Treaty Series No. 684

Treaty between the United States of America and Bulgaria, Signed at Sofia, November 23, 1923 3

The President of the United States of America and His Majesty Boris III, King of the Bulgarians, being desirous of reaching an [Page 465] agreement concerning the status of former nationals of either country who have acquired, or may acquire, the nationality of the other by reasonable processes of naturalization within any territory under its sovereignty, have resolved to conclude a treaty on this subject and for that purpose have appointed their plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

  • The President of the United States of America:
  • Charles S. Wilson, Envoy Extraordinary & Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to Bulgaria;
  • and His Majesty, the King of the Bulgarians:
  • Christo Kalfoff, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship of Bulgaria,

Who, having communicated to each other their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

Article I

Nationals of the United States who have been or shall be naturalized in Bulgarian territory, shall be held by the United States to have lost their former nationality and to be nationals of Bulgaria.

Reciprocally, nationals of Bulgaria who have been or shall be naturalized in territory of the United States shall be held by Bulgaria to have lost their original nationality and to be nationals of the United States.

The foregoing provisions of this Article are subject to any law of either country providing that its nationals do not lose their nationality by becoming naturalized in another country in time of war.

The word “national”, as used in this convention, means a person owing permanent allegiance to, or having the nationality of, the United States or Bulgaria, respectively, under the laws thereof.

The word “naturalized”, refers only to the naturalization of persons of full age, upon their own applications, and to the naturalization of minors through the naturalization of their parents. It does not apply to the acquisition of nationality by a woman through marriage.

Article II

Nationals of either country who have or shall become naturalized in the territory of the other, as contemplated in Article I, shall not, upon returning to the country of former nationality, be punishable for the original act of emigration, or for failure, prior to naturalization, to respond to calls for military service not accruing until after bona fide residence was acquired in the territory of the country whose nationality was obtained by naturalization.

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Article III

If a national of either country, who conies within the purview of Article I, shall renew his residence in his country of origin without the intent to return to that in which he was naturalized, he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization.

The intent not to return may be held to exist when a person naturalized in one country shall have resided more than two years in the other.

Article IV

The present Treaty shall go into effect immediately upon the exchange of ratifications, and shall continue in force for ten years. If neither party shall have given to the other six months’ previous notice of its intention then to terminate the Treaty, it shall further remain in force until the end of twelve months after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of such intention.

In Witness Whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty and have hereunto affixed their seals.

Charles S. Wilson

Chr. Kalfoff
  1. Ratification advised by the Senate, Feb. 18, 1924; ratified by the President, Feb. 26, 1924; ratified by Bulgaria, Mar. 30, 1924; ratifications exchanged at Sofia, Apr. 5, 1924; proclaimed by the President, May 6, 1924.