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List of Papers

[The arrangement of this list is by chapters, the papers therein appearing chronologically under date of writing. Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.]

CHAPTER I. LOANS TO THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT—SOVIET FINANCIAL DECREES

Offer of a Credit to the Russian Provisional Government, April 3, 1917—Credit of One Hundred Million Dollars Established for the Purchase of Supplies, May 16, 1917—Special Credit of Seventy-Five Million Dollars Established for the Payment of Forces in Finland, July 17, 1917—Additional Credits of One Hundred Million, August 23, 1917, and Fifty Million, October 12, 1917—Negotiations for Further Credits

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1295 1917 Apr. 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Offer of credit to the Russian Provisional Government. 1
1161 Apr. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Acceptance of credit by the Russian Government and suggestion of terms. 2
1313 Apr. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Terms of loans and inquiries regarding Russia’s determination to carry on the war. 3
1204 Apr. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Russia’s indebtedness to Great Britain and France. Assurance by Minister of Finance of no separate peace. 3
1212 Apr. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Russia’s indebtedness and assets. Discussion of transfer from Great Britain of loan. 4
1222 Apr. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Order given in the United States for locomotives and cars for Russia. 5
1359 Apr. 28 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo A commission will control all purchases of supplies in the United States for Allied Governments. 5
1236 Apr. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Objection to extension of credit through Great Britain. Support of liberty loan by Moscow Bourse. 6
1239 May 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Method of purchasing supplies discussed. Prompt contract for rolling stock desired. 7
1386 May 7 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Terms and conditions, under act of Congress, for lending money to foreign governments. 7
[Page XII]1275 May 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Terms of loan are satisfactory to Russia. 8
1291 May 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The Chargé at Washington is designated to act for Russia in financial matters. 9
1415 May 17 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): McAdoo to the Minister of Finance Credit of $100,000,000 established for purchase by Russia of supplies for continuing the war. 9
15 July 8 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) Special credit of $75,000,000 recommended for payment of forces in Finland. 11
1552 July 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Credit of $75,000,000 will be available for Russia as requested. 11
1497 July 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Credit to be used to pay Russian soldiers in Finland and sailors in Finnish waters. 11
1560 July 12 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to keep Department informed on political and financial situation. 12
1568 July 14 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Arrangements for credit of $75,000,000 to Russia. 12
1524 July 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Request of Foreign Office for additional loans. Resignation of Cadet Ministers. 13
1525 July 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Method of crediting through the Bank of Finland the $75,000,000 loan. 14
1577 July 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Credit of $75,000,000 was granted without imposing conditions upon Russia. 15
1529 July 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Informed Foreign Minister that additional loans would not be recommended until government was stable. 15
1542 July 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Credit of $75,000,000 was for payment of army and navy in Finland and Finnish waters. 15
1543 July 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends increased credit for prosecution of the war and discusses transfer of British loans. 16
1550 July 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) No use as yet made of $75,000,000 loan. Finland’s move toward independence from Russia. 17
1595 July 25 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Statement of allocation of credits for Russia. Information requested on Russian political conditions. 17
1591 Aug. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Russia asks that Great Britain be relieved from obligation for Russian purchases in America. 19
[Page XIII] Aug. 3 From the British Ambassador Russia’s credit demands are unreasonable in view of congestion in transportation. 20
1645 Aug. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) His endeavors to promote exports in the hope of preserving exchange value of the ruble. 21
1642 Aug. 23 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) A further credit of $100,000,000 is established for Russia, available while it engages in the war. 22
1761 Oct. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Enumeration of items in Russian request for additional credit. 23
1845 Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Recommends payment to Russia of another installment on special $75,000,000 loan. 23
1769 Oct. 10 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Advisability of transmitting balance of $75,000,000 credit to Russia for disbursement in Finland. 24
1864 Oct. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Will report upon Russian request for additional credit. 24
1904 Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requests official denial of rumor of cession of Kamchatka Peninsula to the United States. 25
1800 Oct. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from McAdoo Loans by the United States and private syndicates to Allied Governments. A further credit of $50,000,000 to Russia. 25
1923 Oct. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to McAdoo Russia desires another $75,000,000 loan for use in Finland. Military conditions in Finland. 26
1806 Oct. 29 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Denial of cession of Kamchatka Peninsula to the United States. 26
1946 Nov. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Importance of Russia’s continuing the war; recommendation for additional credit. 26
1947 Nov. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion of the compensation of England for Russian orders placed in the United States. 27
2841 Nov. 22 To the Ambassador in France (tel.): to House Requests his views and those of the British and French upon the situation in Russia. 28
Nov. 24 From the Special Representative (tel.) As there is no responsible government in Russia, advises against further advances or contracts. 28
Nov. 24 From the Special Representative (tel.) French Prime Minister indorses opinion of Colonel House on the Russian situation. 28
[Page XIV]

Decree of the Soviet Government Repudiating All Foreign State Loans, February 3, 1918: Protest by the Diplomatic Corps at Petrograd; Resolution of the Inter-Allied Council—Measures Interfering with Banking—Decree Requiring Registration of All Securities, April 20, 1918—Assumption of the Service of the Russian Debt by the British Government; Use of Bank Balances and Receipts for This Purpose by the Russian Embassy in the United States—Discontinuance of Payments by the British Government; Impounding of Russian Assets—Postponement of Interest Due to the American Government; Continuance of Payment on Bonds Held by Private Investors

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
240 1917 Dec. 13 From the Consul General at Moscow Press comment on draft of decree of Soviet government repudiating foreign state loans. 29
2030 1918 Jan. 7 To the French Ambassador Payment in the United States of interest (Jan. 1 and May 1) on Russian loans privately owned. 30
148 Jan. 7 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Consular Corps protests the order of the de facto government affecting safety vaults. 31
165 Jan. 29 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Banks closed. Consuls will purchase rubles by selling drafts on Department. 31
2348 Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) All-Russian Central Executive Committee approves decree of Council of Commissars annulling all state loans. 31
1027 Feb. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia Transmits text of decree regarding annulment of state loans adopted by Central Executive Committee, Feb. 3. 32
2360 Feb. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Joint protest by the Diplomatic Corps against repudiation of Russian state loans and confiscation of property. 33
8656 Feb. 14 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Crosby to McAdoo Resolution of Finance Section of Inter-Allied Council on Russian repudiation of loans. 34
2369 Feb. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion of proposed further joint protest against Bolshevik decrees. 35
2379 Feb. 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Consuls instructed to pursue the general lines of the joint protest against Bolshevik decrees. 36
2089 Feb. 20 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Commends judgment shown in refraining from further joint protests. 36
Mar. 5 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Understanding that surplus Russian funds will be applied to interest on obligations up to and including July 1. 36
Mar. 7 To the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Agrees to proposed use of surplus Russian funds. 38
249 Mar. 13 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Soviet government annuls all loans, confiscates property, and levies contributions, causing loss to Americans. 38
[Page XV] Mar. 23 From the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy Discussion of treatment of Russian funds in Great Britain and in the United States. 39
Apr. 9 From the Russian Ambassador Release of Russian funds to pay interest due after June 1 to holders of Russian securities. 39
7203 Apr. 10 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France Inquires British policy regarding interest on Russian obligations. 41
Apr. 22 To the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy The status of the Russian Ambassador at Washington and his control of Russian funds. 41
427 Apr. 26 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Text of decree of Soviet government, published Apr. 20, requiring registration of all securities. 42
[Enclosure] Apr. 27 The British Foreign Secretary to the American Ambassador Policy of Great Britain in regard to meeting interest and principal on Russian obligations. 45
7510 Apr. 30 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): McAdoo to Crosby Additional security desired by bank from Russian Corp. in connection with extension of Russian notes. 43
8936 May 1 From the Ambassador in Great Britain Transmits Foreign Office note of Apr. 27. 44
9837 May 2 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Cravath to McAdoo Attitude of British Treasury toward furnishing of additional collateral by Russian Corp. 46
[Enclosure] May 2 The Russian Financial Attaché to the Assistant Secretary of the Transmits copy of letter of Apr. 30 from Russian Ambassador to bank, seeking extension of $11,000,000 notes maturing May 1. 47
May 4 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Forwards copy of a letter of May 2 from the Russian Financial Attaché with copy of letter of Apr. 30 from the Russian Ambassador. 47
2256 May 9 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Bolshevik notice through Copenhagen press of security of deposits in Russian banks. 48
2468 Oct. 3 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Crosby to Leffingwell British Treasury inquires regarding financial relations with Russian Ambassador and currency used in Russia. 49
1909 Oct. 9 To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Rathbone to Crosby Financial relations with Russian Ambassador remain unchanged. Rubles purchased for use in Siberia. 49
Oct. 26 From the Russian Ambassador Postponement sought of interest due Nov. 15 to the United States on notes of the Russian Provisional Government. 49
[Page XVI] Oct. 26 From the Russian Ambassador Attitude of U. S. Treasury officials toward postponement of interest due Nov. 15 from Russia. 51
Nov. 16 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Payment of interest on Russian obligations held by the U. S. Government and those held by private investors. 52
Nov. 30 From the Russian Ambassador Note from the Kolchak government at Omsk, assuming responsibility for Russia’s liabilities. 52
Dec. 3 To the Russian Financial Attaché Department sees no objection to payment of interest due to-day on Russian bonds privately owned. 53
[Enclosure] Dec. 11 The Assistant Secretary of the Treasury to the Russian Financial Attaché Deprecates further payment of interest on Russian obligations privately owned unless interest due the United States is paid. 54
Dec. 11 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Forwards copy of his note of Dec. 11 to the Russian Financial Attaché. 53
[Enclosure] Dec. 17 The Russian Financial Attaché to the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Advisability of Russia’s meeting present payment of interest to private investors in order to maintain note values. 54
Dec. 19 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Forwards copy of letter of Dec. 17 from the Russian Financial Attaché 54
1919 Jan. 2 To the Secretary of the Treasury Discussion of interest due the United States and private investors on Russian loans. 55
Jan. 7 To the Secretary of the Treasury Acquiescence in payment of interest due Jan. 10 on Russian bonds privately owned. 56
Jan. 8 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Treasury will make no objection to payment of interest on Russian bonds privately owned, maturing Jan. 10. 56

CHAPTER II. EFFORTS TO STABILIZE RUSSIAN CURRENCY

Proposals for Financial Assistance to the Provisional Government of the Northern Region and for the Provision of Currency in Connection with Allied and American Operations in Russia—British Plan of an Office of Conversion at Archangel Issuing Notes Based on Sterling Deposits

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
359 1918 Aug. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Proposals of financial assistance to the government of the northern region. 57
364 Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses Allied guarantee to northern government of bonds to be sold for currency. 58
Aug. 21 From the Russian Ambassador Forwards memorandum on currency to be used in connection with proposed assistance to Russia. 59
[Page XVII] Undated From the Secretary of the Treasury Suggests issuance of ruble certificates in small denominations for use of U. S. troops at Vladivostok. 64
Sept. 4 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Suggestions regarding currency for troops in Siberia; forcing of the yen into use by Japanese. 64
Aug. 31 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes undated letter from the Secretary of the Treasury. See supra. 64
980 Sept. 5 From the British Chargé British plan for a new ruble note in north Russia based on sterling reserve at the Bank of England. 66
256 Sept. 12 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department is considering the subject of Russian currency. 67
401 Sept. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Forwards British financial scheme for office of conversion issuing new ruble notes. 67
1961 Sept. 17 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Crosby to Leffingwell French plan for establishment of an inter-Allied bank. 68
1611 Sept. 23 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Rathbone to Crosby Plans for currency in Russia and Siberia are in the hands of the Department of State. 69
1053 Sept. 24 From the British Chargé Urgency of proceeding with currency plan for north Russia. 69
423 Sept. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Further discussion of financial scheme for aiding government of the northern region. 70
2228 Sept. 26 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Crosby to Rathbone Attitude toward French plan for an inter-Allied bank. 71
433 Oct. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) British Government is ready to begin operation of currency scheme in north Russia. 71

American Plan of an All-Russian Currency Based on Commodity Transactions—Execution of the British Plan with American Consent; Difficulties Encountered—French Plan for a Similar Emergency Currency Issue in Siberia—Protest by the Russian Ambassador Against Measures Taken Without Consultation of the Omsk Government—Shipment to Vladivostok of Notes Printed in the United States for the Provisional Government Detained by the American Government

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Oct. 5 To the British Chargé Views upon British proposal for providing a currency medium in north Russia. 72
Oct. 7 Department memorandum Russian Ambassador requests that Russian currency printed in the United States be sent to Vladivostok, to be held in escrow. 74
[Page XVIII]1148 Oct. 16 From the British Chargé The situation demands that the British plan be put into operation not later than Oct. 19. 75
Oct. 21 To the British Embassy Withdrawal of objection to the British plan for supplying temporary currency in north Russia. 77
221 Oct. 23 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Suggestion of representatives that local bank issue small currency against large notes as guaranty. 78
513 Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrival of British financial expert with new rubles. 79
Oct. 25 From the Russian Ambassador Requests consent to order from a bank-note company small currency for Siberian use. 79
521 Oct. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion with British financial expert of plan for currency in north Russia. 80
324 Oct. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Forwards summary of Department’s memorandum of Oct. 21 regarding British proposal for new currency. 82
3126 Oct. 26 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Cravath to McAdoo Treasury representatives of the Allies agree that France should undertake emergency note issue for Siberia. 82
3169 Oct. 29 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Cravath to McAdoo Further discussion of the issue of currency for Siberia. 84
Oct. 30 From the Russian Financial Delegate Application for permission to ship to Vladivostok Russian bank notes printed in the United States. 84
Oct. 30 To the Secretary of War Request that the War Department arrange shipment of Russian bank notes to Vladivostok on army transport. 85
1212 Nov. 1 From the British Chargé Defense of the British plan for currency in north Russia; discussion of currency for Siberia. 86
2593 Nov. 2 To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Rathbone to Crosby Plan for supplying temporary needs for currency in Siberia. 87
Nov. 8 From the Russian Ambassador The Omsk authorities would resent any issuance of currency in Russia without their concurrence. 88
348 Nov. 9 To the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Inquiry regarding operation of new ruble issue at Archangel. 89
586 Nov. 18 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Description of new notes of northern Russia and suggested precautions regarding issue. 89
587 Nov. 18 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Regulations governing the emission (conversion) office, issuing new currency in north Russia. 90
2973 Nov. 22 To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Rathbone to Crosby Authority for shipment of Russian bank notes from the United States to Vladivostok. 91
628 Dec. 3 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Urgent need for a supply of currency at Murmansk. 92
[Page XIX]631 Dec. 3 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Agreement between British and north Russian provisional government on regulations for new currency. 92
20 Dec. 6 To the Consul at Archangel (tel.): from the War Trade Board U. S. plan to issue trade notes for use in Russia communicated by Russian Embassy to Kolchak government. 93
665 Dec. 17 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Efforts to obtain rubles for use at Murmansk; loan by the emission office to the northern government. 94
Dec. 23 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) War Department will assume expense of printing notes for use of U. S. forces in Siberia. 95
4877 Dec. 24 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Sheldon to W. T. B. British Treasury would have the United States provide currency in Siberia but deprecates use of U. S. plan in north Russia. 96
Dec. 27 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Information for Harris concerning Russian bank notes shipped to Vladivostok but held on transport. 96
Dec. 28 Department memorandum Russian Financial Attaché Ughet was not aware that bank notes were not to be released for circulation. 97
704 Dec. 30 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Confusion in north Russia in the operation of the new ruble issue. 98
3741 Dec. 31 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): W. T. B. to Sheldon Pending action by Paris conference nothing further will be done regarding currency matter. 100
385 Dec. 31 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to W. T. B. Russian attitude toward U. S. refusal to deliver bank notes at Vladivostok. 100
1919 Jan. 8 To the Acting Chairman of W. T. B. Recommends that second shipment of Russian bank notes be held at San Francisco and license for additional shipment be canceled. 100

CHAPTER III. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS AND RELIEF

Restriction of Exports to Russia after the Revolution of November 1917—Limited Shipments of Nonmilitary Goods Permitted—Projects for Buying up Supplies in Russia to Prevent their Acquisition by Germany; Organization of the “Goods Exchange” (Tovaro-Obmien)—Measures for Relief in Archangel and Manchuria

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2022 1917 Nov. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends shipment of shoes for railway workmen. 102
2039 Nov. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) His note recommending shipment of shoes for railway union’s families is sent broadcast throughout Russia. 103
[Page XX]7815 Nov. 26 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Endicott to Davison Practical embargo on all shipments from Great Britain to Russia. 104
5932 Nov. 30 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Quotes W. T. B. resolution to withhold for the time being licenses for shipments to Russia. 104
2852 Dec. 5 From the Ambassador in France (tel.): from House Japan and the United States are requested by the Supreme War Council to provision Russia. 104
1884 Dec. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department will endeavor to secure delivery of boots for supply committee of northern railways. 105
Dec. 15 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) No embargo on shipments to Russia from the United States. 105
8055 Dec. 22 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Exports from Great Britain to Russia are suspended, with certain exceptions. 105
2141 Dec. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes and approves message from Robins urging intercourse with Bolshevik government for distribution of Red Cross supplies. 106
1948 Dec. 29 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Robins may continue measures to distribute Red Cross supplies. 106
6348 1918 Jan. 24 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Limited shipments of nonmilitary goods from the United States to Russia will be permitted. 107
2324 Feb. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The purchase of supplies in Russia by the Allies to prevent their acquisition by Germany. 107
Feb. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Inquiry concerning embargo. 108
Feb. 7 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Supplies other than munitions are permitted to go forward to Russia. 108
2064 Feb. 14 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Funds supplied Military Mission for purchase of supplies to prevent use by the enemy. 108
Feb. 25 To the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Recommends that Russian Purchasing Commission have facilities afforded by Allies Purchasing Commission. 109
Feb. 25 From the Commercial Adviser of the British Embassy Release of stores at Archangel in exchange for receipt in Russia of the Dora and Nassovia cargoes. 109
Mar. 8 To the Director of the Bureau of Exports, W. T. B. Destination of the Nippon cargo questioned. Licenses for shipments to Russia held in abeyance. 111
29 Mar. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet attempts to ship munitions from Archangel to interior. Food conditions. 111
[Page XXI]26 Mar. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires what action has been taken regarding funds supplied Military Mission. 112
28 Mar. 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Efforts of Russian Embassy to arrange payment for shipments of shoes for railway employees. 112
Mar. 27 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Efforts to secure delivery of shoes to Cooperative Societies in exchange for grain. 113
29 Mar. 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) No tonnage available for food shipments to Archangel. 113
44 Mar. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Organization of the Tovaro-Obmien to purchase supplies and prevent seizure by the enemy. 114
Mar. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Moscow press reports that America will resume commercial relations with Russia, regardless of repudiation of debts. 114
297 Mar. 30 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Requests authorization to purchase Turkestan cotton shipments to Moscow, destined for Germany. 114
50 Mar. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Approval of Consul General’s request to purchase cotton. 115
41 Apr. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Report of resumption of U. S. commercial relations with Russia is not authorized. 115
Apr. 4 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Inquiry regarding details of shipments of cotton from Turkestan. 115
74 Apr. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Probable source of statement of U. S. resumption of commercial relations with Russia. 116
56 Apr. 10 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires if shipments of boots and agricultural supplies can be kept from enemy hands. 116
87 Apr. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Questions message from Thompson of the Red Cross concerning relief for Russian Government. 117
338 Apr. 11 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Suggests that Consulate General purchase Russian flax and remove it from war zone. 117
89 Apr. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends purchase of supplies without delay and assembly at Archangel, to prevent German purchase. 117
359 Apr. 16 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Plans for purchase and distribution of shoes to Cooperative Society. 118
71 Apr. 16 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Message of Thompson of the Red Cross regarding U. S. aid for Russian Government is unauthorized. 118
75 Apr. 19 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses exports from Russia to America and delivery of American commodities in exchange. 119
114 Apr. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Commercial relations with America: assembling at Archangel of flax, ores, etc., for shipment. 119
[Page XXII]77 Apr. 22 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Shipment to Russia of locomotives and cars is dependent upon whether Russia or Germany benefits thereby. 119
Apr. 22 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Plan of Masaryk, whereby Allies may furnish manufactured articles to Russia in exchange for wheat. 120
85 Apr. 25 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Authorization to buy supplies where purchase will be detrimental to Central powers. 121
Apr. 25 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Purchase of flax authorized. Funds for purchase of supplies granted. 121
6 Apr. 26 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Plan sought whereby shipments of shoes may be safeguarded from serving enemy purposes. 121
87 Apr. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses quantity and price of Russian supplies useful to the enemy and exchange of commodities. 122
170 May 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Capture of Petrograd by Germans and Finns imminent; evacuation of supplies hastened. 123
185 May 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports on efforts to purchase and distribute supplies in Russia; advises increased allotment of funds. 123
138 May 25 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Approval of efforts to evacuate supplies from Petrograd before German occupation. 124
[Enclosure] June 8 The Secretary of Commerce to the President Necessity for commercial action in Russia. Enclosure: letter from Baron Maydell. 124
June 8 From the Secretary of Commerce Encloses copy of his letter of June 8 to the President. 124
260 June 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Appeal for flour. 126
179 June 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Additional sum authorized for purchase of supplies in Russia. 126
June 13 From the Minister in China (tel.) Efforts of representatives of Moscow Central Supply Committee to lift export embargo in Manchuria. 127
June 15 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Purchase of Russian raw materials before Germany obtains them. Plan to relieve food shortage. 127
273 June 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Press reports Soviet request that U. S., British, and French war vessels leave Russian ports. 128
June 19 To the Minister in China (tel.) Trial shipments to Moscow Supply Committee. 129
290 June 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Again urges the sending of a shipload of flour to Archangel. 129
July 3 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Appeal for destitute refugees in Manchuria. 130
700 July 6 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Allied intervention recommended for relief of famine in northern Russia. 130
[Page XXIII]222 July 11 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion of food supplies for Russia and of Czecho-Slovak position in Siberia. 132
714 July 16 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Project to distribute among population stocks which Germany might seize; need for further credit. 132
July 17 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Red Cross authorization of funds for relief of refugees in Manchuria. 133

American Project of an Economic and Educational Mission to Siberia, July 17, 1918—Organization in England of the Siberian Supply Company—Arrangements with the Allies for Provisioning the Northern Region—Consent of the United States to British Control of Neutral Trade with Northern Russia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 July 17 To the Allied Ambassadors Economic commission to be sent to Siberia. 134
July 25 From the British Embassy Presents Balfour’s telegram: offer to cooperate with U. S. economic commission; suggestion of an inter-Allied commission. 134
Undated Department memorandum Memorandum of U. S. reply to British offer of cooperation in economic mission in Siberia. 136
846 July 31 From the British Ambassador Proposed Allied control of neutral traffic in northern waters. 137
Aug. 2 To the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Red Cross shipments of medicine and supplies planned; prospect of flax as return cargo. 138
660 Aug. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) British tonnage requested for U. S. shipments to ration Murmansk and Archangel. 138
104 Aug. 15 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Archangel under Allied control; export of flax assured. 138
Aug. 20 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan appoints economic commission to Russia, and designates Matsudaira as diplomatic representative in Siberia. 138
Aug. 23 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Dispatch of a Japanese railway expert to Siberia. Inauguration in Siberia of American social welfare activities. 139
132 Aug. 23 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) The flax market in northern Russia. 140
973 Sept. 3 From the British Chargé Announcement of a commercial commissioner at Vladivostok and of the Siberian Supply Co. as British agent. 141
381 Sept. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) British flour will be the first food shipment to arrive at Archangel. 142
1639 Sept. 5 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Availability of British tonnage for rationing Murmansk and Archangel is doubtful. 142
989 Sept. 6 From the British Chargé Suggested arrangement for sharing expense incurred by the Allies in European Russia. 143
[Page XXIV]139 Sept. 6 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Supply of food for civil population is essential. 143
263 Sept. 20 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Information regarding supplies for Murmansk and Archangel districts. 144
416 Sept. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports arrival of Canadian wheat. 144
419 Sept. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquiry relative to shipment of boots for Murman Railway employees. 145
Sept. 27 To the British Ambassador Consent of the United States to British control of neutral trade with northern Russia. 145
275 Sept. 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Four steamers cleared for Archangel with supplies. 146
Oct. 1 To the Consul at Archangel (tel.): from W. T. B. Flax situation discussed at London Embassy. 146
2458 Oct. 3 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Endicott to Amer. Red Cross Discusses further need of food for civil population in Archangel district. 146

Establishment of the War Trade Board of the United States Russian Bureau, Inc., November 5, 1918—Refusal of Sanction for Relief in Cooperation with Soviet Authorities—Accomplishments of the “Goods Exchange” (Tovaro-Obmien)

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 July 14 The Vice Consul at Petrograd to the Commercial Attaché Statement of account of the Goods Exchange with the American Consulate General. 166
[Quoted in tel.] Sept. 19 Commercial Attaché Huntington to Ambassador Francis Report upon the Goods Exchange, enclosing statement of Vice Consul Lee and memorandum of French representative. 166
Oct. 10 To the Allied diplomatic representatives Proposes economic assistance to Russia through the medium of the War Trade Board. 147
Oct. 10 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.): W. T. B. to Heid Appointment of Heid as W. T. B. representative at Vladivostok. Amplification of plan for economic aid to Russia. 150
300 Oct. 11 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Shipment of boots, clothes, and food for railway men has reached Norway, en route to Murmansk. 154
2987 Oct. 12 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.): Webster to Amer. Red Cross Recommends sending to Petrograd food for small children. 154
474 Oct. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports arrival at Archangel of American steamers with supplies. 155
[Page XXV]1229 Oct. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia Commercial advantages in Russia secured by Great Britain and. by Germany. 155
312 Oct. 17 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allotment among the United States, Great Britain, and France of expenses of rationing Archangel and Murmansk districts. 157
2268 Oct. 22 To the French Ambassador The United States will share with France and Great Britain expenses of rationing Archangel and Murmansk. 157
1230 Oct. 22 To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Inquires if proposed Red Cross relief requires association with Bolshevik authorities. 158
3053 Oct. 24 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): Endicott to Amer. Red Cross British General commanding Archangel area declares no further foodstuffs are needed. 158
Oct. 24 To the Consul at Archangel (tel.): from W. T. B. Appointment of Consul Cole as W. T. B. representative in Archangel. 158
Oct. 24 To the Consul at Archangel (tel.): from W. T. B. The United States does not need Archangel flax but would purchase it to assist Russia. 159
326 Oct. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Detention in Norway of shipments for Murman Railway employees. 159
3059 Oct. 29 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) American Red Cross relief in Russia necessitates relations with Bolshevik authorities. 160
1253 Oct. 31 To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Can not sanction Red Cross activities which require cooperation Bolshevik authorities. 160
1236 Nov. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia Transmits report of Lieutenant Bukowski, U.S.N.A., on the evacuation of military supplies from Petrograd. 161
545 Nov. 2 To the Minister in Norway (tel.): W. T. B. to Owen Summary of economic and financial problems at Archangel. 162
547 Nov. 5 To the Minister in Norway (tel.): W. T. B. to Dye Discusses an organization in Scandinavia to cooperate with British and French in restricting supplies to Germany. 164
551 Nov. 5 To the Minister in Norway (tel.): W. T. B. to Owen Instructions to study the Russian situation from Stockholm. 165
Nov. 9 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): W. T. B. to Heid Incorporation of the War Trade Board of the United States Russian Bureau. 165
1276 Nov. 9 To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Requests text of Commercial Attaché Huntington’s letter to Ambassador giving report of Goods Exchange. 166
[Page XXVI]3145 Nov. 13 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Résumé of Commercial Attaché Huntington’s letter of Sept. 19 to Ambassador Francis with enclosures. 166
3194 Nov. 20 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.): Owen to W. T. B. Advisability of cooperation between the W. T. B. Russian Corp. and the Russian Cooperative Societies. 168
Dec. 5 To the Consul at Archangel (tel.) from W. T. B. Press notice of the purposes of the W. T. B. of the United States Russian Bureau, Inc. 169
118 Dec. 24 To the American Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.): from McCormick Usefulness of the W. T. B. in Russia after the conclusion of the armistice. 170
705 Dec. 30 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Reports the inventory of merchandise at Murmansk and discusses its distribution. 171

Chinese Embargo on Exports to Siberia: Withdrawal at the Instance of the United States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Jan. 28 From the Minister in China (tel.) Exportation from Manchuria into Siberia prohibited at instance of British Minister. 172
Feb. 2 To the Minister in China (tel.) Representations to Foreign Office against prohibition of exports to Siberia of American-owned merchandise. 172
2321 Feb. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Chinese Minister reports that embargo on exports to Russia was requested by the Allies. Soviet attitude. 173
Feb. 4 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.); to France, Great Britain Attention called to embargo on exports from Manchuria into Siberia, and U. S. representations thereon. 173
2047 Feb. 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Deprecates any embargo on exports to Siberia at this time. 174
Feb. 14 To the Minister in China (tel.) Inquires if embargo on food exports to Siberia has been removed. 174
Feb. 19 From the Minister in China (tel.) Foodstuffs are now allowed to go to Irkutsk. Minister suggests precautions to prevent enemy destination. 175
Feb. 23 To the Minister in China (tel.) Suggestion of measures to relieve distress in Siberia and to prevent enemy destination of exports. 175
Apr. 25 To the Minister in China (tel.) Ambassador Francis forwards request of Soviet Foreign Commissar that Chinese embargo on exports into Russia be annulled. 175
Apr. 27 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Repeats his telegram to Peking, stating that the Chinese embargo serves no useful purpose. 176
[Page XXVII] Apr. 30 From the Minister in China (tel.) Embargo continues, insisted upon by Great Britain and France. 176
May 1 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.); to Great Britain, France Japan to be informed that China is probably willing to remove embargo, if so advised by the Allies. 176
10082 May 16 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Reports that in February the embargo was partly lifted. 177
May 21 From the Chairman of the Advisory Commission of Railway Experts (tel.) Chinese Eastern requests lifting of embargo at Manchuria Station. 177
May 23 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.) The United States has not changed its attitude against the embargo. 178
4001 May 27 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) France believes it expedient to maintain the Chinese embargo, with certain exceptions. 178
May 28 To the Minister in China (tel.) Suggestion that embargo be lifted from food shipments to Priamur. 178
10298 May 28 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.) Great Britain concurs in proposal to raise embargo in certain districts. 179
May 31 From the Minister in China (tel.) French Minister still objects to shipments into Siberia. 180
June 10 To the Minister in China (tel.) France and Great Britain consent to partial lifting of embargo. 180
June 20 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Removal by China of embargo against exports to Russia. Discussion of enemy destination. 180
June 24 From the Minister in China (tel.) Cancellation of Chinese embargo. 181
July 2 From the Chargé in China (tel.) French Minister urges resumption of embargo and hopes the United States may modify its attitude. 181
July 5 To the Chargé in China (tel.) The United States does not modify its attitude against the Chinese embargo. 181
Aug. 17 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Requests authorization to support British special measure to prohibit passage of supplies over Sungari River. 182
Aug. 21 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Authorization to support British in urging prohibition of supplies to enemy forces. 182
Aug. 31 From the Chargé in China (tel.) China suspends trade by the Sungari River. 182
[Page XXVIII]

CHAPTER IV. ASSISTANCE IN RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION

Arrangements for an American Commission under John F. Stevens to Investigate and Advise Regarding Operation of the Trans-Siberian Railway and to Control the Forwarding of American Supplies Through Vladivostok, April, 1917—Measures to Expedite the Delivery of Railway Material Ordered in the United States—Arrival of the Commission at Petrograd, June 12, 1917; Arrangements for Its Work—Request for a Force of American Operators and Shopmen as Instructors—Improvements Effected by the Commission—Designation of Stevens as Adviser for the Entire Russian Railway System

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1917 Mar. 31 From the Secretary of War Suggested sending of expert railroad operators from America to Russia to improve transportation. 183
5923 Mar. 31 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) American management of Trans-Siberian Railway suggested as help to Russian military situation and industrial development. 184
1288 Apr. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires if Russia would welcome inspection of the Trans-Siberian Railway by U. S. experts. 184
1167 Apr. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Russia will welcome assistance in improving the efficiency of the Siberian railways. 184
1179 Apr. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Request to expedite completion of Russia’s contracts for railroad equipment. 185
1324 Apr. 16 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Car and locomotive manufacturers agree to expedite Russian railway orders. 185
1200 Apr. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Prompt action urged for improving transportation facilities. 186
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 21] From the Russian Embassy Draft of program for improvement by the United States of railway transportation in Russia. 186
1211 Apr. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Importance of prompt shipment of railroad equipment and of arrival of manager. 187
1345 Apr. 21 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Acting upon the draft program of the Russian Embassy, the Department will send the commission of railroad experts. 187
1218 Apr. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Urges immediate sending of railroad experts to Vladivostok. 188
1361 Apr. 28 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The commission of railroad experts is prepared to start for Vladivostok. 188
1236 Apr. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Informed that Ministry resents British suggestion of turning over Siberian Railway to the United States. 188
1372 May 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Railroad commission, headed by John F. Stevens, will assist Russia in transportation. 189
746 May 15 From the Ambassador in Russia Stevens will be given control of terminals at Vladivostok, to facilitate passage of military supplies to the front. 189
1404 May 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Personnel of Advisory Commission of Railway Experts to Russia and date of sailing. 191
[Page XXIX]1290 May 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Russia desires prompt shipment of railroad equipment; may accord rights to Commission of Railway Experts. 191
1388 June 13 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Arrival at Petrograd of the Advisory Commission of Railway Experts. 192
June 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Policy of the commission. 192
1434 June 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Stevens to Willard Requests that the United States give to Russia machinery now at Panama and hasten shipment of tools. 192
1510 July 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Railway commission recommends the immediate establishment of loco motive-erecting plant at Vladivostok. 193
1564 July 14 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens Requests detailed information regarding railway equipment desired. 193
1584 July 20 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens Number of locomotives under construction; advisability of erecting shops at Vladivostok. 194
1571 July 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Stevens to Willard Officials request an American unit to train Russians in American methods of railway operation. 194
1588 Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Stevens to Willard Plan of railway buildings to be constructed at Vladivostok. 195
1624 Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Stevens to Willard Inquiry and directions regarding shipments of decapod locomotives. 195
1625 Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Stevens to Willard Russian approval of commission’s recommendations; request for a force of American railway men as instructors. 195
1630 Aug. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): to Stevens The President cautions commission not to create impression that it speaks for the U. S. Government. 196
1634 Aug. 16 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens If necessary, can furnish railway men desired. 197
1664 Aug. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Activities of railway commission on Siberian and Murman Railways. Relation with Provisional Government. 197
1652 Aug. 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens Details respecting delivery of Russian locomotives and spare parts. 198
[Page XXX] Undated [Rec’d Sept. 17] From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Reports improvement in efficiency of Siberian Railway. 198
Sept. 21 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): Willard to Stevens Progress in getting together railway units and in completing orders for equipment. 199
1814 Sept. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requests more first-class railway men; situation is critical. 199
1821 Sept. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Urges immediate sending of railroad executive for roads not under the Stevens commission. 200
Oct. 1 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Stevens Accommodations for American railway men. 200
1757 Oct. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens Russian Railway Service Corps is in process of formation. 201
1758 Oct. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from Willard Russian Railway Service Corps will comprise 300 skilled railroad men. 201
1854 Oct. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports improvement of Trans-Siberian as result of railway commission’s work. 202
1775 Oct. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Willard suggests that Stevens act as adviser to the Ministry of Ways of Communication. 202
1891 Oct. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrival of Stevens in Petrograd to consult with Government officials. Recommendations for railways. 203
1925 Oct. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Stevens as adviser to the Minister of Communications is empowered to put in operation his recommendations. 203
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Consul at Tiflis Request for a railway expert for the Caucasus. 204
1827 Nov. 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens Quotes telegram from the Consul at Tiflis. See supra. 204
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 4] From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Improvement of railways from Omsk to Moscow claimed vital to Russia’s existence. 204
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 4] From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Designation of Stevens as adviser for Russian railways. Request for more assistants. 205
1829 Nov. 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): Willard to Stevens Arrangements to send additional railroad men. 205
[Page XXXI]1960 Nov. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports that Government is probably deposed but advises the sending of Railway Service Corps. 205

Uncertainty as to Operations Following the November Revolution—Departure from the United States of the Russian Railway Service Corps under Col. George Emerson, November 18, 1917; Arrival at Vladivostok, December 14, 1917; Withdrawal to Nagasaki Accompanied by Stevens

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1917 Nov. 10 To the Secretary of War Delivery of railway material contingent upon Russia’s continuing active in the war against Germany. 206
1973 Nov. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes his message to Stevens urging him to remain in Russia despite Bolshevik coup d’état. 207
1979 Nov. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Advises tender of American railway men’s services to the succeeding government. 207
Nov. 19 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): Willard to Stevens Departure from the United States of Russian Railway Service Corps under Emerson. 208
Nov. 23 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Rumors of absorption of Siberian Railway by the United States, and authorized reply thereto. 208
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 24] From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Emerson may not land because of civil-war conditions in Russia. 209
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 26] From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Reports his impending departure, as mutinous workmen and soldiers control Russia, making efforts useless. 209
Nov. 27 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): Willard to Stevens Stevens urged not to leave Vladivostok before further advices. 210
Dec. 4 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): Stevens to Willard Decision to remain and await events. 210
2076 Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Emerson and men to remain on the Thomas . Relations with Russian officials. 210
Dec. 14 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Requests that the Thomas be placed under his orders to clear for Japan if necessary. 211
Dec. 15 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Reports that it is folly to undertake railroad operations at present. 211
[Page XXXII] Dec. 17 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Undesirable interpreters are not allowed to land. 212
Dec. 17 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Reports his withdrawal to Japan with the Russian Railway Service Corps. 212
Dec. 19 To the Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): Willard to Stevens Commends the decision that Emerson and the Railway Service Corps remain in Japan until the situation clears. 213
1233 Dec. 20 From the Russian Ambassador Approves temporary stay of Railway Corps in Japan, expense to be charged against Russian credits. 213
Dec. 20 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Again advises holding units in Japan, with prospect of returning to Russia. 213
Dec. 24 To Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): Willard to Stevens Advises remaining in Japan to await developments in Russia. 214
Dec. 28 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Inquires concerning departure and probable return of Railway Service Corps. 214
2184 1918 Jan. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Urges against departure of Stevens, as improved transportation is vital for famine relief and military needs. 214
Jan. 5 To Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): Willard to Stevens Message of encouragement. 215
Jan. 7 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.): to Willard Will quarter Railway Service Corps at Nagasaki; long delay is certain. 215
1972 Jan. 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Stevens will be instructed to return to Vladivostok as soon as practicable. 216
Jan. 9 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) The railway situation in Siberia, which induced the Railway Service Corps to remove to Japan. 216
Jan. 13 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Further explanation of situation at Vladivostok; some prospect of beginning railroad work soon. 217
Jan. 19 To the Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): to Stevens Reliance on his judgment as to practicability of resuming railway improvements in Siberia. 217
Jan. 24 To the Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): to Stevens Importance of resuming work on railroads; necessity of dealing with de facto authorities. 218
[Page XXXIII]

Establishment of Stevens and a Portion of the Railway Service Corps at Harbin for Service on the Chinese Eastern Railway—Recommendation of Ambassador Francis that Railway Units Be Sent to European Russia for Cooperation with Soviet Authorities—Emerson’s Departure for Vologda—Transfer of the Remainder of the Railway Service Corps to Vladivostok Following Seizure by the Czecho-Slovaks

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Feb. 1 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Attempt to place contingent of railway corps on Chinese Eastern Railway. 218
Feb. 3 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Commends a plan that the United States take over operation of railways from Vladivostok to Irkutsk. 219
Feb. 10 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Progress in plans for improvement of Chinese Eastern and Vladivostok-Irkutsk line. 220
Feb. 17 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Repeats Stevens’s reports of German influence in Siberia and plan for a railway guard. 220
Feb. 19 To the Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): to Stevens Approval of his plans outlined in telegram of Feb. 10. 221
2081 Feb. 19 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Stevens authorized to begin reorganization of railroads from Harbin westward and also toward Vladivostok. 221
Feb. 19 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to inform Stevens of Siberian situation and U. S. attitude. 222
Feb. 21 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Activities of Russian Railway Service Corps. 222
Feb. 21 To the Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): Felton to Stevens Status and source of support of Russian Railway Service Corps. 222
Feb. 26 From the Consul General at Yokohama (tel.): from Stevens Removal of Railway Service Corps to Harbin for work on the Chinese Eastern Railway. 223
Mar. 1 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Armed German prisoners hinder operations of Railway Service Corps. 223
Mar. 15 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): Smith to Stevens Railway employees in control of certain railways; relations with Russian officials and U. S. railway men. 224
28 Mar. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommendations in respect to railway assistance under Soviet régime. 224
30 Mar. 23 From the Ambassador, in Russia (tel.) Recommends that railway units be sent to European Russia for cooperation with Soviet authorities. 225
25 Mar. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Efforts of Railway Service Corps must not facilitate communication with Germany. 225
[Page XXXIV] Mar. 26 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.): to Stevens Instructions to take no action regarding request to send railway contingent to European Russia. 226
Mar. 28 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Reports difficulties and some progress at Harbin. 226
Mar. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Renews request for railway men and is confident of not furthering German interests. 226
42 Apr. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Desires clearer statement of specific need for railway men. 227
61 Apr. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet government will protect and expedite transportation of railway units to European Russia. 227
73 Apr. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) States reason for requesting railway men and reports Soviet assurances of resistance to Germany. 227
51 Apr. 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Stevens instructed not to send railway men until receipt of further report. 229
84 Apr. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends that sending of railway men be deferred at present. 229
Apr. 10 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Railway Service Corps ready to cover Chinese Eastern; Bolsheviks and war prisoners hinder railway operations. 229
Apr. 10 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.): Felton to Stevens. Stevens’s work considered of prime importance by Department and by Russian Embassy. 229
Apr. 14 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Recommends return from Nagasaki to the United States of 100 railway men. 230
99 Apr. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Renews request that Emerson and engineers be sent to Vologda to confer about transportation. 230
Apr. 23 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.): to Stevens Instructions to send Emerson to Vologda to confer about transportation. 230
Apr. 29 From the Minister in China (tel.): from Stevens Emerson will go immediately to Vologda. 231
Apr. 29 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Anti-Soviet administration of Chinese Eastern Railway opposes railway aid to Soviet régime. 231
Apr. 29 To the Minister in China (tel.): to Stevens Engineers were sent to European Russia to assist in measures against Germany. 231
May 1 From the Minister in China (tel.): from Stevens Need for authority to back railway men’s advice otherwise ignorant local committees nullify improvements. 232
[Page XXXV] May 2 To the Minister in China (tel.) Semenov desires the help of American railway engineers; latter must not be drawn into any faction. 232
180 May 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrangements for Soviet officials to confer with Emerson. 233
May 21 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Departure of Emerson from Vladivostok for Vologda. 233
May 22 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Believes that the Railway Service Corps can not assist both the Soviet and the Chinese Eastern Railway. 234
May 24 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.): to Stevens Ambassador will report to Department before taking any action on railway matters. 234
May 25 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Chinese Eastern Railway situation quieted but Bolsheviks and war prisoners still prevent work on Trans-Baikal Railway. 235
151 June 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Emerson’s visit to Vologda must not be construed by Russians as tacit recognition of Soviet régime. 235
June 3 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.): to Stevens Message of encouragement. 236
June 5 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Reports Czech successes and states that cooperation with Soviet would be a mistake. 236
July 10 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reports that Czecho-Slovak troops have seized Vladivostok and have restored the former Zemstvo régime. 237
July 18 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Transfer of contingent of Railway Service Corps to Vladivostok. 237
Aug. 10 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.): to Stevens Instructions, following conference with Russian Ambassador, as to policies and service in Siberia. 237
Aug. 13 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Nagasaki contingent of Railway Service Corps arrives at Vladivostok; position difficult. 238
Aug. 15 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Instructions to publish object of American railway contingent in hope of cooperation of all parties. 238
Aug. 16 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Emerson fails to reach Vologda; assists Czechs in repair of bridges near Irkutsk. 238
113 Aug. 26 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): from Stevens Urges operation of railways by his commission, with military control; foresees Japanese influence. 239
[Page XXXVI]

Proposal by the American Government to Place Stevens in Charge of the Trans-Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways, August 30, 1918—Objections by the Japanese Government—Approval of the American Plan by France and Italy—Reference of the Question by Great Britain to Agreement Between the United States and Japan

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Aug. 30 To the Ambassador in Japan(tel.) Proposal to place Stevens in charge of Trans-Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways. 239
Aug. 31 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Instructions to urge consent of China to U. S. proposal for handling Trans-Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways. 241
Sept. 3 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Conversation with Foreign Minister relative to proposal for control of Siberian railways. 241
[Quoted in tel.] Sept. 4 The Consul General at Irkutsk to the Chargé in China (tel.) Siberians and Czechs favor control of Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways by American commission. 245
Sept. 6 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Representations regarding report that Japanese General has ordered Japanese military control of Siberian railways. 242
Sept. 7 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to investigate report of Japanese loan to Chinese Eastern Railway without notice to Allies. 243
Sept. 7 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Proposal to Foreign Minister of control of Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways by American commission. Quotes telegram of Sept. 4 from Consul General, Irkutsk. 243
Sept. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Foreign Minister’s explanations regarding reported control of railway by Japanese General at Vladivostok. 245
Sept. 11 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Statement of U. S. responsibility for effective operation of the Siberian Railway and its branches. 246
Sept. 11 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Foreign Minister denies truth of report of Japanese loan to Chinese Eastern Railway. 246
Sept. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Rumored loan explained as payment for transportation by Japanese forces to the Chinese Eastern Railway. 247
Sept. 12 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Discussion with Foreign Minister of the application to the Chinese Eastern of the proposed plan. Japanese attitude. 248
Sept. 13 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Approval of Emerson’s action on western trip. 248
137 Sept. 13 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Stevens recommends shipment of railway supplies and rolling stock. 249
[Page XXXVII]1337 Sept. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France and Italy Statement of U. S. policy regarding Russian railways and résumé of efforts for operation thereof. 249
Sept. 13 Italy To the Chinese Minister Forwards text of telegram of Sept. 13 to Great Britain with further explanations. 252
Sept. 13 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Repeats telegram of Sept. 11 to Japan with comments. 253
Sept. 14 To the Japanese Ambassador Forwards text of telegram of Sept. 13 to Great Britain with further explanations. 253
Sept. 14 To the British Chargé Forwards text of telegram of Sept. 13 to Great Britain. 254
Sept. 14 To the Russian Ambassador Encloses telegram of Sept. 13 to Great Britain with further comment. 255
Sept. 16 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Requests information concerning negotiations with Allies upon Siberian railways and position of Horvat. 255
Sept. 17 From the Chargé in China (tel.): from Moser Chinese Governor complains of establishment by Czech general of military court at Harbin. 256
Sept. 17 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Status of General Horvat. 256
[Quoted in tel.] Undated The Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Chargé Memorandum objecting to U. S. proposal for operation by Stevens of Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways. 257
Sept. 18 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Quotes memorandum of Japanese Foreign Minister. See supra. 257
Sept. 18 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Suggestion that Allied forces assume military protection and designate Stevens director general. Japanese attitude. 258
5110 Sept. 18 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) France cooperates with U. S. proposal for operation by Stevens of the Siberian railway system. 259
Sept. 19 From the Chargé in China (tel.) U. S. railway proposal presented to China and to Allied representatives. Russian Minister’s telegram to Russian Ambassador at Washington quoted. 259
2381 Sept. 20 From the Italian Ambassador Italy’s approval of U. S. plan for operation of the Chinese Eastern and Siberian Railways. 261
Sept. 20 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan will agree to railroad plan, if Great Britain will consent. 262
5684 Sept. 21 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) Instructions to repeat to London and Rome his telegram of Sept. 18. 262
Sept. 23 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Morris Attitude of Japanese and other governments toward operation of Siberian railways by Stevens. Discussion of military protection. 263
[Page XXXVIII]1550 Sept. 23 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Attitude of Great Britain toward U. S. proposal regarding Siberian railways. 263
Sept. 24 From the Russian Ambassador Calls attention to infringement upon existing rights of Russia in the Chinese Eastern Railway. 264
Sept. 24 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Instructions to request agreement of China to U. S. plan for operation of Chinese Eastern and Siberian Railways. 266
Sept. 24 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Stevens Requests statement of existing conditions at Vladivostok. 267
Sept. 24 To the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Quotes telegram of Sept. 13 to Great Britain giving U. S. policy regarding Russian railways. 267
5181 Sept. 24 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Cooperation of France with the American railway commission, reserving the rights of the Russo-Asiatic Bank. 267
Sept. 26 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Discussion of method of transfer of railways to the control of Stevens and Emerson. 268
Sept. 27 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Morris Approval of any proper method of enabling Stevens and the Railway Service Corps to effectively operate railways. 269
177 Sept. 28 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): from Stevens Estimates of increased production in car and locomotive plants, if granted authority. 269
Sept. 30 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Summary of railway negotiations to date, with recommendations. 270
1100 Oct. 3 From the British Chargé Great Britain concurs in any agreement reached by the United States and Japan for railway control. 272
Oct. 3 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Morris Approval of recommendations of Sept. 30 regarding railway matters. 272
Oct. 4 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) No progress in railway negotiations. 273
271 Oct. 5 To the British Chargé Requests that Great Britain notify its missions in Allied countries of its concurrence in the railway proposal. 273
Oct. 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Impracticable plans, which Stevens refuses to consider, suggested in railway negotiations. 274
[Page XXXIX]

Plan for Management of the Railways by Stevens, October 13, 1918—Japanese Objections and Counter-Proposal for an Inter-Allied Committee with an Advisory Technical Board Headed by Stevens, December 2, 1918—Objections by Stevens—Acceptance of the Japanese Plan with Modifications Making the Technical Board Administrative, January 9, 1919

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Oct. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes draft of plan agreed upon at Vladivostok for supervision of the Siberian railways. Japanese attitude. 274
Oct. 18 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Morris Inquires concerning necessity for use of certain phrase in Art. 2 of draft of plan. 276
Oct. 23 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Stevens and the Railway Service Corps represent Russian and not U. S. interests. 276
Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Explanation of phrase in Art. 2 of draft plan. 277
Oct. 25 To the Japanese Ambassador Encloses copy of draft plan for supervision of Siberian railways and requests Japan’s support. 277
Oct. 25 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Change of wording desired in Art. 2 of draft plan. 278
Oct. 25 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Detailed report of Japanese military occupation of Chinese Eastern Railway, tending to nullify railway plans. 278
Oct. 26 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Suggestion that Stevens name a Japanese railway expert as member of his staff. 280
Nov. 3 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Additional Japanese forces at Harbin and in Siberia. Russian attitude. 281
Nov. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.): from Stevens The proposed joint directorship with Japanese in railway operation would result in failure. 281
Nov. 10 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Conversation with British colleague respecting joint Allied representation to Japan in support of U. S. plan. 282
Nov. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Stevens reports defective conditions and Japanese activities on the Trans-Baikal and Chinese Eastern Railways. 283
Nov. 14 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) No modification of plan of undivided control of railroads by Stevens. 284
Nov. 16 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Representations to Japan of principles underlying measures for operation of Siberian railways. 284
Nov. 23 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Representations to Japan of the temporary nature of relief measures proposed for the Siberian railways. 285
Nov. 23 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Attempt to secure definite terms of Japan’s plan for military supervision of railways. 286
[Page XL] Nov. 30 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Views desired on proposal to substitute operation of Amur Railway for Chinese Eastern Railway. 286
Nov. 30 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Summary of recent developments in railway negotiations. 286
Dec. 3 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese revised plan for supervision of Chinese Eastern and Trans-Siberian Railways. 288
Dec. 3 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Disapproval of proposed substitution of Amur Railway for Chinese Eastern; preference for Japanese plan. 291
Dec. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes Stevens’s comments on Japanese railway plan and his refusal to accept position suggested. 291
Dec. 7 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese revised plan approved on understanding that Stevens be president of technical board. 292
Dec. 7 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to urge that plan be given a fair trial. 293
Dec. 11 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to dispel Japanese suspicion by discussing the several undertakings of the United States in Siberia. 293
Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes Stevens’s disapproval of Japanese plan; suggests compromise. 295
[Quoted in tel.] Dec. 14 From the Consul at Vladivostok to the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Report on railway conditions in Siberia. 299
Dec. 18 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes Stevens’s suggested changes and his own amended plan, as presented to Japan. Quotes report of Dec. 14 from the Consul at Vladivostok. 296
3663 Dec. 24 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Instructions to inquire if Great Britain does not favor U. S. proposal for operation of Siberian railways. 299
255 Dec. 25 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Urges action to overcome railway congestion; Siberian officials favor placing railways in hands of Stevens. 300
Dec. 27 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese amended plan for supervision of Siberian railways, in which attempt is made to meet Stevens’s views. 301
Dec. 31 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes further correspondence with Stevens in attempt to overcome his objections to amended plan. 303
1919 Jan. 4 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Commendation of the plan and advice respecting views of Stevens. 305
[Page XLI] Jan. 8 From Chairman of Advisory Commission (tel.) Acquiescence in the plan for the operation of the Siberian railways. 306
Jan. 9 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese plan accepted and negotiations closed. 306
Jan. 13 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Gratification at outcome of negotiations regarding railways. 306

CHAPTER V. TREATMENT OF RUSSIAN SHIPPING

Charter of Several Ships of the Volunteer Fleet to the United States Shipping Board, March 30, 1918—Requisition of Russian Ships by the British Government—Agreement by the United States to the Exclusion of Russian Ships from the Principle of Equal Division of Chartered Tonnage—Protest of the Soviet Government against Seizure of Ships, June 12, 1918—Failure to Provide Ships for the Kamchatka Fishing Service

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Mar. 16 From the Russian Ambassador Charter of ships of the Russian Volunteer Fleet to the U. S. Shipping Board. 308
Mar. 29 From the Admiralty Counsel of the United States Shipping Board Authorization of the Russian commercial attaché to charter vessels of the Russian Volunteer Fleet to the U. S. Government. 309
7086 Mar. 30 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Notification that the Yaroslavl and Novgorod are chartered to the U. S. Shipping Board. 309
7124 Apr. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Inquiry of status of ships of the Russian Volunteer Fleet in Canadian and other British waters. 309
9359 Apr. 5 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Requisition of Russian ships by Great Britain. British view of status of Russian Volunteer Fleet steamers. 310
Apr. 17 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes telegram from the Russian Volunteer Fleet requesting release at Seattle of steamships required for Kamchatka trade. 310
Apr. 25 From the Russian Ambassador Suggests investigation before releasing steamers, and advises that the Simferopol is available. 311
7503 Apr. 30 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): W. T. B. to Sheldon Right of the United States to 50 per cent of Russian ship tonnage requisitioned by Great Britain. 312
10034 May 13 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): Sheldon to W. T. B. List of Russian steamers requisitioned by Great Britain and application of principle of 50 per cent division of ships. 312
[Page XLII]7854 May 22 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): W. T. B. to Sheldon U. S. agreement to exclusion of Russian ships from equal division of requisitioned tonnage. 313
271 June 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Protest of Soviet government against seizure of ships of the Russian Volunteer Fleet. 313
53 June 27 To the Russian Ambassador Release of the Simferopol, detained at Manila. 314
July 10 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Recommends release for Russian fishing trade of certain Volunteer Fleet steamers held in the United States. 314
July 20 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Suggests that Volunteer Fleet steamers held by British and Chinese in Pacific be substituted. 315
July 26 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Informing Vladivostok Consulate that China has no control over the Penza. 315
Aug. 7 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Informed by the British Ministry of Shipping that the steamers in question can not be spared. 315
[Enclosure] Aug. 9 Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corp. to W. T. B. Release of the Russian steamer Simferopol for Kamchatka trade. 316
Aug. 16 From Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corp. Transmits copy of memorandum of Aug. 9 sent to W. T. B. 316