30. Paper Prepared in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs1

Government Resources and Programs for Academic Exchanges

Current annual expenditures by the Federal Government for academic exchanges are approximately $47.5 million, divided between the State Department ($20 million) and ICA ($27.5 million), both of whom work with other Government agencies (e.g. Office of Education and Department of Agriculture) in carrying out their programs.

Exchange of Teachers (1960) Total 4,357
American 1,864
Foreign 2,493
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Under the State Department program, Americans go abroad and foreign nationals come to the United States to teach in elementary and secondary schools, usually for one year. Training is provided to foreign teachers under projects which combine study at American universities with observation of the American educational system for periods totaling about six months. American teachers attend summer seminars in several countries of Europe and Latin America. American and foreign professors are exchanged for the purpose of lecturing and advanced research at institutions of higher learning.

ICA brings foreign teachers to the United States for training periods ranging from a few weeks to more than a year. The training consists of observational tours, in-service training, or academic courses. American educators employed by ICA and by universities having ICA-financed contracts serve as advisers and conduct teacher-training projects overseas.

Exchange of Students (1960) Total 5,356
American 861 (all State Department)
Foreign 4,495 (2,477 State Department; 2,018 ICA)

Most grants under the State Department program are for a year’s graduate study; other projects enable selected foreign student leaders to participate in special seminars and, as members of student groups in a particular field, to travel in the United States for a month.

About 30 percent of the 7,000 persons brought to the United States annually for training by ICA are enrolled at universities; others combine brief non-credit courses with in-service training and observation. In some instances, ICA brings individuals to the United States for four-year undergraduate study or for graduate training leading to an advanced degree.

University-to-University Arrangements (1960–1961)

There are currently in effect approximately 100 contracts between 56 American universities and universities abroad which are financed in whole or in part by the Federal Government. These contracts, of varying duration, amount in the aggregate to $101 million, almost all of which is borne by ICA. Typically, American faculty members serve as advisers to the foreign university or to the Ministry of Education and often assume teaching duties themselves; students and faculty of the foreign university are brought to the American-university partner for training; and the American partner supplies teaching materials and equipment.

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In addition, the United States Information Agency assists American colleges and universities in establishing affiliations with institutions abroad under which exchange visits are arranged and books, periodicals, films and recordings are exchanged. USIA’s role, once the affiliation is established, is limited to small contributions of funds for educational materials. Forty-six such affiliations have been established.

Proportion of Government Programs to Total Exchange Effort

Our best estimate—and because full data on the private sector of exchanges are not available, this estimate is necessarily very rough—is that Government programs do not exceed ten percent of the total exchange effort.

  1. Source: National Archives, RG 59, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of the Assistant Secretary, Subject Files, 1961–1962: Lot 63D135, Entry A1–5072, Box 5, White House—1961. No classification marking. No drafting information appears on the paper. Isenberg sent the paper to Schlesinger under an attached May 25 covering memorandum, indicating that the paper “provides the material requested by the President, as outlined in your recent memorandum to Phil Coombs.” See Document 29.