Report by Lieutenant Willard G. Wyman, United States Army, to the Military Attaché in China (Drysdale)21

In a conversation with General Huang Hsin-sheng today several points were brought out which are submitted herewith as being of possible interest to this office.
General Huang, prior to the withdrawal of Chinese troops from the Three Eastern Provinces, was in charge of all police activities in the city of Mukden. Concurrently he commanded the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang’s army. He still retains command of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade which is stationed in Kalgan. In addition he is believed to be the controlling genius of the activities of the Volunteer Corps (anti-Manchoukuo troops) which are operating in Manchuria.

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The Volunteer Army is made up largely of the old Peace Preservation Corps (Pao An Tui) of the Three Eastern Provinces. There are also many ex-soldiers who have augmented the strength of the Corps. The units are all small and cooperate with each other in unexpectedly striking isolated units and exposed points on the Japanese and Manchoukuo line of communications. The effort is coordinated where possible by radio. Where this is impossible a reliable network of pony expresses has been established. Operations are planned generally in areas too distant from Japanese air bases for the enemy to secure immediate air support. This is not always the case, however, [Page 23] for sudden night attacks followed by a rapid withdrawal have proven successful even when close to strong enemy positions.
Supply, with the exception of ammunition and arms, is not a problem to the volunteers. They are largely mounted and can carry a month’s supply of rice or grain on the saddle. Meat [Meal?] and forage for the ponies is obtained from the country. Water is plentiful.
It is hoped that Japanese troops will be constantly increased in Manchuria. If the volunteers accomplish this due to their activities it is believed that a blow will have been struck at the heart of Japan’s present economic structure.
Chinese troops can not at present be used in Manchuria due to the present efforts of the League of Nations. If, however, after the return of the Commission it is found that the League cannot help, there will be no further use for Chinese delay. Military activities will be commenced.
Military assistance is not desired from the south. It is believed that Northern and Southern troops would not work well together. Financial assistance is quite acceptable, however. At present the southern financial sources that were so generous with the 19th Route Army have commenced supporting the activities of the volunteers.
If war between Russia and Japan develops in earnest the Chinese believe that the Three Eastern Provinces would be completely recovered within a very short time.

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W. G. Wyman

First Lieutenant, Cavalry

No. 8295

  1. Copy transmitted to the Department by the War Department about July 1, 1932.