Introductory note

AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY: SELECTED PUBLIC DOCUMENTS

Beginning with the year 1950, American Foreign Policy, a companion series to Foreign Relations of the United States, provides systematic coverage of the principal messages, addresses, statements, reports, and of certain of the diplomatic notes exchanged and treaties made in a given period that indicate the scope, goals, and implementation of the foreign policy of the United States. For the immediately preceding years, 1945–1949 inclusive, the present series, Foreign Relations, will provide under this heading a brief indication of certain major documents in these categories. This listing does not purport to be complete, of course, and as a rule items dealing primarily with United States relations with particular countries will be noted in the compilations for those countries. Many of the items cited below are also referred to in appropriate compilations in the various volumes for the year.

I. Major Public Statements of American Foreign Policy

The State of the Union: Annual Message of the President (Roosevelt) to the Congress, January 6, 1945. The portions of the address dealing with foreign affairs are printed in the Department of State Bulletin (hereinafter cited as Bulletin), January 7, 1945, pp. 22–28. The complete text is printed as House Document 1, 79th Congress.

America’s Place in World Affairs: Address by the Under Secretary of State (Grew) at the New York Times Hall, New York, January 17, 1945. Bulletin, January 21, 1945, pp. 87–90.

Report on the Crimean (Yalta) Conference: Message delivered by the President (Roosevelt) before a joint session of the Congress, March 1, 1945. Bulletin, March 4, 1945, pp. 321–326, 361.

Statement by the Secretary of State (Stettinius) Upon Return From Conferences in the Crimea and at Mexico City, March 10, 1945. Bulletin, March 11, 1945, pp. 393–394.

United Nations Will Write Charter for a World Organization: Address by the Secretary of State (Stettinius) before the Council on Foreign Relations at New York, April 6, 1945. Ibid., April 8, 1945, pp. 605–607.

The Economic Basis for Lasting Peace: Address by the Secretary of State (Stettinius), April 4, 1945. Ibid., pp. 598–599.

Address by the President (Truman) before a joint session of the Congress, April 16, 1945. Address delivered on the day following the funeral of President Roosevelt. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, April 12 to December 81, 1945 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1961), pp. 1–6. For text of a Proclamation by President [Page VIII] Truman, and for other statements relating to the death of President Roosevelt, see Bulletin, issue of April 15, 1945.

Address by the President (Truman) to the United Nations Conference in San Francisco, April 25, 1945. Delivered from the White House by direct wire. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 20–23.

Unconditional Surrender of Germany: Radio Address by the President (Truman), May 8, 1945, with related statements and a Proclamation. Bulletin, May 13, 1945, pp. 885–889.

Report on the San Francisco Conference: Address by the Secretary of State (Stettinius), broadcast May 28, 1945. Ibid., June 3, 1945, pp. 1007–1013.

Special Message of the President (Truman) to the Congress on Winning the War With Japan: Message read before the Senate and the House of Representatives on June 1, 1945. Ibid., pp. 999–1006.

Letter from the President (Truman) to the Speaker of the House of Representatives on the Defense Aid Program, June 4, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 102–103.

Statement by Cordell Hull, Senior Adviser to the United States Delegation to the United Nations Conference. Issued to the press on June 26, 1945, at Bethesda, Maryland. Bulletin, July 1, 1945, pp. 13–14.

Address by the President (Truman) in San Francisco at the Closing Session of the United Nations Conference, June 26, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 138–144.

Address by the President (Truman) Before the Senate Urging Ratification of the Charter of the United Nations, July 2, 1945. Ibid., pp. 153–155.

Statement by the President (Truman) Announcing the Use of the Atomic Bomb at Hiroshima, August 6, 1945. Ibid., pp. 197–200.

Radio Report by the President (Truman) to the American People on the Potsdam Conference, August 9, 1945. Delivered from the White House. Ibid., pp. 205–214.

Radio Address by the President (Truman) to the American People After the Signing of the Terms of Unconditional Surrender by Japan, September 1, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 254–257.

Special Message of the President (Truman) to the Congress on Atomic Energy, October 3, 1945. Ibid., pp. 362–366.

Report on First Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers: Address by the Secretary of State (Byrnes), October 5, 1945. Radio broadcast from Washington. Bulletin, October 7, 1945, pp. 507–512. Statement by the Secretary of State (Byrnes) on the Meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers, London, October 2, 1945. Released to the press on October 3. Ibid., p. 513.

Restatement of Foreign Policy of the United States: Address by the President (Truman), October 27, 1945. Delivered in Central Park, New York, in connection with the celebration of Navy Day. Bulletin, October 28, 1945, pp. 653–656.

Neighboring Nations in One World: Address by the Secretary of State (Byrnes), New York, October 31, 1945. Ibid., November 4, 1945, pp. 709–711.

World Cooperation: Address by the Secretary of State (Byrnes), Charleston, South Carolina, November 18, 1945. Ibid., November 18, 1945, pp. 783–786.

America’s Policy in China: Statement by the Secretary of State (Byrnes) on December 7, 1945, before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, answering charges made by Patrick J. Hurley, former Ambassador to China, against the Department of State and the Foreign Service. Ibid., December 9, [Page IX]1945, pp. 930–933. See also Mr. Byrnes’ statement at a news conference on November 28, ibid., December 2, 1945, pp. 882–883.

United States Policy Toward China: Statement by the President (Truman), released to the press by the White House on December 16, 1945. Bulletin, December 16, 1945, pp. 945–946.

Special Message of the President (Truman) to the Congress Recommending the Establishment of a Department of National Defense, December 19, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 546–560.

Statement and Directive by the President (Truman) on Immigration to the United States of Certain Displaced Persons and Refugees in Europe, December 22, 1945. Ibid., pp. 572–578.

II. The Implementation of American Foreign Policy

a. the organization and activities of the department of state

A chart showing the organization of the Department as of May 1, 1945, is printed in the Bulletin, May 13, 1945, pp. 898–899.

The resignation of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., as Secretary of State was accepted by President Truman on June 27; for texts of a letter by the President and a statement by Mr. Stettinius on accepting appointment as Representative of the United States to the United Nations, both dated June 27, 1945, see ibid., July 1, 1945, pp. 15–16.

Arrangements for recruitment of commissioned Foreign Service officers from among men and women of the armed forces were announced by the Department on June 29; ibid., pp. 38–39.

James F. Byrnes, of South Carolina, was commissioned as Secretary of State on July 2 and entered upon duties July 3. For text of remarks by Mr. Byrnes on taking the oath of office at the White House, see ibid., July 8, 1945, p. 45.

For information concerning the representation by the United States of foreign interests, as of July 28, with tables arranged according to countries represented and according to United States diplomatic and consular offices, see ibid., July 29, 1945, pp. 144–149. For additional information, see William M. Franklin, Protection of Foreign Interests: A Study in Diplomatic and Consular Practice (Department of State publication 2693; 1947).

The resignation of Joseph C. Grew as Under Secretary of State was accepted by President Truman on August 16; for texts of letters by the President, Secretary of State Byrnes, and Mr. Grew, see the Bulletin, August 19, 1945, p. 271.

Dean G. Acheson, of Connecticut, was commissioned Under Secretary of State on August 16 and entered upon duties the same day.

Patrick J. Hurley resigned as Ambassador to China on November 27.

On November 27 the White House announced that the President had appointed General of the Army George C. Marshall as his personal envoy to China with personal rank of Ambassador.

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The former Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo on December 10. A message from Mr. Hull, read by Lithgow Osborne, American Ambassador in Norway, to the president and members of the Nobel Committee of the Storting, was issued to the press by the Department of State on December 10, 1945.

For a general discussion of the situation of the Department and the Foreign Service in the immediate postwar period, see “The Future of the Foreign Service”, a radio broadcast of December 29, Bulletin, December 30, 1945, pp. 1048–1054.

b. assignment of additional duties to the department of state

1. International Information.

By Executive Order 9608 (10 Federal Register 11223), August 31, 1945, President Truman provided for the termination of the Office of War Information and the transfer to the Department of State of its international information functions as well as the foreign information functions of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. In a statement released to the press on that date the President noted that “the nature of present-day foreign relations makes it essential for the United States to maintain informational activities abroad as an integral part of the conduct of our foreign affairs” (Bulletin, September 2, 1945, pp. 306–307).

For statements on the role of an international information service in the conduct of foreign relations, by William Benton, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (on October 16) and the House Appropriations Committee (on October 17), see ibid., October 21, 1945, pp. 589–595. For text of a radio broadcast by Mr. Benton and others on “Our International Information Policy”, December 15, see ibid., December 16, 1945, pp. 947–954, and for a statement by Mr. Benton, “Plans for International Information Service”, released to the press on December 28, see ibid., December 30, 1945, pp. 1045–1047.

On December 31 Secretary of State Byrnes addressed to President Truman a letter describing certain proposals for an overseas information service; for text, see ibid., January 20, 1946, pp. 57–58.

2. Research and Intelligence.

President Truman wrote on September 20, 1945, to Secretary of State Byrnes that he had that day signed an Executive Order (No. 9621; 10 Federal Register 12033) transferring to the Department of State the activities of the Research and Analysis Branch and the Presentation Branch of the Office of Strategic Services. The order, effective October 1, abolished the O.S.S. and transferred its remaining activities to the War Department. The President added that the transfer [Page XI]would provide the Secretary of State “with the resources which we have agreed you will need to aid in the development of our foreign policy, and will assure that pertinent experience accumulated during the war will be preserved and used in meeting the problems of the peace.” The President further stated that he particularly desired the Secretary of State “to take the lead in developing a comprehensive and coordinated foreign intelligence program for all Federal agencies concerned with that type of activity … through the creation of an interdepartmental group, heading up under the State Department, which would formulate plans for my approval.” For texts of the Executive Order and of the President’s letters of September 20 to the Secretary of State and to Major General William J. Donovan, Director of the Office of Strategic Services, see the Bulletin, September 22, 1945, pp. 449–450.

The appointment of Colonel Alfred McCormack as Special Assistant to the Secretary of State in Charge of Research and Intelligence was announced on September 27, 1945 (ibid., September 30, 1945, p. 499).

For additional information, see “A National Intelligence Program”, a radio broadcast of December 22, ibid., December 23, 1945, pp. 987 ff.

3. Foreign Economic Functions, and Functions with Respect to Surplus Property in Foreign Areas.

By Part I of Executive Order 9630, September 27, 1945, President Truman terminated the Foreign Economic Administration (established by Executive Order 9380 of September 25, 1943) and transferred to the Department of State all functions of the F.E.A. and its agencies with respect to:

  • “(a) The administration of the Act of March 11, 1941, as amended, entitled ‘An Act further to promote the defense of the United States and for other purposes.’
  • “(b) The participation of the United States in the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, as defined in Executive Order No. 9453 of July 6, 1944.
  • “(c) Activities in liberated areas with respect to supplying the requirements of and procuring materials in such areas under paragraph 4 of the said Executive Order No. 9380.
  • “(d) The gathering, analysis, and reporting of economic and commercial information, insofar as such functions are performed abroad.
  • “(e) The planning of measures for the control of occupied territories.
  • “(f) The administration of Allocation No. 42/398 of February 1, 1943 from the appropriation, ‘Emergency Fund for the President, National Defense, 1942 and 1943.’”

The remaining functions of the F.E.A. were transferred to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Agriculture.

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Part II of Executive Order 9630 assigned to the Department of State additional functions as a disposal agency for all surplus property in foreign areas, excepting certain vessels.

For text of the Executive Order, see 10 Federal Register 12245, or Bulletin, September 30, 1945, pp. 491–492.

c. foreign economic policy—trade and tariffs

1. Lend-Lease.

Documents relating to Lend-Lease operations in connection with particular countries are printed in the compilations for those countries. On the program as a whole, see:

Proposed Extension of the Lend-Lease Act: Statement by the Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations and International Conferences (Acheson), February 8, 1945, before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the House of Representatives. Bulletin, February 11, 1945, p. 189.

Signing of the Third Lend-Lease Act: Statement by the President (Truman), April 17, 1945. Ibid., April 22, 1945, p. 773.

Current Lend-Lease Problems: Statements by the Acting Secretary of State (Grew), May 14, and the Secretary of State (Stettinius), May 15, 1945. Ibid., May 20, 1945, pp. 940–941.

The President’s News Conference of May 23, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States; Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 67–68.

Lend-Lease Matters: Defense-Aid Appropriation Estimate: Letter from the President (Truman) to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, June 4, transmitting letter of June 1 from the Director of the Bureau of the Budget to the President. Bulletin, June 10, 1945, pp. 1061–1063.

Discontinuance of Lend-Lease Operations: White House press release, August 21, 1945. Ibid., August 26, 1945, p. 284.

Statement by the Secretary of State (Byrnes), August 31, 1945. Ibid., September 2, 1945, pp. 332–333.

The President’s News Conference of August 23, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 234–235.

Lend-Lease and Postwar Reconstruction. Section 18 of Special Message of the President (Truman) to the Congress Presenting a 21-Point Program for the Reconversion Period, September 6, 1945. Ibid., pp. 305–307.

The 19th, 20th, 21st, and 22nd quarterly reports of operations under the Lend-Lease Act transmitted by the President to the Congress, covering the year 1945. House documents 189, 279, 432, and 663, 79th Congress.

2. International Finance.

The Bretton Woods Proposals: International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Message of the President (Roosevelt) to the Congress, February 12, 1945. Bulletin, February 18, 1945, pp. 220–222.

International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Statement by the Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations and International Conferences (Acheson) before the Committee on Banking and Currency of the House of Representatives, March 7, 1945. Bulletin, March 11, 1945, pp. 409–410.

Bretton Woods: A Monetary Basis for Trade: Address by Mr. Acheson, April 16, 1945. Ibid., April 23, 1945, pp. 738–742.

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General Policy Statement of the Export-Import Bank of Washington. Released to the press September 11, 1945. Ibid., September 23, 1945, pp. 441–446.

The Necessity for Foreign Investment: Address by Willard L. Thorp, Deputy to the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, at New York, November 20, 1945. Ibid., November 25, 1945, pp. 829–832.

On December 27 there were signed in the Department of State the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund and the Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Fred M. Vinson, Secretary of the Treasury, signed the two agreements on behalf of the United States. For a description of the ceremony and for text of a statement by Mr. Vinson, see ibid., December 30, 1945, pp. 1058–1059.

3. International Trade.

Recommendation for Renewal of Trade Agreements Act: Message of the President (Roosevelt) to the Congress, March 26, 1945. Bulletin, April 1, 1945, pp. 531–533.

United States Policy Regarding Commodity Agreements: Address by the Director of the Office of International Trade Policy (Haley), at New York, April 5, 1945. Ibid., April 8, 1945, pp. 638–642.

Renewal of Trade Agreements: Statements by the Secretary of State (Stettinius) and the Assistant Secretaries of State for Economic Affairs (Clayton) and for American Republic Affairs (Rockefeller) before the Ways and Means Committee of the House of Representatives, April 18, 1945. Ibid., April 22, 1945, pp. 748–759. Testimony of Charles P. Taft, Director of the Office of Transport and Communications Policy, May 12, 1945. Ibid., May 13, 1945, pp. 905–910.

Private Barriers to International Trade: Statement by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (Clayton) before a joint session of the Senate special committee investigating petroleum resources and the subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee on S. 11, 79th Congress, May 17, 1945. Ibid., May 20, 1945, pp. 933–938.

Statements by the Acting Secretary of State (Grew) on May 26 and June 20 concerning the approval of the trade-agreements bill by the House of Representatives and the Senate. Ibid., May 27, 1945, p. 955, and June 24, 1945, p. 1149.

Renewal of Trade Agreements Act: Statement by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (Clayton) before the Finance Committee of the Senate, May 30, 1945. Ibid., June 3, 1945, pp. 1024 ff.

Relaxation of Export Controls: Statement released to the press by the Foreign Economic Administration, September 10, 1945. Ibid., September 16, 1945, pp. 397–400.

The Future of International Economic Relations: Address by Clair Wilcox, Director of the Office of International Trade Policy, at Milwaukee Wisconsin, November 22, 1945. Ibid., November 25, 1945, pp. 833–836.

4. Foreign Oil Policies.

Formulation and Implementation of Foreign Oil Policies: Assignment of Petroleum Officers on a Global Basis. Letters exchanged between the Petroleum Administrator for War (Ickes) and the Secretary of State (Byrnes); letters dated September 10 and November 21, respectively. Ibid., December 2, 1945, pp. 894–895.

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d. foreign war relief activities

Letter from the President (Truman) to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives Transmitting Reports on Foreign War Relief Activities, July 17, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman 1945, pp. 173–174. The reports of the American Red Cross and the War Refugee Board and the report on status of appropriations and allocations are printed in House Document 262, 79th Congress.

The Repatriation Program: Statement by the Acting Secretary of State (Grew), August 5, 1945. Bulletin, August 5, 1945, pp. 162–164.

Letter from the President (Truman) to the Commanding General, United States Forces, European Theater (Eisenhower), Transmitting Report of Earl G. Harrison on Displaced Persons in Europe, Especially in Germany and Austria, August 31, 1945. Ibid., September 30, 1945, pp. 455–463. Reply by General Eisenhower, October 8, 1945. Ibid., October 21, 1945, pp. 607–609.

Statement by the President (Truman) on the European Relief and Rehabilitation Program, September 17, 1945. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1945, pp. 321–324.

Special Message of the President (Truman) to the Congress on United States Participation in the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, November 13, 1945. Ibid., pp. 464–467.

Statement by the President (Truman) on the Problem of Jewish Refugees in Europe, November 13, 1945. Ibid., pp. 467–469.

Letter from the President (Truman) to the British Prime Minister (Attlee) Concerning the Need for Resettlement of Jewish Refugees in Palestine, November 13, 1945. Ibid., pp. 469–470.

Immigration to the United States of Certain Displaced Persons and Refugees in Europe: Statement by the President (Truman), with attached Directive by the President. Released to the press by the White House on December 22. Bulletin, December 23, 1945, pp. 981–984.

e. report on atrocities and war crimes

Report from Justice Robert H. Jackson, Chief of Counsel for the United States in the Prosecution of Axis War Criminals, to the President (Truman). Released to the press by the White House on June 7, 1945. Bulletin, June 10, 1945, pp. 1071–1078. For additional information, see Report of Robert H. Jackson, United States Representative to the International Conference on Military Trials, London, 1945 (Department of State publication 3080; 1949).

f. report on the status of countries in relation to the war

Status of Countries in Relation to the War, August 12, 1945. Compiled by Katherine Elizabeth Crane, Division of Research and Publication. Bulletin, August 12, 1945, pp. 230–241. Lists countries at war; signatories of the Declaration by United Nations, January 1, 1942, and adherents to the Declaration; signatories to the Charter of the United Nations; and countries in a state of armistice relations and in a state of surrender.