The Chargé in China ( Robertson ) to the Secretary of State
[Received November 17—7:50 a.m.]
1999. Last evening Dr. Wang Shih-chieh, Foreign Minister, handed me top secret memorandum dated November 15 regarding Russian actions in Manchuria. Much of information therein has already been reported to Department (Embassy’s 1900 October 31; 1959, November 10;79 and 1992, November 15) but we feel memorandum is of such importance that full substance is given below:
Generalissimo Stalin gave assurance, during negotiations in Moscow, that Russian forces would begin to retire from Manchuria within 3 weeks after Jap capitulation and that retiral [withdrawal?] would be finished within 3 months after commencement. Stalin’s assurance was evidenced in minutes initialed August 14, 194580 which was published, along with Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between USSR and China and other agreements regarding Manchuria. (Sent to Department; repeated to Moscow.)
Toward end of September Chinese Government was informed that Soviet forces in Manchuria would begin to retire about middle October. Chinese Government accordingly made arrangements, in cooperation with American military authorities, for transport of Chinese troops to Manchuria via Dairen for purpose of taking over areas to be evacuated by Russian troops. General Hsiung Shih-hui was instructed at same time to go to Changchun as Director General Gimo’s81 headquarters in northeastern provinces (Manchuria) with staff of administrative and technical officials in order to prepare for reestablishment of Chinese administration on withdrawal of Russian forces. Ministry of Foreign Affairs kept Soviet Ambassador in Chungking82 informed of these arrangements.
Soviet Ambassador called at Foreign Office October 6 and said that Soviet Government objected to landing of Chinese troops at Dairen because Dairen had been declared a commercial port, and presence of Chinese forces there would constitute violation of treaty regarding Dairen concluded August 14, 1945 at Moscow. Foreign Office maintained Dairen had been declared free port only for certain trade purposes, and that treaty contained no provision restricting exercise by China of her sovereignty in and with respect to the port.
While negotiations were continuing regarding landing of forces at [Page 1041] Dairen, Marshal Malinovsky, Commander-in-Chief Soviet forces in Manchuria, informed General Hsiung Shih-hui that Soviet Government perceived no objection to Chinese troops landing at certain other Manchurian ports such as Hulutao and Yingkow. Chinese Government thereupon went ahead with preparations and obtained consent of American military authorities for use of their transport vessels. On October 25 Soviet Ambassador was informed of these arrangements for transmission to Marshal Malinovsky. Soviet Ambassador informed Ministry of Foreign Affairs on October 29 that necessary instructions had been issued to Soviet forces by Marshal Malinovsky concerning landing facilities for Chinese forces at Hulutao and Yingkow. General Hsiung at same time wired Chinese Government that Marshal Malinovsky had undertaken to guarantee safe landing of Chinese forces at Yingkow, but that such guarantee could not be given respecting Hulutao where Soviet troops were insufficient. As Yingkow harbor facilities do not allow entrance of large troop transports, it was considered necessary by Chinese authorities to land at Hulutao in order to have sufficient Chinese forces there in time to take over evacuated territories when Soviet troops withdrew. Foreign Minister on October 30 accordingly asked Soviet Ambassador in Chungking to urge on Marshal Malinovsky necessity for protecting Chinese landing at Hulutao and Yingkow.
Marshal Malinovsky informed General Hsiung on November 5, while arrangements were being completed for Chinese troop landing at Yingkow, that Communist Eighteenth Group Army had entered Yingkow via Chinchow, that thereupon Soviet forces had retired from Yingkow, and that Soviet authorities accordingly could no longer be responsible for safe landing of Chinese forces at Yingkow. Marshal Malinovsky stated further that Hulutao had also been occupied by same Communist Army and had been evacuated by Soviet troops.
Soviet action in retiring from areas mentioned and in permitting Communist troops to occupy them has made impossible landing of Chinese Government forces at any of those ports in accordance with plans agreed to previously by Soviet Government. This action is completely at variance with repeated assurances given by Soviet military authorities in Manchuria that they would disarm any troop, other than those authorized by Chinese National Government, entering Manchuria. It is pertinent to note that, at time of Jap surrender, there were no Communist forces in Manchuria, and that, up to eve of planned Chinese Government troop landings at Yingkow, there were no indications of Communist penetration into that port.
Two thousand Communist troops of Communist Eighteenth Group Army entered Changchun on November 12, according to latest reports, and another Communist force of same strength was concentrated at [Page 1042] airfield in neighborhood of Changchun, where Soviet forces were not scheduled to retire until from November 21 to 25. Chinese Government is consequently faced with a situation where Director General of Gimo’s headquarters in northeastern provinces, General Hsiung Shih-hui, finds it possible no longer to carry out his mission in Manchuria. Chinese Government had decided, therefore, to withdraw from Changchun to Shanhaikuan the Gimo’s headquarters in charge of General Hsiung Shih-hui, together with all Government officials who proceeded to Manchuria with him, pending further developments. End substance of memorandum.