740.00119 Control (Germany)/8–845: Telegram
The United States Political Adviser for Germany (Murphy) to the Secretary of State
[Received 9 p.m.]
278. The last few weeks have produced political developments of considerable importance in Germany, indicating that the Russians are rapidly and energetically carrying out a positive program which they presumably hope will set the pattern for all of Germany and result in the establishment of a “bloc of anti-Fascist democratic parties” similar to those which have appeared in so many countries in eastern and southeastern Europe under Russian influence and control. Zhukov’s27 order number 2 of June 1028 authorized political activity, stressing necessity for unity of anti-Fascist forces. Meanwhile [Page 1037] intelligence reports indicated arrival in Berlin of key figures from Free Germany Movement in Moscow.
German Communist Party was officially reconstituted on German soil by issuance of manifesto dated June 11,29 signed by 16 individuals, under leadership of Wilhelm Pieck, all of them identified with former KPD,30 Free Germany Movement Moscow, or recently established Berlin administration. This manifesto merely carried forward general present Free Germany propaganda and tactical line, and called for formation of a bloc of all anti-Nazi democratic parties.
First joint meeting of representatives of new Communist Party and Social Democrats allegedly occurred Berlin on June 19 and on June 21 manifesto31 was issued in name of newly constituted Social Democrat Party, calling for unity of anti-Fascist forces to cooperate in liquidation all Nazi remnants, cooperation with occupation forces, fulfillment of reparations demands, and establishment of a new German democracy, thus giving scope to ultimate realization of most of Free Germany movement’s objectives.
Two new center political parties then emerged, called Liberal Democrats and Christian Democrats. Announcement was made on July 18 of first joint meeting of representatives of the above four new parties, great importance of which was underlined by Communist leader Pieck who claimed that leaders had decided “of their own free will” to form this solid united front.32 Liberal Democrats and Christian Democrats then issued party manifestos,33 which though more vague and conservative than those of Communist and Social Democrat Parties, apparently fit in pretty well with present general objectives of German Communist Party. Intelligence suggests these two parties are as yet comparatively inactive.
Though little is yet known about individuals in control of these new Social Democrat, Liberal and Christian Democrat Parties, it is presumed they were carefully selected on account of their willingness to cooperate in this bloc which is of course entirely in accordance with present general Russian tactical line abroad.[Page 1038]
Russians have supplemented above political policy with establishment of United Trade Unions led by Otto Brass, former left-wing Socialist and a comparatively old man presumably hardly in a position to control developments in this field.
Likewise, Central Youth Committee, cultural union for the democratic renovation of Gemany, and Central Committee for victims of Fascism have been set up, in accordance with usual Russian and Communist technique.
- Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, Commander in Chief, Soviet Forces in Germany, and Chief of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany.↩
- Text printed in: [Soviet Military Administration in Germany 1, Befehle des Obersten Chefs der Sowjetischen Militärverwaltung in Deutschland; Aus dem Stab der Sowjetischen Militärverwaltung in Deutschland, Sammelheft 1, 1945 (Berlin, Verlag der Sowjetischen Militärverwaltung in Deutschland, 1946), p. 9. English translation printed in Royal Institute for International Affairs, Documents on Germany under Occupation, Beate Ruhm von Oppen (ed.), (London and New York, Oxford University Press, 1955), p. 37.↩
- Printed in Walter Ulbricht, Zur Geschichte der Neuesten Zeit, Band I, 1. Halbband (Berlin, Dietz Verlag, 1955) hereinafter referred to as Ulbricht, p. 370.↩
- Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (German Communist Party).↩
- Printed in Institut fur Marxismus-Leninismus beim Zentralkomitee der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Dokumente und Materialien zur Geschicte der Deutschen Arbeiterbewegung, Reine III, Band 1 (Mai 1945–April 1946), (Berlin, Dietz Verlag, 1959), p. 41.↩
- The representatives of the four parties met on July 14. The manifesto of the resulting Bloc of Antifascist-Democratic Parties is printed in Ulbricht, p. 380.↩
- The Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands was organized on July 5, and issued its manifesto on that date. The Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands was organized on June 26 and issued its manifesto on that date. The manifestos of both parties are printed in: Klaus Hohlfeld (ed.), Deutschland nach dem Zusammenbruch 1945, Band VI in the series Dokumente der Deutschen Politik und Geschichte von 1848 bis zur Gegenwart (Berlin, Dokumenten-Verlag Dr. Herbert Wendler amp; Co., n.d.), pp. 19–24.↩