCC and like all Fascist groups everywhere it is against peace and democracy and desires war and despotism under name of unity. Another item alleged that Jap Fascists are trying to stir up trouble in China for their own purposes. Another editorial from Emancipation Daily was quoted as stating that Chinese Fascist clique has freedom of terrorism. Chinese people have lacked freedom from fear since April 12, 1927,12 that this same group stopped all patriotic moves after Mukden incident13 and now, just when people’s [Page 554] freedoms are legally recognized, Fascists adopt new methods to break PCC agreement. “Why do Chinese Fascists hate the Soviet Union and Stalin? Obviously this is because the Soviet Union forces with Stalin at their head are the main force of world anti-Fascism and because Stalin and Soviet Union defeated Fascism”. (Sent Department 478; repeated Moscow 38.)14

An item on March 7 quoted General Kao Hsu-hsun, Kuomintang General of the New Eighth Army who deserted to or was captured by Communists as attacking anti-Soviet and anti-Communist demonstrations as vicious designs of secret police to sabotage peace and democracy following success of PCC. General Kao is alleged to have charged authorities not only did not stop these demonstrations but they encouraged them. Soviet Union liberated Manchuria. “The anti-Soviet movement is Fascist in nature and serves only Jap imperialist interests.” Same broadcast further reported that protests are pouring into Yenan against Govt, connivance with Fascists and die-hards who are working for war by stirring up anti-Soviet and anti-Communist demonstrations and activities.

Other items reported continued attacks on Communist troops, particularly by Yen Hsi-shan,15 16 billion CN dollar loan to liberated areas for rehabilitation, Gen. Marshall’s visit to Yenan and Kalgan, protest against beating up or [of] professor at Chungking Futan University and greetings sent by Chinese groups in Perak and other Malayan centers to Communists. One item reported that Manchurian people now having full democratic rights are busy establishing county and town govts and cites specific instances where this has been done.

  1. See despatch No. 1166, February 28, from the Counselor of Embassy in China, p. 448.
  2. Reference to the break between Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the Kuomintang regime then at Hankow, which was allied to the Chinese Communists and other left-wing factions.
  3. September 18, 1931, when Japanese troops seized Mukden.
  4. In telegram No. 993, March 29, 6 p.m., the Ambassador in the Soviet Union noted “that the new and more uncompromising line of Chinese Communists … coincided with a perceptibly sharper note in such Chinese materials as have appeared in Soviet press since February 14” (893.00/3–2946).
  5. Nationalist commander in Shansi.