No. 23.
Mr. Theo. C. Porter to Mr. Blount.

Hon. J. H. Blount,
Special Commissioner of the United States of America:

Sir: In accordance with my communication of the 12th ultimo, I have caused to be prepared the following inclosures, viz:

  • No. 1.—Tabulated statement of taxes paid by different nationalities.
  • No. 2.—Tabulated statement of acreage owned by different nationalities on which taxes are paid.
  • No. 3.—Statement showing acreage and quality of Government lands and where situated.
  • No. 4.—Statement showing acreage and quality of Crown lands and where situated.
  • No. 5.—Statement showing acreage and quality of Bishop estate and and where situated.
  • No. 6.—Statement showing acreage and quality of Crown lands, where situated, and available for lease or homestead.
  • No. 7.—Table showing a summary by nationality of the Government pay rolls, etc.

As I understand it, this will supply the desired information. It is not claimed that these tables and statements are absolutely perfect; such statistics never are and never can be, but they are as accurate as it is possible at this time and under the circumstances to make them. They include everything except the few delinquents, and the public lands—Government and Crown. The persons classed as “natives” are supposed to be of pure aboriginal birth and descent.

[Page 1071]

Under the head of “Half Castes” are included all who have any proportion of native blood, however small. Many of these are only a quarter native, some an eighth or less. The acreage of the Bishop estate, amounting to about 420,000 acres, is included in the “Half Caste” column. If this estate were entirely eliminated from the calculation, that class of our population would own only 7.78 per cent of the total taxable acreage instead of 28.67 per cent, as appears in the table. The large lands and very valuable buildings and improvements known as the Kamehameha School on the Bishop estate is free from taxation, and materially affects the taxes in the “Half-Caste” column. The Bishop estate, together with the Government and Crown lands, amount to 2,000,000 acres, or about one-half of the entire area of the country. In short, these tables show that the pure Hawaiian pays $1.01 in $7.39 of the taxes, owns 1 in every 7.02 acres of the taxable land, and holds two-thirds of the offices and positions under the Government.

In connection with the above, the following data compiled from the last census may be of interest:

The pure “Hawaiians and Half Castes “together constitute 45.01 per cent of the entire population, furnish 30.98 per cent of the males over 15 years of age, 70.18 per cent of the voters, 9.30 per cent of the laborers, 13.25 per cent of the merchants and traders, 35.55 per cent of the mechanics, 48.47 per cent of the drivers and teamsters, 74.57 per cent of the seamen, and 82.40 per cent of the fishermen. The 13.25 per cent appearing under the head of merchants and traders are fishmongers, fruit-venders, and the like. Such a thing as a merchant in the larger sense of the word can not be found among the pure natives.

Should there be any other information desired of this department or any of its bureaus, I shall at any and all times be pleased to give it to you.

I remain, with much respect, your obedient servant,

Theo. C. Porter,
Minister of Finance.
No. 1.—Table showing the amount of taxes paid by various nationalities in the Hawaiian Islands, compiled from the reports of the tax assessors and collectors of the four divisions into which the islands are divided, for the annual period of 1891–’92.
Taxation division. Islands. Americans and Europeans. Natives. Half-castes. Chinese. Japanese. Other nationalities. Total.
1 Oahu $128,048.42 $22,898.09 $13,278.03 $48,237.64 $7,915.79 None. $220,377.97
2 Maui, Lanai and Molokai. 42,940.87 16,687.76 3,640.79 14,317.49 13,556.67 $370.10 91,513.68
3 Hawaii 64,252.19 23,705.44 9,275.48 11,814.36 29,838.61 None. 138,886.08
4 Kauai and Niihau. 39,275.26 8,095.53 674.38 12,896.61 16,015.00 359.72 77,316.50
Total 274,516.74 71,386.82 26,868.68 87,266.10 67,326.07 729.82 528,094.23

Percentages of taxes.

Americans and Europeans 51.98
Natives 13.52
Half-castes 5.10
Chinese 16.53
Japanese 12.75
Others .12

The above tax includes poll and school taxes.

Theo. C. Porter,
Minister of Finance.

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No. 2.—Table showing the acreage on which taxes have been paid by various nationalities in the Hawaiian Islands, compiled from the reports of the tax assessors and collectors of the four divisions into which the islands are divided, for the annual period of 1891–’92.
Taxation division. Islands. Americans and Europeans. Natives. Half-castes. Chinese. Japanese. Other nationalities. Total.
1 Oahu 177,168 38,123 70.949 *6,042 200 None. 292,482
2 Maui, Lanai, and Molokai. 227,115 29,410 78,526 *3,733 None. None. 338,784
3 Hawaii 479,384 159,733 377,998 2,541 None. None. 1,019.650
4 Kauai and Niihau. 168,825 30,191 4,072 8 None. None. 203,096
Total 1,052,492 257,457 531,545 12,324 200 None. 1,854,018

*Mostly leased.

Percentages of acreage.

Americans and Europeans 56.77
Natives 13.89
Half-castes 28.67
Chinese .66
Japanese .01
Theo. C. Pouter,
Minister of Finance.

No. 3.—Summary of the Government lands for 1893.
Island. District. Areas.
Hawaii Hilo 44,047
Hamakua 250,969
Kohala 15,865.5
North Kona 120,047.5
South Kona 29,995.5
Kau 92,371
Puna 34,950
Total for Hawaii 588,245.5
Maui Lahaina 510
Wailuku 644
Honuaula 14,484.
Hamakapoko 4,550
Hamakualoa 9,255
Koolau 17,000
Hana 18,626
Kipahulu 1,162
Kaupo 6,612
Kahikinui 25,000
Total for Maui 97,843
Lanai 30,347
Kahoolawe 30,000
Molokai 20,000
Oahu Honolulu 4,575
Ewa 2,635
Waianae 3,648
Waialua 14,000
Koolau 329
Total for Oahu 25,187
Kauai 23,273
Total Government lands 814,895.5

Remarks.—The total area of the Government land at this date, estimated in round numbers, is 828,370 acres. The total value, independent of buildings, etc., was estimated in 1890 to be about $2,128,850, The annual income at that time by [Page 1073] leases, etc., was $67,636. Of this income $19,500 was from wharfage, and $7,800 from the rent of land with buildings thereon.

The Government lands at the above date were classified to quality as follows:

Cane arid arable land 35,150
Forest land 204,670
Grazing land of fair quality 367,270
Grazing land, barren and of little value 213,800
Rugged inaccessible mountain tracts 40,000
Old fish-ponds 780
Valuable building lots 130
Total estimated in 1890 861,800

A considerable portion of the land classed above as “grazing land “might also be classed as arable for certain products, while much of the “forest land” is of the finest quality as regards soil and climate, but is at a higher elevation than land now generally cultivated.

By an act passed in 1890, nine unassigned lands, which had been claimed by the Government under a ruling by the supreme court in a parallel case, were transferred to the commissioners of Crown lands. These had been included among the Government lands in the estimate of 1890.

No. 4.—Summary for the Crown lands for 1893.
Islands. Districts. Areas.
Hawaii Hilo 256,939
Hamakua 18,864
Kohala 57,680
Kona 2,000
Puna 66,000
Kau 187,990
Total for Hawaii 589,473
Maui Lahaina 2,084
Olowalu 17,040
Kula 16,283
Hana 610
Koolau 17,408
Kahakuloa 10,523
Kaanapali 4,300
Total for Maui 68,248
Molokai 21,383
Lanai 17,370
Oahu Kona 5,581
Koolaupoko 9,958
Koolauloa 6,672
Waianae and Ewa 41,967
Total for Oahu 64,178
Kauai 154,638
Total area of Crown lands 915,288

E. and O. E.

W. D. Alexander,
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No. 5.—Summary of the lands of the estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop.*
Islands. Districts. Areas.
Hawaii Hilo 5,843
Hamakua 8,014
Kohala 3,000
North Kona 153,290
South Kona 32,478
Kau 78,874
Puna 6,790
Total for Hawaii 288,289
Total for Maui 6,434
Total for Molokai 52,722
Total for Oahu 60,748
Total for Kauai 4,636
Grand total 412,829

The annual rents of the estate at the present time amount to about $50,000, and are increasing.

E. and O. E.

W. D. Alexander,
Survey or-General.
No. 6.—Crown lands available for lease, sale, or homestead.
Island. District. Name of tract. Area. Remarks.
Hawaii Kona Puuwaawaa (about) 35,000 Very rocky and dry grazing.
Haleohiu 1,000 Rocky and dry grazing.
Waiaha 200 Do.
Puaa 859 Do.
Onouli 367 Do.
Puna Olaa 47,000 Good agricultural land.
Waiakolea 300 Rocky and dry grazing.
Kaimu (about) 2,000 Do.
Hamakua Waimanu (about) 5,000 Leap Valley.
Oahu Koolau { Makawai } 1,200 Kula Land.
Ewa Pouhala 43 Do.
Molokai Malapue (about) 1,200 Rocky and dry grazing.
Total 94,169
Theo. C. Porter,
Minister of Finance.

[Page 1075]
No. 7.—Monthly pay roll of the Provisional Government—summary by nationality.
No. Nationality. Amount. Per cent in number.
459 Hawaiians $18,631.00 52.34
205 Americans (including 77 school teachers) 18,367.49 23.38
110 British (including 37 school teachers) 9,148.74 12.54
19 Germans 1,371.33 2.17
27 Portuguese 866.63 3.08
13 Scandinavians 687.92 1.48
15 Japanese 762.60 1.71
7 Chinese 426.00 .80
3 South Sea Islanders 145.00 .34
1 Malay 60.00 .11
1 Russian 50.00 .11
17 Unclassified 631.66 1.94
877 Total 51,148.37 100.00

Note.—The above is the monthly pay roll of the entire civil service, except the salaries of the cabinet ministers and the pay of the police. The appropriation for the pay of the police is at the rate of nearly 6,750 per month, and the members of the force are nearly all native Hawaiians, Should they be $dded to the above statement the Hawaiians will be found to hold at least two-thirds of the salaried positions under the Government. Should day-laborers be taken into account, the percentage of Hawaiians in the Government employ would be still further increased.

Theo. C. Porter,
Minister of Finance.

  1. Mr. Alexander now estimates the Bishop estate at 420,000 acres.— F. C. P.