740.00119 Control (Korea)/1–2946
Policy Paper Adopted by the State–War–Navy Coordinating Committee 40
Political Policy for Korea
1. To determine a policy for the guidance of General MacArthur in conducting negotiations with the Soviet command in northern Korea regarding the initial powers and functions of the Joint Commission provided for in paragraph 2 of Section III (Korea) of the Moscow Communiqué and regarding the formulation of plans for the creation of a Provisional Korean Government.
facts bearing on the problem
2. See Appendix “A”.41
3. See Appendix “B”.41
4. It is concluded that:
- Arrangements for an early meeting of the Joint Commission,
specified in paragraph 2 of the Korean Section of the Moscow
Communiqué, [Page 624] will be
made with the Soviet Government by the State Department. It is
the view of the United States Government that the Joint
Commission, in accordance with the Moscow Communiqué, is to be
given the following functions:
- To formulate plans for the creation of a provisional Korean government, in consultation with Korean democratic parties and social organizations and with a view to the presentation of these plans for the consideration of the Governments of the U.S.S.R., China, the United Kingdom and the United States, prior to final decision by the two Governments represented on the Joint Commission, as provided for in paragraph 2 of the section on Korea of the Moscow Communiqué.
- To work out measures, with the participation of the provisional Korean Government, for helping and assisting the political, economic and social progress of the Korean people, the development of democratic self-government and the establishment of the national independence of Korea, with a view to the submittance of these measures for the joint consideration of the Governments of the United States, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom and China, as provided for in paragraph 3 of the section on Korea in the Moscow Communiqué. These measures should include plans for a system of government to eliminate zonal arrangements in northern and southern Korea. These plans, depending upon such factors as the ability of the Koreans to organize and operate an efficient centralized administration, may or may not take the form of a trusteeship for a period not to exceed five years from the time of the issuance of the Moscow Communiqué.
- To take those steps which it considers desirable and which may not have been taken by the conference provided for in paragraph 4 of the section on Korea in the Moscow Communiqué, for establishing permanent coordination of economic-administrative matters between the United States Command in southern Korea and the Soviet Command in northern Korea. It is expected that these steps will lead to the integration of the civil administration of the northern and southern sectors as rapidly as possible under the centralized control of the Joint Commission, which should ultimately be “civilianized”.
- The United States members of the Joint Commission are to regard the formulation of plans for the creation of a provisional Korean government as their first and most pressing political task. Pending further instructions, they are not to discuss matters coming under paragraph 4a (2) above. This, however, is not to be construed as limiting in any way the discussion of matters affecting the political, economic and social progress of the Korean people and the development of democratic self-government in so far as they pertain to the formulation of plans for the creation of a provisional Korean democratic government.
- With a view to facilitating the creation and smooth functioning of a provisional Korean government, the United States Commander in Korea should, without delay, encourage the various Korean political factions to reach fundamental agreements on the political, economic [Page 625] and social policies to be applied by the new government, including essential democratic reforms.
- The United States members of the Joint Commission are to be
given wide latitude in their negotiations with the Soviet
representatives regarding the formulation of plans for the
creation of a provisional Korean government, but the following
points are submitted as an indication of the position favored by
the United States Government:
- The Joint Commission should select a group of representative democratic Korean leaders for the purpose of consultation with the Joint Commission in its preparation of proposals for the establishment of a provisional Korean government. Such leaders, who should as far as practicable represent the will of the Korean people, should be selected after full consultation with all democratic parties and social organizations throughout Korea. If it is considered feasible and advisable, electoral processes may be utilized in their selection. The persons chosen should be the leaders of all the democratic political parties and social organizations which have sufficient political strength and popular backing to warrant representation and also any individual Koreans without party affiliations who have sufficient national prestige to justify their inclusion in the membership of the group. The larger and stronger parties and organizations should have representation proportionate to their political strength and popular support. Special efforts should be made to find and select a definite majority of strong competent leaders who are not extremists of either right or left. Care should be taken that the Korean leaders chosen are true Koreans and not puppets of foreign powers.
- If it is not possible for the Joint Commission to reach agreement on the above methods of selection or on the composition of this group of leaders, it should be proposed that the United States and Soviet Commanders in Korea should separately choose the members of the group from their respective zones. In making their choice they should follow the same general principles of selection as are outlined above. In the event of separate selection of the members of the group by the United States and Soviet Commanders, the number of members to be chosen from the two zones should be roughly proportionate to the relative populations of the two zones or at least proportionate to the number of provinces in the two zones.
- The Joint Commission should provide a meeting place and quarters for this group of Korean leaders at a place conveniently located with respect to the meeting place of the Joint Commission and should arrange for defrayment of the expenses of the group from funds within Korea.
- After the selection of the group of Korean leaders has been completed, the Joint Commission should call upon it to formulate plans in consultation with the Joint Commission, for a provisional Korean government. These plans should be submitted within a reasonable time for the consideration of the Joint Commission. The Joint Commission should then propose these plans, with such modifications as the Commission deems desirable, to the four powers.
- The plans for the provisional Korean government
proposed by the Joint Commission should be in accord
with the following points and principles:
- The name should indicate the provisional nature of the government.
- The organization of the provisional government should be simple and consonant with its provisional character.
- There should be provisions whereby changes can be made in the organization of the provisional government to meet changing needs and new functions and whereby there can be a gradual increase in the use of popular electoral processes for the selection of key officials.
- The members of the group of Korean leaders, provided for in 4 d (1) above, or specific individuals in the group, should if possible be used to form the nucleus of the provisional government.
- There should be concrete proposals for the initial membership of the provisional government, including the names of the individuals who are to fill the key offices provided for in the plans. The distribution of portfolios in the provisional government should be made in general in conformity with the principles for selecting the group of leaders outlined in 4 d (1) above.
- The duties of the provisional government
- Progressively to assume, under the supervision and control of the Joint Commission, responsibility for administering and developing the industry, transport and agriculture of Korea and the national culture of the Korean people, as provided for in paragraph 1 of the section on Korea in the Moscow Communiqué.
- To perform such other administrative duties as are assigned to it by the Joint Commission.
- To participate with the Joint Commission and under its supervision in working out measures for the political, economic and social progress of the Korean people, the development of democratic self-government and the establishment of the national independence of Korea, as provided for in paragraph 3 of the section on Korea in the Moscow Communiqué.
- If it is impossible for the Joint Commission to reach agreement on the creation of an advisory group of Korean leaders, as provided for in paragraph 4 d (1) or (2) above, the United States Commander in Korea should independently form such a group to act in an advisory capacity to the United States members of the Joint Commission in matters relating to the creation of a provisional Korean government.
- In view of the possible delays between the completion by the Joint Commission of proposals for a provisional Korean government and the final decision by the United States and the U.S.S.R. on these proposals, the United States members of the Joint Commission should take the position that, subsequent to the submission of the proposals to the four powers and pending the final decision of the United States and the U.S.S.R., the Joint Commission has the power, under paragraph 4 a (3) above, to take whatever preliminary steps it deems desirable to [Page 627] facilitate the transfer of administrative duties and functions to Koreans. Such a transfer should be in accordance with the proposals for the provisional government which will have been submitted to the four powers.
- This government should be kept fully and promptly informed of the progress of the negotiations.
5. It is recommended that:
- The State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee approve the paper and that on approval it be forwarded to the Joint Chiefs of Staff for transmission to General MacArthur subject to their comments from the military point of view.
- The Joint Chiefs of Staff transmit the conclusions immediately by radio to General MacArthur for his information and guidance, calling attention to the fact that paragraph 3 of SWNCC 176/13 is superseded by paragraph 4 a of the above conclusions.
- That the State Department take immediate steps to arrange for an early meeting of the Joint Commission provided for in paragraph 2 of the Korean Section of the Moscow Communiqué.