Nanking Embassy Files, Lot F–73
The Chinese Ministry of Information to the American Embassy
[ Chungking , September 3, 1945.]
Government Reply to the “Important Points Presented by Mr. Chou En-lai and Mr. Wang Jo-fei on September 3, 1945”
- Peaceful Reconstruction is naturally the immutable, common policy; the realization of the Three People’s Principles is also the common objective. Democracy and national unity must be equally emphasized. Democracy is of course the foundation of national unity; national unity is also certainly the foundation of democracy.
- Specific expression of loyal support for the leadership of President Chiang Kai-shek is commendable.
- Recognition of the “equal” legal status of different political parties is the normal course of constitutional democracy. Such recognition can be accorded at once. It is gratifying to note that you have explained that “equality is not equal division of power.” Your explanation of the meaning of “long-term cooperation in peaceful reconstruction” is also commendable.
- “Liberated Areas” as a term ought to be a thing of the past Dr. Wang Shih-chieh had requested the Government to make the [Page 460] following promise which is the utmost the government can do: “With respect to the administrative personnel who have served in the recovered areas during the period of resistance, the Government will judiciously and impartially permit them to continue their services in the various localities on the basis of their ability and past record without any discriminaton on account of their party affiliations.” In this we concur.
- There is absolutely no question about this point in principle. But punishment for traitors must be done according to due process of law. In the disbandment of puppet forces careful measures must be taken so as not to affect the peace and security of the various districts.
- “Participation in accepting surrender” can be considered, after the orders of the Central Government have been obeyed.
- Naturally all armed clashes should immediately cease; but the movement of the Central Government troops cannot depend entirely on air transportation. Communist forces must not block the passage of Central Government troops when passage is necessary.
- This article mentions only a principle. It is acceptable.
- (1) The Political Conference may be organized either according to what President Chiang said to Mr. Mao Tse-tung (“Now that the war is over, it is contemplated that the Supreme National Defence Council will be reorganized into a Political Council whose members shall be elected by all political parties and sections, so that they will all have a share in the government.”) or according to what Mr. Mao Tse-tung said to Dr. Wang Shih-chieh (“President Chiang may invite a number of members of other parties and non-partisan people (the number and the choice of the candidates to be decided by President Chiang), together with representatives of the Government and of the Chinese Communist Party, to adopt within a very short time limit, the findings of the conversations between the Government and the Chinese Communist Party. This conference we may call the Political Conference. It needs not hold frequent meetings; it is to be convened only when necessary.”) This matter can be decided after further discussion. But it seems unnecessary to prescribe beforehand the topics of discussion of the conference. Regarding the question of the People’s Congress, President Chiang had said: “The elections which were held should be considered valid. But if the Communist Party desires an increase in the number of delegates, some reasonable increase may be made in addition to those already elected.” Mr. Mao Tse-tung had expressed the view that “if the Government insist on the validity of the old delegates, the Chinese Communist Party will be unable to make an agreement with the Government, but the Communist delegates will not on this account stay away from the People’s Congress.” We can continue to discuss this matter, and bring it up in the Political Conference accordingly.
- (2) In principle, this is quite acceptable. It is hoped however, that the People’s Congress will not be affected thereby.
- (3) The question of “Liberated Areas” has been answered under IV. The Chinese Communist Party may nominate to the Government for consideration and appointment Communist Party members who have proven their administrative ability and who have served with distinction in the war. President Chiang had said to Mr. Mao Tse-tung: “If only the Communists will faithfully fulfill their pledge pertaining to the unity of military command and political authority, not only may the Communist magistrates of various districts remain in their posts after an examination of their administrative records by the Central Government, but other members of the Communist Party will certainly also be invited, on the basis of their ability and merit, to participate in provincial governments or even to become governors.” His meaning is perfectly clear. If the Communist Party insists upon the right of nominating governors, members of provincial governments or vice mayors for certain provinces and cities, this will not be “faithfully accomplishing the objective of the unity of military command and political authority.” It is hoped that this question will be solved with candour and earnestness befitting revolutionists.
- (4) There are measures that the Government naturally will take after the unity of political authority is achieved.
- (1) Regarding the question of the reorganization of troops: President Chiang had said to Mr. Mao Tze-tung: “Now that the war is over, the situation is different from what it was last year, and there should be a general reduction of all military forces throughout the country. But the promise that I gave (to reorganize the Communist forces into from 10 to 12 divisions) still remains good.” The whole situation regarding the reorganization and reduction of military forces throughout the country has been described to you by General Chang Tze-chung and General Chen Cheng.18 Therefore, 12 divisions is the maximum number to which the Central Government can give consent. It is earnestly hoped that serious consideration will be given to it.
- (2) On the question of the places where the Communist forces are to be stationed, the Chinese Communist Party may suggest a plan for consideration and adoption, to be put in force after reorganization.
- (3), (4), (6), (8) and (9) are all acceptable. Regarding their detailed application, the Chinese Communist Party may bring up any suggestions they like for discussion.
- (5) It is not appropriate to make a specific provision that the Commanding General in charge of the Peiping Provisional Headquarters should be nominated by the Chinese Communist Party. The establishment [Page 462] of a Peiping Political Council will be even more inappropriate.
- (7) The reorganization of Partisan forces into self-defence corps may be made only when it is necessary and possible according to local conditions. It is inappropriate to make a sweeping provision.
- (1) The Government is prepared to take this step of its own accord. The Chinese Communist Party may submit a list of people to be released.
- (2) Dr. Wang Shih-chieh had offered the following written suggestion: “After the termination of the war, our people will be given freedoms enjoyed by the other democratic countries in time of peace, such as the freedom of person, of worship, of speech, of publication and of association, etc. Laws and regulations in force at present will be revised or abolished according to this general principle.” Mr. Mao Tse-tung has accepted this formula.
- (3) On this point, the opinion of Mr. Chou En-lai that the two bureaus should confine their activities to intelligence work only and should be strictly forbidden to make arrests and to order detentions, is acceptable.
- Latter was Chinese Minister of War.↩