740.00119 Control (Germany)/5–1045
The United States Political Adviser for Germany ( Murphy ) to the Secretary of State
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of a paper issued from Headquarters of the European Theater of Operations on April 29, 1945, on the subject of “The Relationship of the Deputy Military Governor and the US Group Control Council (Germany) to the Theater Staff.”37
From a study of this document, it is apparent that the many difficulties which have surrounded the question of the relationship of the Control Council to the Theater (Zone) Staff have been satisfactorily resolved so far as preliminary planning goes. By combining in the person of Lieutenant General Clay the three offices of Deputy Military Governor, Deputy Chief of Staff, and Commanding General of US Group CC, the Theater Staff as well as the US Group CC would come under the coordinated control of one person. Thus it is anticipated (see Par. 6 of the enclosed paper38) that if SHAEF is [Page 939] dissolved before the Control Council begins to operate,39 the US Group CC will be regarded as the forward echelon of the staff of the Commanding General of the European Theater of Operations. In such case the development of policy for application in the U. S. Zone will be the responsibility of the Deputy Military Governor through the US Group CC and in coordination with other staff divisions.
Similarly, even after the establishment of the Control Council, the US Group CC, working under the Deputy Military Governor, will develop American policies for presentation to the Control Council and for application in the U. S. Zone when not superseded by agreement of the Allied control authority. (See Par. 9c.40)
The troublesome question of channels of communication between US Group CC and German officials on the one hand and US Group CC and the Theater Staff on the other has been resolved in a rather liberal spirit by authorizing direct communication as well as the use of theater command channels. (See Pars. 9d, 9c, and 12.)
It is my belief that the arrangements specified in the enclosed paper will satisfactorily coordinate the efforts of the several groups which will be concerned with the development of policies and their execution in the U. S. Zone of occupied Germany and will remove all suggestion of friction or competition between such groups. This Mission was consulted in the drafting of the paper.41[Page 940]
In view of the nature of the assignment of the Department’s personnel to US Group CC, I wish to suggest that this report be given only limited circulation within the Department and that if its contents are discussed with any outside department or agency, reference to source be avoided.
- Not printed.↩
- Paragraph 6 anticipated that if SHAEF was terminated prior to the establishment of the Allied Control Authority “the US Group Control Council (Germany) is the forward echelon of the staff of the Commanding General U[nited] S[tates] A[rmy] F[orces], B[uropean] T[heatre of] Operations], which will act on matters relating to the establishment of Allied Control Authority in Germany. The Deputy Military Governor will represent the Commanding General, USAF, ETO, and will supervise the US Group Control Council (Germany) in maintaining contact with the other national components for the Allied Control Authority. Pending the establishment of the Allied Control Authority, the development of policies for application in the US Zone, consistent with US views, will be the responsibility of the Deputy Military Governor utilizing the US Group Control Council (Germany) and coordinating with other staff divisions.”↩
- SHAEF was dissolved on July 14. The Allied Control Council held its first formal meeting on July 30; for a report on this meeting, see telegram 234, July 30, from Murphy, p. 820.↩
- Paragraph 9c reads: “Pending agreement on a multipartite basis, development of policies for Germany consistent with approved US views is the responsibility of the Deputy Military Governor using US Group Control Council (Germany) and coordinating the Theater staff divisions. Policies so developed, when approved by the Commanding General, USAF, ETO, will be utilized by the US Group Control Council (Germany) in its negotiations with the representatives of the other occupying powers and will govern activities in the US Zone, unless superseded by agreement of the Allied Control Authority.”↩
In a letter to Mr. Murphy, May 25, James W. Riddleberger expressed the Department’s satisfaction with the above proposals. He said that concern over the possible lack of coordination between US Group CC and the Theater Staff had been allayed. “We are particularly pleased with the dual role of the Deputy Military Governor in the scheme and hope that the policy of personal union of corresponding offices in the US Group CC and the Theater Staff … will be extensively put into practice.” (740.00119 Control (Germany)/5–2545)
In reply, Mr. Murphy reported to Mr. Riddleberger on June 21 that General Eisenhower had given his final approval to the proposals. “There are, of course, certain features of this relationship which may not work too smoothly in the beginning. As matters stand now, military government in the zone still rests with G–5 [Civil Affairs Division] ETOUSA. General Clay is Deputy Military Governor and has, you will note, the responsibility of securing coordination directly through the Assistant Chief of Staff, G–5, using both normal command and technical G–5 channels. The Chief of Staff of the Commanding General will, however, exercise a certain command authority in that connection. This relationship will have to be worked out in practice. Colloquially speaking this boils down to the problem of who will be the boss of G–5 ETOUSA.” (740.00119 Control (Germany)/6–2145)↩