List of papers with synopses of their contents

argentine republic.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
204 Mr. Hanna to Mr. Bayard 1889. Feb. 27 Immigration to the Argentine Republic from 1857 to 1888: Statement of the percentage of nationalities of immigrants; intention of the Government to limit immigration; hardship and embarrassment of indigent immigrants; misleading information concerning public lands, and operations of speculators; inducements to immigration, and employment offered immigrants by a private land-owning corporation. 1
219 Mr. Hanna to Mr. Blaine Apr. 7 Immigration to the Argentine Republic from England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and Germany: Its influence on agricultural development; Government aid to immigration by payment of passage money; statement of amounts; subsistence and transportation afforded immigrants by Government after their arrival in the country. 2
222 Same to same Apr. 11 Steam-ship facilities: Necessity for ships flying the flag of the United States; great volume of European immigration to the Rio de la Plata; rare appearance of the United States flag on vessels in port at Buenos Ayres. 3
229 Same to same Apr. 30 Trade with Europe: Great volume of it; editorial article from the Buenos Ayres Standard by Mr. Mulhall, the Argentine statistician, on trade with England inclosed; Argentine exportation of corn and wheat to European markets; tabular statements of trade with Germany, Italy, France, and Belgium inclosed. 4
233 Same to same May 18 Mail facilities between the United States and the Argentine Republic: Insufficient and inefficient; complaint by commercial community against the “Direct United States Mail Line”; remedies for the evil; delay of mails at Rio. 6
235 Same to same May 20 Marriage laws: Delays and embarrassments among citizens of the United States in Argentine Republic; civil marriage law of April 1, 1889. inclosed. 7
262 Mr. Vilas to Mr. Blaine Aug. 12 Colonization: Indirect; of vacant lands by concessions of large tracts to colonization societies not satisfactory; projected law for the division of 750,000,000 acres in the territory of Chubut into small holdings for direct sale to agricultural families at low prices; probability that the project will receive legislative sanction. 16
278 Same to same Sept. 18 Public debt of the Argentine Republic: Difficulty encountered in making exact statement; tabular statement by Mr. Pedro Agote, president of National Public Credit Department, made for use at Paris Exposition, inclosed; increase of debt; chief factor in its growth the free banking law of November, 1887; working of the law described. 17
12 Mr. Pitkin to Mr. Blaine Nov. 20 Marriage laws: Reference to Mr. Hanna’s number 235 inclosed; new civil marriage law, involving certain repeals and amendments. 18
[Page XXXVIII]

austria-hungary.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
114 Mr. Lawton to Mr. Bayard 1889. Feb. 1 Death of the Crown Prince: Call of the minister at the office of foreign affairs, and delivery of the message of condolence from the President and people of the United States; succession to the crown. 20
115 Same to same Feb. 5 Death of the Crown Prince: Incloses Count Kalnoky’s acknowledgment by note to the minister. 20
121 Same to same Mar. 2 Banishment of Hugo Klamer from Austria-Hungary: A naturalized citizen of the United States, born in Austria; correspondence with foreign office, and police decree inclosed; a temporary suspension of sentence against Klamer asked for. 21
84 Mr. Blame to Mr. Lawton Mar. 22 Banishment of Hugo Klamer: Approval of the minister’s course, and direction to continue it by guarding the rights of Mr. Klamer. 23
128 Mr. Lawton to Mr. Blaine Apr. 13 Banishment of Hugo Klamer: Further correspondence with the foreign office inclosed; action on appeal for suspension of sentence against Klamer; re-assertion by the minister of the principle involved, and the construction given by United States to the treaty of 1870 on naturalization. 24
21 Mr. Adee to Mr. Grant Sept. 19 Complaint of Frank Xavier Fisher, a naturalized citizen of the United States, on account of arrest and imprisonment at Nolfurt, Austria; recitation of Mr. Fisher’s allegations; instruction to the minister to ask investigation by Austro-Hungarian Government; copy of Mr. Fisher’s complaint and of letter from the consul at St. Galle, inclosed. 25
25 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Grant Oct. 8 Banishment of Hugo Klamer: Reference to former correspondence; petition of Klamer and Consul-General Jüssen’s No. 301 inclosed, reporting his action; recitation of Klamer’s allegations and of the action of the Austro-Hungarian foreign office; provisions of the treaty of September 20 1870. 27
37 Mr. Grant to Mr. Blaine Oct. 10 Complaint of Frank Xavier Fisher: Incloses note to Count Kalnoky requesting thorough investigation of the facts in the case. 35
29 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Grant Oct. 28 Complaint of Frank Xavier Fisher: Approval of the minister’s action. 36
44 Mr. Grant to Mr. Blaine Nov. 27 Emigration: Swindles perpetrated upon the peasantry of Galicia and Hungary emigrating to the United States; incloses article from Tremden Blatt and two articles on the subject from the Vienna Weekly News. 36

correspondence with the legation of austria-hungary at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Bayard to the Chevalier de Tavera. 1889. Jan. 30 Death of the Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Rudolph: Instruction by cable to United States minister at Vienna instructing him to express condolence of the President and people of the United States to the Emperor and the nation of Austria-Hungary; Mr. Bayard’s personal sympathy expressed. 41
The Chevalier de Tavera to Mr. Bayard. Jan. 30 Death of the Crown Prince: Acknowledgment and thanks of the Chevalier de Tavera. 41
Count de Crenneville to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 2 Death of the Crown Prince: Expression of the gratitude of the Emperor, the Government, and the people of Austria-Hungary for message of condolence; incloses Count Kalnoky’s note on the subject to Count de Crenneville. 42
Mr. Bayard to the Chevalier de Tavera. Feb. 4 Death of the Crown Prince: Mr. Bayard’s acknowledgment and assurance that the President has been advised of the contents of Count Kalnoky’s note to Count de Crenneville. 42
Count de Crenneville to Mr. Wharton. Aug. 10 Emerich Haziel: His re-embarkation, as a contract laborer, by the collector at New York, on the steam-ship Trave, for Bremen; incloses letter of B. G. Ashley and four affidavits to show that Emerich Haziel is not a contract laborer; payment of his passage by George Haziel, his brother, amounting to $124.50, of which sum repayment is suggested. 42
Mr. Wharton to Count de Crenneville. Aug. 14 Emerich Haziel: The reference of the matter to the Secretary of the Treasury. 45
[Page XXXIX]

belgium.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Rives to Mr. Tree (telegram). 1888. Oct. 20 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino. Instruction to request his detention at Antwerp, upon application of authorities of the State of New York, until arrival of extradition papers charging forgery. 46
146 Same to same Oct. 24 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino; Recites telegram of same date that papers were forwarded; formal application to be made for his surrender upon charge of forgery in State of New York and as a fugitive from the justice of the United States, to Mr. Charles Heidelberg, as agent of this Government; warrant and authenticated papers will be sent to Mr. Heidelberg. 46
406 Mr. Tree to Mr. Bayard Oct. 31 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino: Mr. Tree has received telegrams, and reports his personal call upon the minister for foreign affairs of Belgium, and incloses copy of his note asking for Sambolino’s detention. Mr. Leopold Aban, director-general of Belgian department of foreign affairs, promises compliance with request for Retention of the criminal, but remarks that in doing so ho goes beyond the extradition treaty. Count d’Arschot’s proposition to the United States Government for additional clause providing for temporary arrests on information by telegraph. Mr. Tree asks for precise information as to Count d’Arschot’s proposition, and is promised an answer in writing; the answer inclosed; detention of Sambolino granted without hesitation. 46
409 Same to same Nov. 10 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino: Mr. Heidleberg’s call with papers in the case; speedy action asked of the Belgian minister for foreign affairs by note, copy of which is inclosed; Mr. Tree believes that Sambolino has been surrendered to Mr. Heidelberg, and that the latter sailed with the prisoner in charge on the 10th November. 49
417 Same to same Nov. 23 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino: Incloses copy of note from Belgian minister for foreign affairs giving formal notice of the surrender of Sambolino to Mr. Heidelberg on the steamer Westernland on November 10. 50
[Page XL]18 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Parkhurst. 1889. Jan. 28 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino: Observations of the Prince de Chimay, Belgian minister for foreign affairs, on the case, and upon the convention of June 30, 1882, as to feasibility of securing arrest of fugitive, upon telegraphic request, to be held for extradition pending arrival of papers by mail; refers to the case of two fugitives named Mandelius and Edelhausen; decision of the Secretary of State under section 5270, Revised Statutes ‘of the United States; decision of a judge in New York in conflict therewith; it does not appear from records of the Department how the case came before a New York judge; in the Department’s view these considerations are not material; the Department’s notice to Belgian minister in the case of Mandelius and Edelhausen, that issuance of preliminary certificates to obtain provisional arrest had been discontinued was after such application had been made by other Governments and refused; the issuance of such warrants not required by statute, but became a practice in consequence of an opinion of certain judges who disavowed jurisdiction in such cases until a requisition should be made upon the President and his authority obtained; in recent years a change of opinion in this respect has occurred and the President’s authority is not regarded as necessary; so the Department has, except in cases of express conventional obligation, abstained from issuing preliminary certificates or warrants; decision of Supreme Court in the case of George Benson alias M. R. Mayer, whose extradition was demanded by Mexico in 1886; recapitulation of the correspondence in the case; judgment of the Supreme Court quoted; this judgment settles the point that under section 5270, Revised Statutes, a fugitive from a country with which the United States has the necessary treaty may be arrested without the intervention of the President or proof of a requisition; it is believed that judical magistrates afford every facility in such cases; copies of correspondence in the Benson (Mayer) case inclosed. 50
22 Same to same Feb. 12 Extradition of Adolph Sambolino: Incloses copy of a letter from the district attorney at New York reporting that Sambolino has been convicted of forgery and sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor for ten years. 56

brazil.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
164 Mr. Armstrong to Mr. Bayard. 1888. Nov. 22 Brazilian Parliament, close of the, and speech from the throne: Copy of speech inclosed; the Emperor’s grateful acknowledgments to the people for their affection; Prince Jose, whose death is alluded to, was the third son of the Emperor’s youngest daughter (now dead), who married the Duke of Saxe-Coburg. 57
2 Mr. Adams to Mr. Blaine 1889. July 23 Attempted assassination of the Emperor: Reports the communication of the President’s telegraphic congratulations to the Emperor, on his escape, to the minister for foreign affairs by note, copy of which is inclosed. 58
4 Same to same Aug. 8 Attempted assassination of the Emperor: Incloses copy of reply of minister of foreign affairs to congratulatory note. 59
Same to same (telegram) Nov. 16 Revolution by army and navy reported. De position of the ministry and of the imperial dynasty. Republic declared—order maintained. 59
Same to same (telegram) Nov. 17 Revolution: Departure of imperial family. Government de facto with ministry established. Importance of acknowledgment by United States first. 60
Same to same (telegram) Nov. 19 Revolution: Foreign minister announces formation of Government. Treaties intact. Continuance of relations requested. 60
20 Same to same Nov. 19 Revolution: The revolution entirely unexpected by the Government or peopled Its accomplishment without bloodshed, riotous proceedings, or interruption of business. Events which led to the change. Refusal of the republicans to accept the results of the elections of August 31. The Emperor’s measures to secure the succession to Princess Isabel. Distrust of the army by the Emperor’s Government; formation of National Guard and transfer of regular troops to the Interior. Friday, November 15: Assemblage of troops, sailors, and officers of the navy, city police, and firemen, all armed on the great square in Rio and republic declared. Ministry arrested and deposed. Baron Hadaris, minister of marine, alone resists. He is wounded, but will probably recover. His service in the United States Navy during the southern rebellion. Formation of a provisional government by Marechal Deodoro, and issuance of a proclamation, copy of which is inclosed. Emperor summoned from Petropolis, on resignation of ministry at midnight, endeavors to form new ministry- He is made prisoner in the palace and the imperial family is ordered to leave Brazil in twenty-four hours. Steam-ship Alagôas placed at their service with iron frigate Riachudo as escort. Censorship of telegrams. Prohibition of cable communication for twelve hours—Saturday night until Sunday midday. Constitution promulgated on Sunday. Departure of imperial family on Sunday afternoon; United States Constitution and flag copied. Copies of Diario Official inclosed, containing decrees of provisional government. Settlement in money conferred on late Emperor, and his acceptance thereof regarded as an abdication. 60
[Page XLI] Mr. Blaine to Mr. Adams (telegram). Nov. 19 Maintenance of diplomatic relations with provisional government. 63
Mr. Adams to Mr. Blaine (telegram). Nov. 25 Recognition by Argentine Republic, Chili, and Uruguay. 63
21 Same to same Nov. 27 Revolution: Continuance of the minister’s report on guaranty to ex-Emperor by provisional government of continuance of his present income until meeting of new assembly, and grant of $500,000 offered and accepted. Decree confirming the grant inclosed. Proposal by diplomatic corps to make demonstration in behalf of the Emperor. Mr. Adams declines to participate; but calls alone at the palace where admittance was refused by guard. Monday, November 18, Rio quiet again. Names of the officers of the provisional ministry. Copy of circular from foreign office inclosed. Provisional government informed of Mr. Adams’s instructions to maintain diplomatic relations, and consul general of the United States advised and requested to notify consuls thereof. Copy of decree inclosed concerning the new national colors. Provisional government continues to perfect its organization; order continues meanwhile in the provinces. Removal of former presidents and appointment of others in the provinces; abolition of provincial assemblies. Many prominent men of affairs stand aloof. 63
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Adams (telegram). Nov. 30 Recognition of Brazilian Republic by the United States to be given on its establishment. 66
23 Mr. Adams to Mr. Blaine Dec. 6 Revolution: Continuance of Mr. Adams’s report on change of government Recognition of the Republic by Switzerland. France, and the Pope. Resumption of diplomatic relations by European powers. Abolition of requirement of passports for foreigners; Mr. Adams’s letter to Brazilian secretary of exterior relations inclosed by copy, together with copy of reply of that minister to notice of maintenance of diplomatic relations. Brazilian Government’s appreciation of the friendly attitude of the United States. Decree inclosed. Commission of four appointed to draught constitution. Arrival of the United States frigate Richmond at Rio, and her departure for Bahia on December 5. 66

correspondence with the legation of brazil at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Da Costa to Mr. Blaine. 1889. July 18 Attempted assassination of the Emperor; a Portuguese the criminal; the Emperor unhurt; the Portuguese arrested. 69
Mr. Wharton to Mr. Da Costa. July 20 Attempted assassination of the Emperor; President’s congratulations on Emperor’s escape telegraphed to our minister at Rio. 69
Mr. Valente to Mr. Blaine Nov. 23 Revolution: Brazil constituted a republic under the denomination of the United States of Brazil and the provisional government. Chief of the provisional government, Marshal Deodoro de Fonesca. The ministers’ names and titles. The new government will meet all engagements of the state. General satisfaction, and adherence of the provinces to the new political situation. Confirmation by the provisional government of Mr. Valente’s power as minister to the United States and delegate to the International American Congress, and also of the powers of Messrs. Lafayette and Mendonça on special mission as delegates. Copies of telegrams inclosed. Mr. Lafayette declines renewal of his powers. The powers of the Captains T. A. Cordovil Mauritz and Luis Felippe Saldanta da Gama as delegates to the maritime conference also renewed. 69
Same to same Nov. 24 Revolution: Encloses copy of telegram stating that all the provinces have signified their adherence to the republic and provisional government. Rapid organization of state governments. Extension of the franchise. Benediction of the bishop.
[Page XLII]

china.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
713 Mr. Denby to Mr. Bayard 1888. Oct. 1 Missionary troubles at Chi-Nan-Fu: Copy of Mr. Denby’s note of September 27 to the Tsung-li Yamen inclosed asking assistance in the settlement of the difficulties 72
721 Same to same Oct. 4 The T’ung Wen College: Under the superintendence of His Imperial Highness and others. Its American president; its courses of instruction; classification of students. The minister’s examination of the students. Rewards; degrees of official rank; promotion in the public service. Duties of students; allowances to them. Dr. J. Edkins’s translation of primers, which the Emperor is supposed to be studying. 73
723 Same to same Oct. 6 Missionary troubles at Chi-Nan-Fu: Incloses reply of the Yamen to Mr. Denby’s last note on the subject. The Yamen willing to aid the missionaries, but it does not issue positive orders. Advice to Mr. Reid. Substance of dispatch communicated to Mr. Reid. Little probability of a settlement. Shall the minister go to Chi-Nan-Fu himself, or send second secretary to confer with local authorities? If he is to go or send, he desires authority to draw for expenses. 74
737 Same to same Oct. 19 Marriage certificates and mixed marriages: Their issuance by diplomatic officers abroad; importance of such questions. The case of Mr. Thompson, a missionary of the American board, but a subject of Great Britain, who made a contract of marriage with Miss Vetter, a citizen of the United States. Mr. Thompson and Miss Vetter anxious for an immediate marriage. Requirements of British statutes as to residence and publication of banns before solemnization of marriage by a consul. Possibility of immediate marriage at British Legation. Complications in the case of Mr. Thompson and Miss Vetter, the question of validity arising by reason of their different nationalities. Mr. Denby advises ceremony at British legation, and later he advises prior ceremony at United States consulate. Circulars to American and British ministers on the subject. Mixed marriages between British and Swiss citizens in Paris declared null and void in Switzerland. Complication by lex loci. Marriage may be celebrated at British embassy if form of marriage valid in foreigner’s country has preceded, and representative of foreigner’s nation will recognize it as valid, then no certificate is required. Mr. Denby proposes to give such recognition, and in this way he regards the difficulty as settled. The lex loci limited by circular in its application by reason of polygamy. The effect upon it of the doctrine of extra-territoriality. Silence of United States Consular Regulations touching mixed marriages. The case in China. Necessity for instructions to ministers and consuls as to mixed marriages. 75
738 Same to same Oct. 20 Population of China: Estimate prepared by the imperial maritime customs. Inaccuracy of official censuses in China. 78
[Page XLIII]741 Same to same Oct. 23 Railway in China: Inspection by Viceroy Li, under orders to report to the Throne; the ceremony accompanying the inspection; success of the trial; an account of the proceedings recited from the Chinese Times; rate of speed attained; troops drawn up at stopping places; inspection of the colliery at Tong Shan; return to Tientsin; distances traversed; projected extension, of the road; the road as far as completed designed and constructed by Mr. C. W. Kinder, C. E.; the management” of the company in the hands of Mr. Ng Choy, a barrister of the English bar; rolling stock; performance of locomotives; one engine from America; noticeable adaptations of American improvements; “bogie-trucks” and “Janney” couplers and buffers; Westinghouse brakes; excellence of work in the road; provision against annual flood along the route; cost of the line. 79
757 Same to same Nov. 12 Marriage of the Emperor: Decrees inclosed wherely he has chosen an Empress and two secondary wives. 81
766 Same to same Nov. 26 Railway carriages: Six presented to Prince Chun for the Emperor’s use by M. Thevenet, chief of French syndicate in China; description of three elaborate carriages for the private use of Emperor, Empress, and high court officials; estimated cost 150,000 francs; projected trial of them; special engine to draw the carriages constructed for use on projected short line in the Imperial pleasure grounds. 82
375 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Denby Dec. 5 Marriage certificates, and mixed marriages: The case of Mr. Thompson and Miss Vetter; views of the Department upon the points raised by Mr. Denby in his number 737, of October 19, to which this is a reply. 82
376 Same to same Dec. 10 Claims against China by citizens of the United States; approval by the Department of Mr. Denby’s suggestion as to the advisability of obtaining from the Chinese Government a comprehensive adjustment of such claims. The Government of China would probably be prompted to act in a spirit of comity by way of reciprocating the attention paid by United States Government to claims of Chinese subjects in the United States; indemnity paid by United States for losses of Chinese’ at Bock Springs, Wyoming, and also for all other losses suffered by Chinese subjects in the United States. The latter provision inserted in the treaty which China failed to ratify. 85
771 Mr. Denby to Mr. Bayard Dec. 12 Catholic cathedral of North Peking consecrated with great pomp and ceremony; attendance of foreign ministers and their staffs, and of Chinese officials. General remarks on the Roman Catholic propaganda in China. Early missionaries; their checkered careers. Distribution of missionary work. The consecration of the new cathedral puts an end to a vexed question. When the allied forces took Peking in 1860 the French insisted upon the restoration of the original sites for buildings formerly occupied by Catholic churches, among them the old Psi T’ang, which stood on an eminence overlooking the imperial palace grounds for a hundred years. Chinese jealousy of lofty buildings led to a compromise, by which the old site was surrendered to the Emperor for 400,000 taels and a fine tract of ground in the imperial city, but on the plain; here the cathedral stands. Advantage to all religious sects in China derived from the settlement of the Question. 85
772 Same to same Dec. 18 Catholic cathedral: Measurements of cathedral and site; form; architecture; ornamentation; material; workmanship; cost and inscriptions; museum; printing and engraving office; clock. Incloses extract from the Chinese Times. 87
778 Same to same Dec. 29 Taxation: In Peking and other parts of China; development of present method; arrangement of districts; the tax upon arable land only; variation in the tax; the method of its assessment; no tax on houses or personal property in city of Peking; lekin tax on merchandise; transfer tax on real estate, red and white deeds; license fees. Military duty required of Chinese subjects outside of Peking. Source-of moneys expended on public account in Peking. The bulk of the people pay no taxes whatever, to which state of affairs the permanence of the Government and the tranquility of the people is due. 88
[Page XLIV]789 Mr. Denby to Mr. Bayard 1889. Jan. 9 Religions of China: Confucianism; Buddhism, and Taoism. The Buddhists the most numerous. Miraculous occurrences attending birth of Christ, Confucius, and Buddha compared. The founders of these religions accounted men, not gods. Chinese holidays. The “golden rule.” Perfection of the moral code of Confucius; Confucianism the religion of the state; scholarship and Confucianism identical; ancestral worship; sketch of Confucius and Buddha. Chinese belief in metempsychosis. Ceremonies. Numbers of Chinese gods. Description of Taoism. Chinese indifference to death. Superstitions. Obstructions to the work of foreign missionaries. The Catholics the pioneers. Well-filled Protestant churches. 90
790 Same to same Jan. 11 Emperor’s assumption of the Government; speculation as to consequences; age, education, and pedigree of the emperor; retirement of the emperor’s father, Prince Chun; the emperor’s brothers; Prince Kung and Prince Tun, commonly called the sixth and fifth prince, respectively; sketch of these princes. Position of the Empress Dowager. Foreign domination and western influence in China. Progress of China during the reign of the Empress Dowager; other internal improvements to come. 93
793 Same to same Jan. 18 Slandering foreigners in China: Copy of letter on the subject from the dean of the diplomatic corps to the Tsung-li Yãmen inclosed. An unusual method of treatment involved in the dean’s action. Superstitions regarding the practices of foreigners in China, such as the murdering of children, etc. Outbreaks at Tientsin and Seoul, Corea, in consequence. The means of Quieting such superstitions. 95
816 Same to same Feb. 6 Marriage certificates and mixed marriages: Mr. Denby’s reply to Department’s number 375, of December 5, on the subject. The special case of Mr. Thompson and Miss Vetter again referred to. They have decided not to marry. 97
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Denby (telegram). Feb. 25 Felicitations of the President on the Emperor’s marriage. 98
827 Mr. Denby to Mr. Bayard Feb. 25 Marriage of the Emperor: Incloses copy of the Yamen’s official announcement of the Emperor’s approaching nuptials, and Mr. Denby’s reply. 98
831 Same to same Feb. 28 The Empress Regent’s retirement near at hand: Brief review of her life and character. Events immediately preceding her assumption of government. A former effort to retire. The reconquest of Kansuh, Sungaria, Kuldja, and Kashgaria. The French and Chinese difficulty over Tonquin and Annam. Result of the war.’ Relations with England. Case of a British officer named Margary murdered in Yunnan. English occupation of Upper Burmah; stipulations thereupon. Surrender by England to China of Port Hamilton. Relations with Japan. Relations between China and the United States. Riots involving property and persons of foreigners in China’ deprecated by the Government. Development of the imperial maritime custom service, and lighting of the coast. Naval progress. Telegraph; mining; railroads; steamers on the rivers. Study of mathematics and the physical sciences, and revival of education in general. Western learning favored. Boys sent to the United States to be educated. Improvement and progress sketched; mainly due to will-power of the Empress. Her place in the affections of the people, and in history. 99
835 Same to same Mar. 4 Emperor’s assumption of government: Incloses official notice, by copy. Ceremonial observances by diplomatic corps. 101
837 Same to same Mar. 5 The Empress Regent: Her refusal to receive a petition and punishment of the Censor. Decree inclosed. 101
841 Mr. Denby to Mr. Blaine Mar. 8 Marriage of the Emperor: Foreigners not permitted by custom to participate in public ceremonies. Seclusion maintained at the residence of the bride. Her reported objections to the marriage. Incloses article from the North China Daily News. 102
[Page XLV]842 Same to same Mar. 8 Marriage of the Emperor: Incloses translation of the reply of Tsung-li Yâmen to the President’s felicitations. 105
845 Same to same Mar. 8 The Empress Regent: A dinner by the Tsung-li Yâmen to the diplomatic corps by her decree; an unusual affair; elaborate and picturesque; erection of special buildings; description of the ceremonies and speeches; copies of speeches inclosed. 105
849 Same to same Mar. 12 Steam-ship facilities in China: Abstract of a memorial to the throne submitted by the provisional judge of Kuangtung. 108
885 Same to same May 10 Missionary troubles at Chi Nan Fu: Copy of a note from Mr. Denby to the Tsung-li Yamen on the subject and translation of the reply inclosed; proposed journey of the minister or the second secretary to Chi-Nan Fu to attempt a settlement with local authorities. 108
908 Same to same June 10 Chinese in the commercial centers of the far East; vitality, perseverance, and colonizing qualities of the race; statistical statement; population and races in Hong Kong, Macao, Nagasaki, Kohé, Osaka, Yokohama, Manila, Saigon, Haiphong, Hanoi, Borneo, Labuan, Siam, Singapore Island, Malacca, Sungie Ujong, Selangor, Perak, Penang; Chinese gradually absorbing business to the exclusion of native and foreign traders; prospective objections to their presence in the far East; absorption by the Chinese of the Mongolians and Manchus. 110
967 Same to same Oct. 2 Temple of Heaven: Destroyed by fire; delivery of the officers in charge to the board of punishments; the fire caused by stroke of lightning; Chinese theocracy; everything ascribed to supernatural influences; religious rites; execution of the insane; date of the construction of the temple; description of the building; imperial decree inclosed. 111
999 Same to same Nov. 10 Cremation in China: The Chinese have five forms of burial, namely, water, wood, metal, earth, and fire; description of each form; cremation practiced chiefly only by Buddhist priests and lamas or by very poor persons; its introduction into China; cremation practiced in Japan; feeling against the custom; advantages of cremation; it is forbidden by statutes of the present dynasty. 113

correspondence with the legation of china at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Shu Cheon Pon to Mr. Bayard. 1888. Oct. 10 Exclusion of Chinese. Arrival of a number of Chinese laborers at San Francisco, some of whom are possessed of certificates of identity to return to the United States, others of whom desire transit through the United States, are refused permission to land by collector of customs, who avers that he has been instructed that such certificates are declared void; China’s contention that they should be permitted to land; a reference of the case to the Secretary of the Treasury requested, and instructions by telegraph. 115
Mr. Rives to Mr. Shu Cheon Pon. Oct. 18 Exclusion of Chinese: The matter referred to the Secretary of the Treasury, who is intrusted with the execution of statutes in relation to foreign immigration. Mandatory provisions of the act of October 1, 1888, prevent the landing of the laborers in question; letter of Secretary of the Treasury emoted: copy of law inclosed. 115
Mr. Rives to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon. Oct. 19 Chinese Indemnity: Approval by the President of the act of Congress making appropriation for all losses sustained by Chinese subjects in the United States at the hands of residents thereof; acts by which Chinese suffered can be in no wise imputed to the Government of the United States; the provisions for indemnity made from motives of humanity; the Secretary of State will pay the sum to the minister of China. 116
[Page XLVI] Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Bayard. Dec. 24 Chinese Indemnity: The Chinese minister has telegraphed to Peking for an imperial decree giving him authority to receive amount of indemnity. He will on receiving the decree propose a day for payment. 117
Same to same 1889. Jan. 3 Chinese Indemnity: The Chinese minister authorized by imperial telegraphic decree to receive the amount of indemnity; asks that a day be named for its payment. 117
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon. Jan. 5 Chinese Indemnity: The Chinese minister invited lo the Department of State to receive payment of the indemnity. 118
Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Bayard. Jan. 7 Chinese Indemnity: The Chinese minister will call at the Department, of State to receive payment of the indemnity. 118
Same to same Jan. 11 Chinese Indemnity: Receipt for the indemnity “paid out of humane consideration and without reference to the question of liability thereof.” 118
Same to same Jan. 18 Exclusion of Chinese: Refusal of steamers plying between Havana and New York in take on board Chinese subjects from Cuba to New York in transit to China or other countries by reason of the ruling of the United States customs authorities in the latter city under the act of October 1, 1888. Great inconvenience and hardship caused by the prohibition, which is claimed to be in violation of the treaty of 1880; the only modification made by treaty relates to immigration of Chinese laborers, and does not affect the right of transit. Violation of the treaty of 1880 by the act of October 1, 1880, not now considered, as these Chinese subjects have never been residents of the United States, and desire only transit through the country. Requests that the matter be invited to the attention of the Secretary of the Treasury. 119
Same to same Jan. 26 Exclusion of Chinese: Act of October 1, 1888, in relation to the prohibition of the coming of Chinese laborers into the United States in plain violation of the treaty of 1880. Quotations of the stipulations of articles I and II of that treaty. Power conferred on the Government of the United States only to regulate, limit, or suspend immigration, not to interfere with the free movements of Chinese subjects who have once legally become residents of the United States. An indefinite prohibition also a violation of the treaty which permits no such provision as supplementary to act of May 6, 1882, the treaty plain and easy to be understood. Ah examina ion of the circumstances under which it was made. An intimation given the minister in an interview with Mr. Bayard that the President would veto any legislation in violation of the treaty. A desire that the President intervene by a recommendation to Congress on the subject. 119
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon. Feb. 2 Exclusion of Chinese: Conclusion of the United States Government from review of correspondence that the act of exclusion was in consonance with expressed wishes of China; points out that the assurance as to the President’s veto said to have been given the Chinese minister by Mr. Bayard (see foregoing note) could not have been given, and that Mr. Chang Yen Hoon is under a misapprehension as to what was actually said in the interview through the interpreter; dictated report of the interview discloses no such assurance; incloses memorandum of interview with Mr. Shu Cheon Pon; Mr. Shu hoped the President would not approve the bill; such an assurance out of the power of Mr. Bayard to make good. 122
Mr. Shu Cheon Pon to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 7 Exclusion of Chinese: Chinese subjects in Cuba who desire transit through the United States not permitted to board steamer at Havana for New York; according to treaty stipulations these persons should be granted transit; requests that the attention of the Secretary of the Treasury be invited to the case. 123
[Page XLVII] Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Bayard (telegram). Feb. 16 Marriage of the Emperor: Will be celebrated February 28; Mr. Chang starts for Washington on the 20th, having been courteously entertained by United States consul-general at Havana. 124
Mr. Shu Cheon Pon to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 18 Exclusion of Chinese: Transit of Chinese subjects through the United States referred to the Secretary of the Treasury; desire to know if he has replied, expressing an opinion. 124
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Shu Cheon Pon. Feb. 21 Exclusion of Chinese: Absence of the Secretary of the Treasury has delayed reply to Mr. Shu’s note; the Secretary of the Treasury hesitates to decide the question involved in advance of an actual case; ruling of Mr. Frelinghuysen on the transit question of January 6 and February 2, 1883, referred to, and no reason for a change of that ruling perceived in the laws, either by Mr. Bayard or the Attorney-General. 124
Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 25 Exclusion of Chinese: Mr. Chang’s reply to Mr. Bayard’s note of February 2, in relation to the question of the President’s disposition to veto any act of Congress in violation of the treaty of 1880; incloses extract from memorandum of interview on the subject of Chinese exclusion, and discusses the causes of misapprehension as to the question of the veto and the question of China’s desire regarding exclusion of Chinese subjects by the United States. 125
Same to same Feb. 26 Exclusion of Chinese: The present obstacle to transit of Chinese subjects through the United States is the unwillingness of the shipping companies to take them on board ship; requests that collectors of customs at New York and New Orleans be instructed to notify such companies that former practice of permitting the transit will be continued. 129
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon. Feb. 28 Exclusion of Chinese: Mr. Bayard’s reply to Mr. Chang’s note of February 25 in relation to misunderstanding between them concerning the matter of the President’s veto and the wishes of China as to the exclusion of Chinese subjects by the United States; China’s refusal to ratify treaty; popular belief as to exterior influence thereto. 130
Same to same Mar. 2 Exclusion of Chinese: Transit of Chinese subjects through the United States not affected by any new orders; the status existing prior to passage of the “Scott bill” held to remain undisturbed: telegrams on the subject inclosed. 131
Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Blaine. Mar. 11 Marriage of the Emperor: Thanks of the Emperor to the President for the latter’s congratulations upon the event. 132
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon. Mar. 13 Marriage of the Emperor: The President’s satisfaction in the happiness and prosperity of China and its ruler. 132
Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Blaine. July 8 Exclusion of Chinese: Refers to Mr. Chang’s note of Januarys 26 on the subject of laws of Congress in violation of the treaty of 1880, and re-discusses the subject at length, and the action of Congress in relation to the exclusion of Chinese subjects immigrating to the United States, and those resident therein who desire liberty of absence and return. Refers to the position of the President at different times, and the views of Senators Sherman and Evarts. 132
Same to same July 10 Exclusion of Chinese: Incloses draught of a form of identification certificate proposed for adoption by Mr. Chang, which, if found conformable with requirements of act of July 5, 1884, will be submitted to the Tsung-li Yâmen for its consideration and adoption. 139
Mr. Wharton to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon. July 15 Exclusion of Chinese: Mr. Chang’s note of the 8th instant, in relation to act of Congress in contravention of treaty stipulations will receive the careful and prompt attention of the Department. 140
Same to same July 19 Exclusion of Chinese: Mr. Chang’s draught of a form of identification certificate has been submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for an expression of his opinion thereon. 140
[Page XLVIII] Mr. Chang Yen Hoon to Mr. Blaine (telegram). July 19 Exclusion of Chinese: Refusal of the customs officers at New Orleans to allow transit through the United States to twelve Chinese laborers landed at that port, and their detention in violation of treaty stipulations and existing customs regulations refers to previous correspondence, and to faithful observance by Chinese in transit of Treasury circular of January 23, 1883; asks prompt decision of the case. 141
Mr. Wharton to Mr. Chang Yen Hoon (telegram). July 20 Exclusion of Chinese: Mr. Chang’s telegram in relation to detention of twelve Chinese laborers in transit at New Orleans has been submitted for considerstion to the Secretary of the Treasury. 141
Same to same July 25 Exclusion of Chinese: The Secretary of the Treasury finds Mr. Chang’s draught of a form of identification certificate satisfactory. 141
Mr. Tsui Kwo Yin to Mr. Blaine. Oct. 16 Exclusion of Chinese: Asks to be informed as to whether any new legislative measures have been adopted in regard to transit of Chinese subjects through the territory of the United States. 142
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Tsui Kwo Yin. Oct. 18 Exclusion of Chinese: No new legislation on the subject of transit, of Chinese subjects through the United States has occurred. 142
Mr. Tsui Kwo Yin to Mr. Blaine. Nov. 5 Exclusion of Chinese: Refers to a new Treasury regulation requiring bond of $200 at the place of arrival from Chinese subjects in transit through United States territory, a copy of which is inclosed; Chinese subjects in Cuba who desire transit to China through the United States chiefly affected; declination of steam-ships and railroad companies to furnish such bonds; questions the authority by which the Treasury regulation was issued, and quotes opinions of the Attorney-General and Solicitor of the Treasury on the transit question; asks an investigation of the subject and a revocation of the requirement, and hopes for an early answer. 142
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Tsui Kwo Yin. Dec. 6 Exclusion of Chinese: Letter of the Secretary of the Treasury received, giving his reasons for the issuance of the new order requiring bond of Chinese subjects in transit through the United States; a modification of the order proposed by which transportation companies interested may give a general bond to secure guaranty of good faith and pledge of reasonable diligence on the part of companies engaged in transportation of Chinese subjects through the United States and prevent abuses of the transit privilege; incloses correspondence on the subject, including letters from Mr. Blaine, the Attorney-General, and the Secretary of the Treasury. 145
Mr. Tsui Kwo Yin to Mr. Blaine. Dec. 16 Exclusion of Chinese: No abuse of the transit privilege shown; modification of the Treasury regulation as to bonds does not remove the objection to that regulation; Chinese subjects can not give individual bonds of $200; effect of the regulation in default of such bonds; disregard by Congress of treaty stipulations; effect of the appearance of a similar disregard by Executive Departments of United States Government; refers again to Mr. Chang’s note of July 8 on the general subject of recent legist lation in contravention of treaty provisions, and asks for the views of the United States Government thereon. 149

denmark.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
259 Mr. Anderson to Mr. Bayard. 1888. Dec. 7 Claim of Carlos Butterfield against Denmark: A note from the Danish minister for foreign affairs signifying his willingness to sign convention for arbitration of the claim; the convention, duly signed, inclosed for consideration of the Senate. 151
[Page XLIX]130 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Anderson. June 6 Claim of Carlos Butterfield: Exchange of notifications of the convention for its settlement; formal invitation to arbitrator, Mr. Edmund Monson, the next step; the manner in which the invitation should be extended; either by a joint note or separate identic notes. Draught of such notes inclosed. 152
131 Same to same June 7 Claim of Carlos Butterfield: Danish representative at Athens having no diplomatic character; Mr. Anderson is authorized to sign joint note to Mr. Edmund Monson with Danish minister for foreign affairs or to write a separate note from Copenhagen; date of the receipt of notice defined. 154
311 Mr. Anderson to Mr. Blaine. July 1 Claim of Carlos Butterfield: Suggestion to Danish foreign office of joint note of invitation to Mr. Edmund Monson; Denmark’s preference for separate identic notes; correspondence on the subject inclosed, and also Mr. Anderson’s note of invitation to the arbitrator. 154
313 Same to same July 16 Claim of Carlos Butterfield: Sir Edmund Monson’s reply to Mr. Anderson’s invitation; copy inclosed; dissuasion with Danish minister of foreign affairs as to the value of a telegram as a formal acceptance of the invitation from Denmark. 156
315 Same to same July 18 Claim of Carlos Butterfield: Mr. Anderson’s note of thanks to Sir Edmund Monson for accepting the task of arbitrator inclosed; the same on the part of Denmark sent to Sir Edmund. 157
Sir Edmund Monson to Mr. Blaine. 1890. Jan. 22 Claim of Carlos Butterfield: Transmits his award in the case; will send duplicate award to the Danish Government. 158

france.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
720 Mr. McLane to Mr. Bayard. 1888. Dec. 19 Arbitration: Conference of members of British and French Parliaments, held in Paris, with purpose of securing peace by means of tribunals of arbitration; attitude of the United States towards the movement; character of the members of the French Chamber interested; copy of the resolutions of the conference inclosed. 161
419 Mr. Rives to Mr. McLane 1889. Jan. 7 Arbitration: Resolutions of the conference at Paris sent to the appropriate committees of Congress. 162
789 Mr. McLane to Mr. Blaine May 3 Arbitration: Copies of circular issued by the conference at Paris inclosed, with request from Mr. Passy of the French Chamber and his associates that the circular be communicated to those who are in favor of its object; moral support of the United States Government sought. 163
16 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Reid June 11 Hog products: Incloses copy of resolutions of the Chicago Board of Trade relative to the prohibition by Germany and France of the importation of American hog products; earnest remonstrance against the injustice of the prohibition; importance of present memorial; injurious effect of France’s insistence upon what is regarded as an unnecessary and unjust discrimination against the United States; healthfulness of American pork; magnitude of the question; no suggestions of retaliation on our part; the subject should be pressed upon the attention of the French Government. 164
21 Mr. Reid to Mr. Blaine June 28 Hog products: The present not an opportune moment for presenting the question to the French Government; the prohibition is not persisted in upon sanitary grounds; the government in favor of removing the prohibition, but cannot now, in view of existing complications, be expected to press the matter upon the Chambers; all attention engaged by the exhibition, General Boulanger’s trial, and the coming elections; suggests postponement of the subject until after the election of the new Chamber in the autumn. 166
[Page L]79 Mr. Reid to Mr. Blaine Oct. 19 Hog products: The French Government invited to inspect meats of that class in the Universal Exhibition; call of Mr. Reid and General Franklin upon Mr. Spuller; note verbale inclosed; Mr. Spuller favorably inclined, but there were difficulties in the way; the idea of protection to French producers; Mr. Spuller himself a free-trader, but the tendency of the new Chamber he thought was in the opposite direction; he will probably favor the free admission of American pork products. 166
94 Same to same Nov. 15 Passports: Application for a passport by Mr. Frank R. Blackinton, a resident of Paris since 1871, but who claims legal residence at North, Adams, Mass.; during his residence abroad he has frequently returned to the United States, but does not know when he will return there to live; at present he has no intention nor desire to do so; passport refused; many Americans in Europe in Mr. Blackinton’s position; result of refusing them passports; instructions requested. 167
76 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Reid Dec. 2 Passports: Application by Mr. Frank R. Blackinton; his birth; departure from the United States; residence abroad; visits to the United States; payment of taxes at North Adams; his domicile; his intentions; passports only for citizens of the United States; who are citizens; Mr. Blackinton’s status; favorable action on Mr. Blackinton’s application can not be directed. 168

germany.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
818 Mr. Coleman to Mr. Blaine. 1889. Sept. 16 Military service cases: Report on those arising between October 11, 1888, and September 16, 1889; inclosed favorable decisions of all but three; the exceptions: inherent rights of a State to expel foreigners when self-interest and public welfare dictate such a course; cause of the imposition of military fines. 70
16 Mr. Phelps to Mr. Blaine Oct. 10 Claim of Albert Bernhard: A paper found in the archives of the legation at Paris, showing Bernhard to have joined the “Ligue des Patriotes,” sent by Mr. Reid to Mr. Phelps; copy inclosed. 178
384 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Coleman. 1888. Nov. 21 Samoan Affairs: The German minister’s assurance that his Government desires to act in a spirit of friendliness and comity towards the United States in relation to Samoan affairs; German fleet ordered to return to Samoan waters; allegation of interference in affairs at Apia by United States vice consul; the Department uninformed as to instructions of the German fleet; its confidence in the disposition of the treaty powers to respect the choice of a king by the Samoan people; an alleged newspaper interview in the United States with the United States consul-general at Apia referred to and that officer’s disavowal of the sentiments there ascribed to him; departs confidence in his good will toward his colleagues and towards a settlement of the difficulties in Samoa; indifference of this Government as to what chief may be at the head of affairs; causes of complaint arising among consular officers at Apia to be taken up by their respective Governments on occasion. 179
[Page LI] Mr. Bayard to Count Von Arco-Valley. Nov. 21 Samoan affairs: Purport of conversation between Mr. Bayard and Count Von Arco-Valley communicated to United States minister at Berlin, and to be communicated to United States consul at Apia, with instructions to avert friction between the citizens of the two Governments; in case questions arise they are to be referred to respective Governments for decision; similar reports from Samoa received at Berlin and Washington; indifference of both Governments as to who shall he elected king; the hope expressed that Count Arco will recommend to his Government that its officials in Samoa be instructed to co-operate with those of the United States for the peaceable conduct of affairs, and the reference to the home Government of any cause of difference arising there, not possible of arrangement there. 180
Same to same Nov. 26 Samoan affairs: United States consul-general at Apia expected to leave San Francisco for his post about 15th of December, probably reaching Apia about the 1st of January; has German consular representative at Apia been instructed in accordance with the line of Mr. Bayard’s note to Count Arco, of November 21st instant? 181
699 Mr. Coleman to Mr. Bayard. Nov. 26 Samoan affairs: Transmits narrative of events in Samoa by a German long resident there; value of the paper. 181
710 Same to same Dec. 19 Samoan affairs: Response of Sir J. Ferguson, British under secretary of state for foreign affairs, to a question in Parliament by Mr. Mc-Arthur as to good faith of the British Government in relation to Samoan affairs; extract from the Voss’sche Zeitung, quoted; extract from the London Times on the subject inclosed; conclusion therefrom. 183
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Pendleton. (Telegram.) 1889 Jan. 5. Samoan affairs: Repeats substance of a telegram from the first lieutenant of the United States ship Nipsic of the landing of an armed force from German vessels and an engagement with Mataafa’s forces; result, Germans shelling native villages; instructs the minister to represent this to German minister for foreign affairs and report. 185
Mr. Bayard to Count von Arco Valley. Jan. 5. Samoan affairs: Communicates the substance of the telegram from the first lieutenant of the Nipsic and recites its communication to the United States minister at Berlin and the instruction thereupon, in relation to the engagement between the German armed force and Mataafa’s party, and the shelling of the native villages. 185
Mr. Pendleton to Mr. Bayard. (Telegram.) Jan. 7. Samoan affairs: Mr. Pendleton has been shown telegram from the German foreign office of January 7 to German minister at Washington for submission to Mr. Bayard; telegram, states that representations of the United States would not be answered in detail until full report from Samoa is received at Berlin; and that the men landed from one German ship only had been engaged in the fight. 186
Mr. Bayard to Count von Arco Valley. Jan. 12. Samoan affairs: The German minister’s communication of his Government’s statement of the engagement between Gorman forces and Mataafa’s party; cause of the landing of the German forces; attacked by Samoans under the leadership of Klein, an American citizen; complication arising therefrom; treaty rights to be respected; Germany asks the United States to join in restoring quiet; reference to former correspondence and conversation; the citizenship of Klein, who had no official relation to the United States Government nor authority from it; character of the instructions given United States officials in Samoa; relief from danger of American citizens there by the President’s order; effects of the conference at Washington on Samoan affairs, held in the summer of 1887; free election of their King by the Samoans agreed to by all three Governments; desire that such an election now be held; rear-Admiral Kimberly instructed to go to Apia with his flag-ship, the Trenton; confidence in him and in commanders of the other national vessels there, and that German officers will be instructed to assist in framing a plan of settlement of difficulties; clearness of the treaties on the subject; the views of this Government unchanged since January, 1888, and those of the German Government understood to be unaltered. 186
[Page LII] Prince Bismarck to Count von Arco Valley. Jan. 13 Samoan affairs: Landing of German naval forces; engagement with the natives, under the leadership of Klein, said to be an American; consequence of the conflict; contest to be continued with consideration for English and American interests; assistance of the United States requested; Germany will abide by agreements with the United States and Great Britain; communication to be read to Mr. Bayard and a copy left, with him. 188
Count von Arco Valley to Mr. Bayard. Jan. 15 Samoan affairs: Duty of the German consul at Apia of settling questions regarding the interests of foreigners in Samoa rendered difficult by the attitude of the officer in charge of American consulate and the commander of the American war vessel, who take part of Mataafa against Tamasese, who is recognized by Germany; evils of Mataafa’s rule suggested; his inability to brine guilty parties to justice. 189
Mr. Bayard to Count von Arco Valley. Jan. 18 Samoan affairs: Neutrality of both the consular and commanding naval officer of the United States at Apia as to native chiefs; enjoined by their Government to abstain from all recognitory action in relation to the de jure powers claimed by either chief; this Government regrets the conflict and its results, but must continue to maintain an attitude of neutrality in the belief that the best interests of all concerned would be served by permitting and assisting the natives to choose freely their own king; the objection to Tamasese comes from the majority of his own countrymen, who claim that he was never legally chosen king; his rule should not, therefore be insisted upon. 189
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Pendleton. (Telegram.) Jan. 31 Samoan affairs: Mr. Pendleton instructed to inform German Government that advices from Apia state that German consul had declared Germany to be at war with Mataafa and Samoa to be under martial law; substance of Prince Bismarck’s declaration on the subject recited; Germany must instruct German officials in Samoa not to interfere with American citizens there; Germany’s declaration of martial law not recognized by the United States. 191
Mr. Bayard to Count von Arco Valley. Jan. 31 Samoan affairs: Declaration of war and martial law by Germany in Samoa; Mr. Pendleton communicated with on the subject, and instructed to advise the German Government that the United States expects German officials in Samoa to abstain from all interference with American citizens and their property, and that Germany’s declaration of martial law can not be recognized by the United States. 191
Mr. Pendleton to Mr. Bayard. (Telegram.) Feb. 1 Samoan affairs: Declaration of martial law by the German consul at Apia contrary to his instructions; his action regretted and the consul rebuked; the German Government will adhere strictly to treaty status; this statement anticipates the representations Mr. Pendleton was instructed to make, and he accordingly withholds them. 192
Count von Arco Valley to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 1 Samoan affairs: Proclamation by commander of German squadron at Apia of martial law permissible under rules of international law; but Prince Bismarck, thinking that German military authority had gone too far, telegraphed to commander to withdraw that part of the order relating to foreigners; German consul at Apia, who had asked of Mataafa that the administration of the islands of Samoa be handed over to him, instructed to withdraw his demand immediately. 192
Mr. Bayard to Counter von Arco Valley. Feb. 1 Samoan affairs: Anticipation by the German foreign office of Mr. Pendleton’s instructions in relation to proclamation of martial law by the German consul at Anis. 192
[Page LIII] Prince Bismarck to Count von Arco Valley. Feb. 4 Samoan affairs: Necessities of the present situation in Samoa; duties of the three treaty powers to put an end to contention and bloodshed in the islands; resumption of consultation of 1887, of representatives of Germany, England, and the United States; proposition for such a consultation at Berlin; Germany’s neutrality in the islands and desire for permanent safety of commercial interests. 193
Mr. Bayard to Count von. Arco Valley. Feb. 5 Samoan affairs: Desire of the President to restore peace and order to the people of Samoa; acceptance of Germany’s proposal for a conference at Berlin by the three powers, based upon protocols of conference of 1887 and regarded as a resumption of that conference; its resumption should be expedited; a truce should be proclaimed in Samoa and further armed action prevented; there is no equality in a struggle between a scanty band of Samoans and the forces at Germany’s command; instructions to suspend belligerent action suggested; it is hoped they will not be delayed; the announcement of the conference will doubtless cause a cessation of hostilities; except as the conditions may be changed in Samoa by the free election of a king, affairs there should remain in statu quo pending the conference; with the hope that these suggestions will be fruitful, the Government of the United States will take steps at once to be properly represented at the conference; statements of the German consul in Samoa finding fault with Captain Leary, of the Nipsic, and Mr. Blacklock, United States consul there, must be classed as more hearsay evidence; the statements of the German consul will be brought to the attention of Captain Leary and Mr. Blacklock and their reply communicated; allowance should be made for excitement prevailing in Samoa. 194
Mr. Blaine to Messrs. Kasson, Phelps, and Bates. Apr. 11 Samoan affairs: Instructions as commissioners to the conference at Berlin; the general principles which will govern the opinions and control the decisions of the United States Governments; fuller instructions will be sent from time to time; character of the substance of the protocols of the first conference; the United States Government desires a speedy and amicable solution of all problems involved; it will maintain its equality of right in disposing of all questions and protect its own citizens wherever their lawful enterprise may carry them; the President hopes for a frank and friendly conference with satisfactory results to the powers and justice to the Samoan people; his confidence in the motives and purposes of the German Government; the present conference regarded as an adjourned meeting of the conference of 1887, and not as a new one; and the influential conditions then existing regarded as unchanged; Mr. Bayard’s note to Count Arco of February 5, 1889, referred to on this point; the scope and purpose of the present conference; effect in Samoa of the municipality convention of 1879, and the treaty of peace of July, 1881; the transactions of 1885 not now to be considered in detail; disavowal of irregular action of German and United States consuls of both Governments recited; quotations from former correspondence on the subject; agreement of the three treaty powers to send commissioners to Samoa to report upon the actual condition of affairs there, and their report referred to; these matters were fully discussed by the first session of the conference; events since the adjournment of the conference in July, 1887; declaration of “war” by Germany against “Malietoa, personally;” his deportation; these acts regarded as an abrupt breach of the joint relations of the treaty powers unreconcilable with the friendly language of Germany [Page LIV]prior to the meeting of the Conference; probable effect of the deportation of Malietoa; restoration of status quo must be firmly pressed; rejection of this proposition to be accepted only ad referendum; its possible postponement; restatement of the principles and purposes of the Conference of 1887, as to Samoan independence and equality of rights of the treaty powers; difference in conclusion of the parties to the conference; the German proposition of German supremacy of interest, as supported by Great Britain, and explained by the declaration of the German minister; objections by the Government of the United States; the President can not accept Germany’s plan for the appointment of a “mandatory” as satisfactory; effect of such a proceeding would be the ultimate supremacy of Germany in Samoa; the Government of the United States will protect the rights and interests of its citizens in the South Pacific; but has no desire to dominate, and every wish to develop a stable and just Government; troubles have arisen from the conduct of competing merchants and land speculators; danger of placing the Government of the islands practically in the hands of one of these competing interests; the interests of the United States in a naval station in the South Pacific; increase of American commerce there; this Government can not accept even temporary subordination there; the proposition as formulated by the respresentatives of the United States as to a plan of settlement of all the difficulties in Samoa; its points of weakness and its elements of strength considered; disposition of the President to give weighty consideration to whatever plan the conference may suggest; but it is the desire of the President (1) that the intervention of the three treaty powers in the Government of Samoa shall be only temporary and limited; (2) that such intervention shall be on terms of absolute equality; (3) that in any arrangement for the establishment of order too much importance can not be given to the adjustment of claims and titles to land (the land question discussed, and the value of an adjustment of titles and claims set forth) and (4) that the importation and sale of firearms and alcoholic liquors be prohibited or regulated; propositions beyond the scope of this instruction not to be considered by United States representatives; conditions under which Germany’s declaration of martial law in Samoa and subsequent course maybe referred to by the United States commissioners in the conference; immediate reference of conclusions reached to the Department; incloses protocols of the conference and Mr. Bates’s report to Mr. Bavard. 195
Mr. Blaine to the President. (Report.) 1890. Jan. 7 Samoan affairs: Report of the Secretary of State on the general act signed at Berlin, June 14, 1889. Resumption of the conference of 1887 set forth in correspondence sent to Congress by President Cleveland in February, 1889, and later, reasons were given by President Cleveland for leaving appointment of commissioners to the conference to the incoming administration. The commissioners named; recital of the powers and instructions in general. Five specific heads of instruction: 1. Restoration of the status quo. 2. Organization of a stable governmental system for the islands. 3. Adjustment of claims to and titles of lands. 4. Prohibition or regulation of the importation and sale of fire-arms and alcoholic liquors. 5. The position of the municipal administration of Apia left to the commissioners to decide at the conference, with reference to the promotion of peace and order by maintaining a neutral territory [Page LV]in and about Apia. The conference met at Berlin and held nine formal sittings, the results of which were embodied in the general act or protocol. Views of the powers declared as to, 1. Independence and neutrality of the islands of Samoa, peace and equal rights for foreign residents. 2. Modification of existing treaties, and assent of the Samoan government to the general act. 3. Supreme Court of Justice for Samoa. 4. Land titles. 5. Municipal administration of Apia. 6. Taxation and revenue in Samoa. 7. Restriction of traffic in firearms and intoxicants. The three points most difficult of agreement—discussion of the causes of difference. Incloses the general act and copy of a note from the German minister of June 29, 1889. 349

great britain.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
1049 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Phelps 1889. Jan. 23 The Bridgewater: An American vessel of that name seized and held by Canadian customs authorities at Shelburne, Nova Scotia; decision of the Canadian Government as to customs duties; note to Mr. Edwards unanswered; note to Mr. Herbert; Mr. Herbert’s reply; suit by the owner of the Bridgewater; Canadian Government unable to express an opinion as to the claim; opinion of the minister of justice; application for a leave to bring suit in exchequer court denied; intervention of this Government after discontinuance of the original suit; character of the case; instruction to bring the matter to the attention of Her Majesty’s Government; copy of Mr. Allen’s petition and of papers and correspondence in the case inclosed. 424
926 Mr. White to Mr. Bayard Feb. 20 Passports: Application of Herman Keller; refused a passport pending reference to the Department; birth-place, parentage, and citizenship; sworn statement inclosed; his residence; his intentions; his relations with America; passports issued to his father inclosed upon which he and his wife formerly secured passports; Mr. Keller’s request that they be returned. 444
928 Same to same Feb. 23 The Bridgewater; American vessel seized and held by Canadian authorities; copy of Mr. White’s note on the subject to Lord Salisbury, of February 20, inclosed. 446
1089 Mr. Bayard to Mr. White Mar. 1 Shipment of seamen on American vessels at St. Johns, N. B.: Provisions of the laws of the United States on the subject; requirements of the Canadian seaman’s act of 1876; practice in Canadian ports; unauthorized and illegal course of United States consul in certain cases; he is instructed to discontinue it; consequent complications and claim of Canadian shipping-master in the premises; the matter to be brought to the attention of Her Majesty’s Government; vessel’s right of internal government; the practice as to shipping seamen on foreign vessels in United States ports; copy of consul’s letter, with accompaniment, inclosed. 447
1092 Same to same Mar. 5 Passports: Application of Herman Keller; his birth, status, and intentions; not proper to issue a passport to him; papers inclosed in Mr. White’s number 926 returned, except Mr. Keller’s sworn application; his passport and his wife’s, issued formerly, should have the word “canceled” written across their faces. 419
966 Mr. White to Mr. Blaine Mar. 23 Shipment of seamen on American vessels in Canadian ports: The subject promptly brought to the attention of Her Majesty’s Government. 449
[Page LVI]25 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Lincoln June 25 Extradition of Thomas Barton: Examined at Philadelphia on a charge of forgery alleged to have been committed in England; the prisoner remanded hut finally surrendered; reasons for surrendering him; defective form of the certificate of the United States legation in London; to avoid similar difficulty in the future a blank form of certificate is inclosed. 450
31 Mr. Lincoln to Mr. Blaine July 10 Passport s: Application of Rudolph Ernest Brünnow; his father’s status; an account of the applicant; his residence abroad; his intentions; a letter from him to Mr. Lincoln inclosed by copy; similarity of the case to that of Rau; Mr. Lincoln’s conclusions and request for instructions. 450
36 Same to same July 11 Extradition of Thomas Barton: Form of certificate for future use at the legation in London in such cases; the certificate used in Barton’s case was the same as the form used for several years in extradition cases. 453
51 Same to same July 31 The Bridgewater: American vessel seized and held by Canadian authorities; statement by Mr. Allen of abandonment of the suit contradicted by Canadian Government; notice to Mr. Allen of the withdrawal of the opinion of the minister of justice; Sir James Fergusson’s note inclosed by copy with copy of memorandum by the Dominion Government. 453
68 Mr. Wharton to Mr. Lincoln. Aug. 26 Shipment of seamen on American vessels in Canadian ports; incloses copy of dispatch from the consul-general at Halifax relative to memorandum of Canadian customs department requiring a certificate from the shipping commissioner and to discrimination in pilot dues; copies of letters from the Treasury; instructions to press the subject upon the attention of her Maiesty’s Government. 457
70 Mr. Adee to Mr. Lincoln Aug. 31 Passports: Application of Rudolph E. Brünnow; the Department’s opinion is that Mr. Brünnow is not entitled to a passport; renunciation of American citizenship by his father during the applicant’s minority; status, residence, and movements of the applicant. 460
84 Mr. Lincoln to Mr. Blaine Sept. 19 Shipment of seamen on American vessels in Canadian ports and discrimination in pilot dues; Mr. Lincoln has addressed Lord Salisbury on the subject and incloses copy of the note. He has also pressed the subject upon the attention of Sir Thomas Saunderson in Lord Salisbury’s absence. 461
86 Same to same Sept. 24 Shipment of seamen on American vessels in Canadian ports and discrimination in pilot dues; incloses copy of a note from Sir Thomas Saunderson on the subject. 462
90 Same to same Sept. 27 Extradition cases: Blank form for sworn information in such cases to procure provisional warrant; practice of legation; lack of information as to steps taken in the United States in relation to certain extradition cases; suggests form in which State authorities should make application to the Department, in order to relieve the legation from its embarrassment. 462
98 Same to same Oct. 9 Extradition cases: Diplomatic duties in relation to; refers to the inclosure in his number 90; practice of State authorities to rely upon the legation in London; status of the message of the legation who furnishes the information for provisional warrants; embarrassment of the legation by negligence on the part of State officers; suggests police proceedings in extradition eases. 463
101 Same to same Oct. 16 Shipment of seamen on American vessels in Canadian ports, and discriminations in pilotage dues; incloses copy of a note from Sir T. V. Lister on the subject with extract from committee report of the Canadian privy council; cessation of the enforcement of the Seaman’s act directed. 464
103 Mr. Blame to Mr. Lincoln Oct. 22 Extradition cases: Incloses copies of the Department’s circular to governors of States and Territories on the subject. 466
[Page LVII]107 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Lincoln Oct. 29 Shipment of seamen on American vessels in Canadian ports, and discriminations in pilotage dues; gratification of the Department at the order for non-enforcement of the seaman’s act in Canada; Department does not doubt that the matter of pilotage dues will be satisfactorily settled. 467

correspondence with the legation of great britain at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Herbert 1888. Nov. 23 The Bridgewater: An American vessel seized and held by the Canadian authorities; refers to a note on the subject to Mr. Edwardes, dated June 22, 1888; Mr. Edwardes transmitted the note to his Government, but nothing has been heard in regard to the case since; admission by Canadian officials as to irregularity of proceedings against the Bridgewater led this Government to hope for a prompt and satisfactory adjustment of the claim; requests Mr. Herbert to bring the matter again to the attention of Her Maiesty’s Government. 467
Mr. Herbert to Mr. Bayard Nov. 24 The Bridgewater: Telegram by Mr. Herbert to Lord Salisbury; the reply stating that as the case is still pending in court the Canadian government is unable at present to express an opinion upon it. 467
Marquis of Salisbury to Mr. Edwardes. 1889. Mar. 7 Mosquito Reservation: Discusses Mr. Bayard’s views in regard to the position required of Great Britain by treaty stipulations, and the award of the Emperor of Austria in the matter of the free port at Greytown, and payment of the annuity to the Mosquito Indians; also upon the subject of the position of the United States Government, as not bound by the award of the arbitrator; object of the treaty of Managua; analogies cited by Mr. Bayard; Great Britain has no desire to assert anything in the nature of a protectorate over the Mosquito reserve. 468
Sir Julian Pauncefote to Mr. Blaine. May 22 Contract Laborers: Arrival of seven British subjects on the steam-ship Obdam, furnished with letters to some one in Texas from whom employment was to be secured; detention of the men on the ground that the letters were contracts; character of the men; action of the British consul-general in New York; urgency of the case. 470
Mr. Blaine to Sir Julian Pauncefote. May 22 Contract Laborers: The case of the seven British subjects who arrived on the Obdam; attention of the Secretary of the Treasury called to the matter, and a request made for their detention in New York until further investigation; orders accordingly issued by the Secretary of the Treasury by telegraph; Treasury circular on the importation of contract laborers. 470
Sir Julian Pauncefote to Mr. Blaine. June 1 Contract Laborers: The ease of the seven British subjects who arrived on the Obdam; order of the Secretary of the Treasury too late, the steam-ship having sailed on the return voyage with the men on board; views of the Department asked as to the status of these men under the contract labor law. 473
Same to same June 20 Extradition: Probable consequences of decision of Commissioner Edmunds at Philadelphia in the case of Thomas Barton, charged with forgery; form of certificate of authentication held to be defective; adoption of the form; a new form suggested; copy of old form inclosed. 474
Mr. Wharton to Sir Julian Pauncefote. July 2 Contract Laborers: The case of the seven British subjects on the Obdam; incloses letter of the Secretary of the Treasury reporting action of the authorities in the premises. 475
[Page LVIII] Sir Julian Pauncefote to Mr. Blaine. July 3 Contract laborers: The case of the seven British subjects on the Obdam; return of four of them to New York on the same steam-ship; again held in default of bonds by customs authorities; discretion of the collector his interpretation of the statute discussed; opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury requested; and lenient treatment of the men. 476
Mr. Wharton to Mr. Edwardes. July 22 Contract laborers: Case of the four men arriving a second time at New York on the Obdam; incloses copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury sustaining the action of the collector of the port. 477
Sir Julian Pauncefote to Mr. Blaine. Nov. 11 Moussa Bey: Incloses copy of dispatch from the British minister at Constantinople to the Marquis of Salisbury, stating that the United States legation has, in conjunction with the minister, been using its influence to bring Moussa Bey to trial; expresses acknowledgments of the British Government for the assistance of the United States chargé d affaires ad interim. 478
Mr. Blaine to Sir Julian Pauncefote. Nov. 15 Moussa Bey: Expresses the Department’s approval of the note of Mr. King; the United States chargé d affaires at Constantinople, urging the punishment of Moussa Bey, and also the hope that he may suffer the penalty of his outrages. 478

greece.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
168 Mr. Fearn to Mr. Blaine 1889. Feb. 20 Joint stock companies: Article I of the treaty between Greece and the United States not regarded by the former as applicable to joint stock companies and other associations; their legal status fixed by special agreement; cases of Great Britain and Austria-Hungary; the rights of such corporations in the United States related to Mr. Dragourius, who asks for an official declaration by the Government of the United States on the subject, and promises reciprocal action by, Greece; certificate asked for by Mr. Fearn; the certificates of Great Britain and Austria-Hungary described, and a copy of the former inclosed. 480
77 Mr. Adee to Mr. Fearn Sept. 19 Joint stock companies: Provisions of article I of the treaty between the United States and Greece in relation to joint stock companies; Mr Fearn’s dispatch on the subject submitted to the Attorney-General for an opinion as to whether or not the Department should instruct the minister to give the Hellenic Government an assurance in the form of a simple declaration of the status of such corporations in the United States; copy of the Attorney-General’s opinion inclosed; “No objection to the Department’s giving such instructions provided the assurance be given under the treaty and subject to the appropriate laws of the United States and the several States; a special agreement is not thought necessary; a proper precedent for the present case is to be found in the protocol of conferences and declarations concerning judicial procedure signed at Madrid, January 12, 1877; in this view nothing further than a protocol setting forth the desire for a reciprocal understanding on the subject would seem to be required as introductory to a declaration by the United States minister of the rights of joint stock companies in the United States, and a reciprocal declaration by the Greek minister for foreign affairs. 481
26 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Snowden 1890. Mar. 8 Aspersions by the United States consul-general at Cairo upon the methods of Greek merchants in the Levant and incidentally upon the Greek people, printed consular reports, No. 96, of August, 1888: Are altogether unnecessary and unjust; the publication, brought to the attention of Mr. Phelps, United States minister at London, who [Page LIX]gave assurance of the regret with which the United States Government regarded the publication; the Greek minister to the United States has not addressed the Government formally on the subject, nor has any representation in relation to it been made to the United States minister in Athens; the United States Government appreciates the. courtesy and delicacy of the Greek Government in refraining from official comment upon the deplorable utterances, and offers a sincere expression of regret that they should have been published through the oversight of a subordinate bureau of the Department of State; but if Mr. Cardwell, the consul-general at Cairo who made the report, were still in office, he could not be censured for using the language as published, since it was clearly privileged as between an agent and his principal; it is accordingly only for the publication of the utterances that the United States Government tenders its expression of regret, with the assurance of its cordial respect and friendship for Greece; this instruction may be read to the Greek minister for foreign affairs, and he may be told that copies will be sent to our legation at London and the consulate-general at Cairo for preservation on their files, and the instruction itself will appear in the published diplomatic correspondence of this Department. 483

hawaii.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
219 Mr. Merrill to Mr. Bayard 1888. Nov. 19 Cook’s Islands: Declaration of a British protectorate over the group by the British consul at Raratonga; copy of newspaper account of the consul’s action inclosed. 485

hayti.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
139 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Thompson. 1888. Dec. 10 The Haytien Republic, an American steamer seized by the Haytien authorities: Refers to former correspondence and incloses copy of a letter, with accompaniments, from the Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Navy asking for a naval force to be sent to Hayti to receive the steamer and to protect endangered American interests there; Mr. Preston’s note of the 28th of November contained a proposal to surrender the steamer to the United States for an adjudication by our courts of the question involved; the proposal declined; copies of correspondence inclosed to complete the history of the case on the legation files; Mr. Preston telegraphs that he will sign a protocol for the surrender of the steamer; the U. S. S. Galena will sail as ordered to receive the Haytien Republic, and the commander of the former will confer with Mr. Thompson as to the proper disposition of the steamer when released. 487
233 Mr. Thompson to Mr. Bayard Dec. 14 Blockade: Of the ports of St. Marc, Gonaíves, Port de Paix, and Capo Haytien provisionally declared, and the right of “changing ports “to the Grand Saline, the Mole St. Nicholas, and Fort Liberty suppressed. The authorities at Port au Prince who issue the decree have no control over the ports. Extent of territory covered by the decree. Injury to our commerce from the arbitrary actions of the authorities at Port au Prince; but the French bark Joinville departs from a prohibited port unmolested. Validity of blockade in Hayti discussed by Mr. Seward [Page LX]writing to Mr. Sullivan. Mr. Thompson suggests decisive action in the present case. The two factions in Hayti might close the Republic to the world by simple declarations under the present arrangement. Instructions asked for. Reports from the north of Hayti declare that peace and order reign there. Copy of the decree, translated, inclosed. 488
237 Same to same Dec. 20 The Haytien Republic: A crew under one Captain Williams arrived, on the Atlas steam-ship Arran, prepared to seize the Haytien Republic, for the purpose of taking her to New York, to be there turned over to the United States court for disposition; rumors on the subject; copy of Mr. Thompson’s note to the Haytian counselor for foreign affairs inclosed. 490
239 Same to same Dec. 24 The Haytien Republic: Arrival of the United States ships Galena and Yantic, of the North Atlantic Squadron, under command of Rear-Admiral Luce, at Port au Prince, prepared to tow the Haytien Republic out of that port; refusal of the Government to surrender the vessel; reconsideration of the refusal; her surrender by President Légitime and his ministers; their dissatisfaction with the determination of the case; purpose of the crew on the Arran to take the steamer to New York for a decision of the case by the United States court; indemnity claimed by Mr. Morse, the agent of the company; delivery of the vessel to him by Rear-Admiral Luce, interviews on the question of indemnity fruitless on account of the amount claimed; incloses copy of Mr. Thompson’s note to the minister of foreign affairs, and of Admiral Luce’s note to Mr. Morse. 491
240 Same to same Dec. 26 Blockade: Of the ports of Jacmel and Port do Paix, The decree not effective as to Jacmel, which, with all other southern ports of Hayti, remains open. 493
141 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Thompson 1889 Jan. 2 The Haytien Republic: Approval of Mr. Thompson’s course in sending note of protest against the projected removal of the vessel from Port au Prince. Purpose of the crew on the Atlas line steamer Arran reported in the United States just before the sailing of the Galena and Yantic. It was probably intended to seize the vessel and take her to a neutral port for condemnation as a lawful prize; avoidance of complications by the failure to carry the project out. 493
249 Mr. Thompson to Mr. Bayard Jan. 16 The Haytien Republic: The U. S. S. Ossipee leaves Port au Prince with the vessel in tow. en route for Kingston, Jamaica; the Galena sails for Key West. 494
156 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Thompson. Feb 27 Blockade of certain ports in Hayti. Decree concerning the ports of Cape Haytien, Gonaives, and St. Marc, dated October 15, 1888, from which date the authorities at Port au Prince have refused to clear or admit vessels under the American flag at those ports. The case with regard to Cape Haytien, the blockade not being effectively maintained, and for a time not even pretended by any exhibition of naval forces. The case with regard to the other ports. Seizure and release, with payment of indemnity, of the American schooner William Jones. Haytian vessels available for the blockade not present at blockaded ports nor able when near to enforce the decree. Entry and departure of certain vessels at Port de Paix, finding no blockading force. As to all live ports involved in the decree of blockade, it appears that the blockade was never effective nor valid, but intermittent, and at times altogether abandoned. Rules of international law on the subject of blockades. Mr. Seward’s contentions with other powers on the subject compared with the Haytian contention. Mr. Thompson instructed to invite the attention of the authorities at Port au Prince to the evidence in his possession as to the actual state of affairs in Haytian ports. The United States does not regard [Page LXI]a blockade as effective or valid unless it be maintained by a sufficient naval force; reference to the discussion of the question with Colombia in foreign relations for 1885, and the views there expressed now reiterated; Mr. Thompson instructed to notify the authorities at Port au Prince that the United States Government will in due course present demands for indemnity for losses sustained, or which may be sustained hereafter, by reason of their action in the premises. 494
306 Mr. Thompson to Mr. Blaine. Aug. 23 Abdication of General Légitime: He, together with the principal members of his cabinet, goes on board the French ship of war Kerguélen; entry of troops into Port au Prince and occupancy of the defenses; order restored and a feeling of security prevailing; General Hyppolite and the members of his cabinet expected to arrive; Mr. Thompson chosen as delegate to St. Marc, with power to make conditions; invites the Spanish consul to accompany him; the French minister and the British consul-general refuse to meet the army of the north on its entrance into the city; Mr. Thompson and the other members of the corps meet the troops. 497
307 Same to same Aug. 29 Abdication of General Légitime: Attack of La Coupe by the forces of General Hyppolite; its evacuation by the forces of General Légitime; convocation of the diplomatic corps at Port au Prince; the foreign representatives meet General Légitime at the palace; he announces his abdication; Mr. Thompson appointed to make arrangements with the forces of General Hyppolite for the preservation of peace and order; his attempt, accompanied by the Spanish consul, to reach La Coupe; they proceed to St. Marc and are received by General Hyppolite; Mr. Thompson invites Rear-Admiral Gherardi to Port au Prince; General Legitinie’s departure; entry of the troops; entry of General Hyppolite and its effect; prospect of prosperity under his administration; departure of the U. S. S. Kearsage: incloses copies of correspondence. 497
314 Same to same Oct. 11 Election of President: General Hyppolite elected by the national assembly of constituents for the term of seven years; he is so informed; effect of the election; a government vessel for the diplomatic corps to take them to Gonaives to attend the inaugural ceremonies. 501
5 Mr. Douglass to Mr. Blaine. Oct. 26 Inauguration of General Hyppolite as president: Character of the ceremony and its effect; the new president visits the largest cities; preparations for his reception at the capital; new uniforms for the troops; no visible serious opposition to the newly organized government; peace restored. 502
14 Same to same Nov. 18 Proclamation of amnesty to all political offenders issued by General Hyppolite; a copy inclosed. 502

correspondence with the legation of hayti at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston 1888. Dec. 4 The Haytien Republic: Surprise and serious concern expressed at the nature of Mr. Preston’s note on the subject of the seizure and expected release of the vessel; the question deferred by the Haytian authorities at Port au Prince to the Government of the United States; the language of Mr. Preston’s former note in evidence; reference to former action of the Department on the President’s decision; Mr. Preston’s last note does not indicate acceptance of the President’s decision; the Department does not regard delay or dilatory action on the case by the Haytian authorities as admissible. 503
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard Dec. 6 The Haytien Republic: Mr. Preston’s understanding of the agreement for the disposition of the vessel made by the Haytian minister for foreign [Page LXII]affairs and the United States minister resident at Port au Prince; quotations from the correspondence between them; charges that the United States demands the surrender of the vessel upon exparte documents which he has never seen; statement of the present status of the vessel and proposition that she be placed under guard of an United States war ship and taken to New York to be libeled by the Haytian Government in the United States district court there, without prejudice by her surrender; ho regards this as adequate and in conformity with the “reference” agreed to at Port au Prince; or the Government of Hayti will send the vessel to New York for the same purpose, with a prize crew if preferred; offers contradictory evidence in the case; Compton’s knowledge of the purpose of the troops on board the vessel; whereabouts of the vessel on the 17th of October, and Comp-ton’s knowledge of the blockade of the north; promulgation of laws in Hayti by publication in every district; other questions to be made the subject of a subsequent communication. 504
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston Dec. 8 The Haytien Republic: It is unnecessary to repeat the decision of the United States Government in the case as to the duty of the authorities at Port au Prince to restore the vessel promptly to her owners or their agents; reference to Mr. Preston’s statement that this Government decided the case on certain ex parte documents not communicated to him; papers transmitted and promised by him recited; other papers enumerated; he was fully and promptly advised both of the decision and the reasons upon which it rested; prompt and voluntary compliance with the terms of the decision by the authorities at Port au Prince is anticipated; the presence of United States vessels of war in Haytian waters will doubtless be welcome in view of the condition of affairs reported to exist in Hayti; his proposition to send the vessel to New York to be libeled by the Haytian Government is declined, and the President’s decision will be carried into effect; the courts alone decide what matters they shall hear; the executive branch of the Government has no power to confer or restrict their jurisdiction; purpose of the United States Government’s action in the case of the Haytien Republic is to assist in the restoration of order in Hnyti. 506
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard (telegram). Dec. 10 The Haytien Republic: Mr. Preston, being empowered to sign protocol for delivery of the vessel, will send a draught protocol and appear in person to sign. 508
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston (telegram). Dec. 10 The Haytien Republic: American minister at Port au Prince instructed to inform provisional authorities there of the President’s decision in the case of the vessel; nothing more than compliance therewith necessary. The Galena will sail to-morrow, and Mr. Preston may, if he desires, send his communications by her commander. 508
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard. Dec. 12 The Haytien Republic: Mr. Preston does not consider the questions of the case of this vessel as closed between the Department of State and the Haytian legation. Discrepancy regarding the proper interpretation of the arrangement concluded at Port au Prince on the 15th of November by the Haytian Government and the United States minister; quotes M. Magron, acting secretary for foreign affairs of Hayti, to Mr. Thompson and Mr. Thompson in reply. The two notes quoted constitute a synalagmatic contract; understanding of the Haytian Government that the matter had been fully discussed at Washington and documents fully communicated, and that if there were to be no [Page LXIII]amicable settlement, arbitration remained; Mr. Preston has communicated certain documents, but has received none; reference to Department’s note of November 28, and the allegation contained therein that the Haytien Republic could not have known of the blockade before her capture; the Haytian method of promulgating acts and decrees; Mr. Preston ready to prove that the vessel did know of the blockade; his view of his rights as to the question of fact involved; in this relation he refers to his note of December 6, written without knowledge of the decision; quotes Mr. Bayard’s note on the subject and the statement that the Department bad received a full report on the case by the captain of the U. S. S. Boston; no occasion for a formal protest now, but Mr. Preston declares the right of his Government as captor of the vessel to be still intact; rejection of his proposals submitted on the 6th December; quotes the Department’s reply; refers to the case of the William Jones; reserves his reply to a number of other questions raised in the correspondence relating to the blockade, which is fully recognized by Germany, England, France, and Spain, and which the United States Government itself has recognized in a note of October 29; ports held by the insurgents are only Cape Haytien, Port de Paix, Gonaives, and St. Marc; the other ports held by the established Government; General Légitime’s Government supported by more than a majority of the Constituent Assembly in session at the capital of Hayti; he is confident of success, which he hopes will not be retarded by foreign intervention. 508
Same to same 1889. Jan. 2 Election of President: General Légitime decreed elected for a term of seven years; copy of decree inclosed. 511
Same to same Jan. 2 Blockade: Closing of the ports of St. Marc, Les Gonaives, Port de Paib, and Cape Haytien; abolition of right of putting into the ports of La Grande Salin, Mole St. Nicolas, and Fort Liberty; copy of decree inclosed. 512
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston Jan. 4 Election of President, and blockade: The Department had received intelligence of the decrees relating to the two subjects, through its official channels, before the reception of Mr. Preston’s note. The United States consul at Cape Haytien has informed the Department of the organization of the Hyppolite provisional government; the United States therefore constrained to await the issue of events there. 512
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard Jan. 10 Election of President: Quotes Mr. Bayard’s note advising him of the election of General Hyppolite as provisional president, and of the appointment or councillors of state, and the consequent attitude of the United States Government. Mr. Preston can not comprehend, since there is no such office as the latter known to the constitution of Hayti, how the matter can modify “the attitude necessarily occupied by the United States.” There exists but one government in Hayti under the constituion, which is supported by the majority of the representatives elected. Who then are the individuals described as the provisional government by Mr. Bayard’s note? Their status defined. Quotes General Grant’s message of June 13, 1870, on the subject of an insurrection in Cuba, and argues that the principles there enunciated should now be maintained by the United States. Discusses the present attitude of the United States Government, and compares the present revolt in Hayti with former revolts of more significance. Ascribes the present condition of affairs in Hayti to a band of American speculators and revolted Haytians, with headquarters in New York, who are attempting to make money out of the present [Page LXIV]agitation, and expresses the confident conviction that the laws of the United States will strike, when occasion demands, for acts contrary to the principles of neutrality. 513
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard Jan. 25 Neutrality, violation of: By purchase and outfitting of vessels and shipment of arms and munitions of war from New York to the insurgents in Hayti; refers to his note of November 24th last; the Dominican consul assisting in the present operations one Nemours Auguste, agent of the Haytian rebellion, who has deposited a fund of $200,000 with two New York banking firms, namely, Jimenes, Hanstedt & Co., and Kunhardt & Co., who cover their purchase and shipments under the pretence of consignments to ports in San Domingo; gives the names of the vessels purchased in Boston and New York and so fitted out; believes that men are now being enlisted at New York for the land and naval forces of the insurgents; cites an extract from the case of the United States at Geneva, to prove that he is right in contending that these acts are a violation of the neutrality of the United States; states that the agents of the insurgents at New York boast publicly of having received encouragement from the Department, but this Mr. Preston does not believe; refers to the Department’s action in a similar case in 1883, in its vigorous steps to prevent a violation of the neutrality of the United States at Philadelphia and New York by Haytian insurgents; demands immediate action by the United States Government in the present case, and quotes the neutrality act and an extract from Department’s note of October 29, last, in support of his argument. 515
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston Jan. 28. Neutrality, violation of: Nothing is found in Mr. Preston’s note of the 25th instant to change the declarations of Department’s note of October 29 last. Mr. Preston’s citation from the latter note should not be dissociated from the context; the whole passage quoted. Copies of Mr. Preston’s note of the 25th instant, sent to the United States Attorney in Brooklyn and New York, with the request that they inquire into the outfitting of vessels and shipments of arms and munitions of war to Haytian insurgents. Proof of assertions necessary to set the machinery of the courts in motion. 520
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard (telegram). Feb. 4. Neutrality, violation of: Steam lighter Admiral at New York has on board armament for rebel steamer Madrid, part from Boston and part from New York. The armament is intended to be shipped on the Carondelet, the Madrid’s tender, or another vessel, for a neutral port, but in reality for Cape Haytien. Collector Magone is advised, and asks for instructions to be sent by Mr. Bavard. 521
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston Feb. 5. Neutrality, violation of: Repeats text of Mr. Preston’s telegram of the 4th instant in the case of the armament for the steamer Madrid. The intelligence has been communicated, as usual in such cases, to the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney-General for their action. Necessity for proof of the charges in such alleged violations of the neutrality act again brought to Mr. Preston’s attention, in order that the proper judicial machinery may be set in motion. 521
M. Preston to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 14. Neutrality, violation of: The steamer Carondelet, laden with munitions of war for Haytian insurgents, seized by the United States District Court at New York. The guilt of the steamer not satisfactorily proved, owing to the insufficiency of time allowed Mr. Preston to collect evidence. Argues that the neutral, that is, the United States Government should have taken the affair in hand and itself have made the investigation, and refers to the case of the Mary N. Hogan, tried in 1883, in support of his position. [Page LXV]Discusses the duties of neutrals, and complains that the United States Government has not met the obligations imposed upon it by the laws governing neutrals. Discusses the case of the steamer Madrid, bought and paid for by Nemours Auguste, agent of the Haytian rebels at New York. The steamer will probably sail on Saturday (the 16th instant). Asks that the collector of the port of New York may use his discretion to detain the Madrid provisionally, and that Mr. Magone be so instructed by the Secretary of State, and that instructions be sent also to the United States District Attorney. Mr. Preston will submit all the evidence in his possession to the United States officers of justice. Inclose copy of the testimony of Henry B. Kunhardt in the case of the Carnondelet and Madrid. 522
Same to same (telegram) Feb. 15 Neutrality, violation of: Latest information is that steamer Madrid will sail to-morrow; asks that collector of port of New York be immediately instructed to detain her. 526
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston (telegram). Feb. 15 Neutrality, violation of: A telegram has been sent to the collector of the port of New York in the case of the Madrid, instructing him to detain the vessel upon a certain contingency; text of telegram recited. 526
Mr. Preston to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 15 Alliance: States that an alliance was concluded a few weeks since between the Haytian rebels, under General Hyppolite, and the Government of the Dominican Republic, which alliance has been followed by acts of war on the part of San Domingo against Hayti, in consequence of which orders have been issued to Haytian forces to commence hostilities at once against the Dominicans; the orders will be executed without delay; asks United States to maintain a strict neutrality and to oppose departure of steamer Carondelet laden with armaments for other vessels, namely the Novelty, formerly the Mercedes, and the Madrid; asks also the detention of the Madrid; will keep the United States Government advised of events and will ask its mediation. 526
Same to same (telegram) Feb. 16 Neutrality, violation of: The steamer Madrid, now called the Conserva, to be cleared to-day; in view of evidence in Mr. Preston’s possession he asks that the vessel be detained. 527
Same to same (telegram) Feb. 18 Neutrality, violation of: The Madrid, now the Conserva, still in Gravesend Bay, harbor of New York; requests immediate orders for her detention. 527
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Preston (telegram). Feb. 18 Neutrality, violation of: In the cases of the Carondelet, at Newport News, and the Conserva, at New York, full opportunity has been given for application to judicial and customs authorities for investigation; the cases have been determined by those officials, and the Secretary of State does not perceive anything which would give him authority to overrule or ground to question their action in the premises. 527

japan.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
275 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Hubbard. 1889. Jan. 29 Testimonial: To certain inhabitants of the island of Tanegashima, Japan, for humane treatment of the survivors of the American bark Cashmere, abandoned near there in September, 1885; views of the Japanese authorities of the district; recommendation of the governor that the amount appropriated by Congress be used for educational and industrial purposes; views of Mr. Mutsu, Japanese minister at Washington; the President’s direction in the premises, that a school be established; assistance of Japanese officials desired in carrying out the project; a plan for the disbursement of the fund suggested; authority to draw for the fund through Messrs. Brown, Shipley & Co., of London; copies of correspondence inclosed. 529
[Page LXVI]545 Mr. Hubbard to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 5 Palace at Tokio: Reports the completion of the new imperial palace there and the removal of the emperor; description of the palace; its cost; it is visited by foreign residents on its completion. 535
547 Same to same Feb. 14 Constitution of Japan: Its promulgation by the emperor and the attendant ceremonies described; character and importance of the instrument; stability of the progressive feature of Japanese civilization; congratulations of the United States Government tendered to the emperor; the emperor’s gratification; article from the Japan Daily Mail inclosed. 535
548 Same to same Feb. 14 Assassination of the Japanese minister of education, Viscount Arinori Mori; character and fate of the assassin; sketch of Viscount Mori; incloses extract from the Japan Mail. 538
288 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Hubbard. Mar. 13 Assassination of Viscount Arinori Mori: The regret of the United States Government. Lack of political motive deprives the incident of significance. The condolence of this government should be suitably expressed by Mr. Hubbard to the Japanese minister for foreign affairs. 540
291 Same to same Mar. 15 Constitution of Japan: Interest of the people of the New World in the subject. Its undoubted results. 540
8 Mr. Swift to Mr. Blaine May 25 Testimonial to certain inhabitants of the Island of Tanegashima for relief of the crew of the American bark Cashmere. States that Mr. Swift is awaiting an intimation from the Japanese government of its final intention to receive and disburse the amount appropriated; he will then draw on the London bankers for the fund. The sum should be placed to his credit, it being at present to the credit of his predecessor. 541
32 Same to same July 23 Testimonial to certain inhabitants of the Island of Tanegashima. Incloses copy of a note from the Japanese minister for foreign affairs signifying the decision of his government as to the disposition of the fund. It is intended to divide the amount between the two villiages, for educational purposes. Mr. Swift has sent a draft for the amount to the minister for foreign affairs. Incloses copy of draft and note of transmittal, and copies of other correspondence on the subject. 541
56 Same to same Oct. 21 Assassination: Attempt to murder Count Okuma, Japanese minister for foreign affairs; states the result is in doubt and that the injuries inflicted are of a very serious nature; an account of the attempt; name of the assassin, who threw a dynamite bomb through the window of the minister’s carriage; effect of the news of the event; troops called out; suicide of the assassin, who is said to be a student of Chinese. 543
65 Same to same Nov. 8 Emigration: Sailing of 1,030 Coolie emigrants for Hawaii under contract to labor on sugar plantations there; remarks the Japan Mail; states that this is the second shipment of 1,000 during the present autumn. 545

correspondence with the legation of japan at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
545 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Mutsu 1889. Jan. 29 Testimonial: To certain inhabitants of the island of Tanegashima, Japan, for relief of shipwrecked crew of the American bark Cashmere; states that the President agrees with Mr. Mutsu’s suggestion that the whole amount appropriated by Congress be devoted to educational and industrial purposes for the benefit of the islanders in general, and Mr. Hubbard, at Tokio has been so instructed; expresses the gratification of the United States Government at this disposition of the fund. 545
Mr. Mutsu to Mr. Bayard Jan. 31 Testimonial: To islanders of Tanegashima; Mr. Mutsu has already informed his Government of the President’s decision concerning the fund, and has no doubt of its high appreciation of the disposition made of the amount. 546
[Page LXVII] Mr. Mutsu to Mr. Bayard Feb. 11 Constitution of Japan: Its proclamation by the Emperor; quotes official telegram announcing the fact. 546
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Mutsu Feb. 11 Constitution of Japan: Expresses the pleasure of the United States Government at the proclamation, and tenders congratulations upon the progress of Japan. 546
Mr. Mutsu to Mr. Bayard Feb. 14 Assassination: States that an official telegram has been received by him announcing the death of Viscount Arinori Mori, minister of education, from the effect of wounds by a religious fanatic. The crime has no connection with politics. 547
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Mutsu Feb 14 Assassination of Viscount Arinori Mori: The assassin’s state of mind deprives the incident of the most dangerous features. Expresses condolence at the loss of the minister. 547
Mr. Adee to Mr. Mutsu Mar. 12 Indemnity: Provision made for the payment of $15,000 to Japan for injury of Japanese subjects by explosion of shells from the U. S. S. Omaha. Payment to be arranged for at an early day. 547
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Mutsu Mar. 27 Indemnity: Check for $15,000 to be delivered to Mr. Mutsu on the 28th instant, on account of Japanese subjects injured by the explosions of shells from the U. S. S. Omaha. 548
Mr. Mutsu to Mr. Blaine Mar. 27 Indemnity: Mr. Mutsu will be gratified to receive the amount of the indemnity and to transmit it to his government. 548
Same to same Mar. 28 Indemnity: Acknowledgment of the receipt of $15,000 for injuries to Japanese subjects by explosion of shells from U. S. S. Omaha. 548
Same to same May 27 Indemnity: Announces the receipt of an instruction from the Japanese minister for foreign affairs in acknowlegdment of the sum of $15,000 appropriated by Congress on account of injuries to Japanese subjects by explosion of shells from U. S. S. Omaha, and expresses the gratification of the Japanese government at this evidence of the spirit of justice and good will so often displayed, toward Japan by the United States. 548
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Mutsu May 29 Indemnity: Expresses the Department’s gratification at the friendly sentiments expressed by Japan on receipt of the amount appropriated on account of injuries to Japanese subjects caused by the explosion of shells from the U. S. S. Omaha. 549

mexico.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
181 Mr. Bayard to Mr. White-house. 1888. Dec. 7 Claim of Mrs. Leon McLeod Baldwin: For the murder of her husband near Durango; no progress having been made in the matter since the 5th of June, 1888, it is proper again to make application for redress and to express to Señor Mariscal the earnest desire of this Government for a just, friendly, and prompt determination of the claim. 550
218 Mr. Whitehouse to Mr. Bayard. Dec. 18 Claim of Mrs. Leon McLeod Baldwin: Señor Mariscal’s attention recalled to the matter; states that Señor Mariscal had not received a full report of the case, but would call for it again from the local authorities, that he might judge impartially of the merits of the claim; Mr. Whitehouse cites neglect of the local authorities to afford protection, which neglect Señor Mariscal admits as having been possible. 550
Same to same 1889. Feb. 28 Progress in Mexico: Résumé of the policy and acts of the administration of President Diaz from December 1, 1884, to November 30, 1888. The peace enjoyed by Mexico for the last years regarded as the cause of the country’s prosperity and progress. Extracts from the résumé quoted. Relations with the United States; treaties of extradition and for the punishment of hostile Indians. Other treaties with other powers. [Page LXVIII]The Mexican postal service. Establishment of a sanitary board, and a microbiological laboratory. The drainage of the Valley of Mexico. Construction of model penitentiaries. Organization of an efficient police force. Asylums and charitable schools; foundling hospital, maternity hospital, and house of correction. The “lottery for public benefits.” The National Monte de Piedad (pawn shop). Public instruction. Study and preservation of ancient monuments and historical remains. National library. Railroads and telegraphs. Colonization. District boundary demarcations. Mineral riches and the mining code. Agriculture; wines. Water ways and water fronts. The national bank and financial affairs. Customs receipts, and modifications and improvements in the administration of customs. The army, the artillery school, and the arsenal. Surveys, maps, geographical, historical and botanical explorations. 551
280 Mr. Bragg to Mr. Blaine Mar. 23 Mexico and Mexican affairs: Incloses synopsis of a valuable work on the subject. 558
268 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Bragg May 16 Sanitary inspection for native and imported cattle: Incloses copy of a note to the Mexican minister at Washington urging the necessity for the adoption of such a system by Mexico. 561
8 Mr. Rayn to Mr. Blaine June 1 Sanitary inspection for native and imported cattle: Mr. Ryan’s presentation of the subject to the Mexican Government, unofficially. Views of Mr. Fernandez under secretary for public works. 561
17 Same to same June 10 Claim of Mrs. Leon McLeod Baldwin for the murder of her husband near Durango in August, 1887: States that nothing has been heard of the subject at the legation since Mr. Whitehouse called Mr. Mariscal’s attention to the subject on December 17, 1888. Mr. Ryan has deemed it his duty to renew solicitations for an adjustment of the claim; incloses copy of a note to Mr. Mariscal on the subject. 562
27 Same to same June 27 Imprisonment of Robert C. Work in Tamaulipas on a charge of homicide: Incloses copy of Mrs. Work’s letter to the press on the subject, and copy of a letter commenting thereon from A. W. Gifford, of St. Louis, Mo.; will send copies of the defendant’s case and of the evidence presented to the court when translation is completed. 563
30 Same to same June 30 Imprisonment of Robert C. Work: Incloses copies of the various papers relating to the case; states that the evidence and presentation of the case by the defendant’s attorney and the findings and sentences of the court, although not authenticated are doubtless correct, but that all the evidence apparently is not furnished; enough is submitted to show the exact nature of the offense charged and the issues made at the trials. It can not be assumed that the court of last resort will deny the defendant justice. Should Work be judged guilty finally, Mr. Ryan has asked for copy of the entire record for transmission to the Department. 565
27 Mr. Wharton to Mr. Ryan July 8 Claim of Shadrack White: The deputy sheriff of Maverick County, Tex., fired upon and wounded, while in discharge of his official duty, by Mexican soldiers in the town of Eagle Pass, Tex.; incloses copy of a letter from the governor of Texas and copy of another from Mr. J. A. Ware transmitting affidavits in favor of the claim, and refers to previous instruction for narration of the facts in the case. 591
30 Same to same July 12 Claim of Howard C. Walker for wrongful imprisonment and cruel treatment at Minatitlan, Vera Cruz: Refers to previous instruction and incloses copy of a further statement in relation to the case; instructs the minister, if no reply has been made to the former presentation of the claim, to invite the attention of the Mexican Government to it again, and ask for a statement of the conclusions of the authorities in the matter. 600
[Page LXIX]36 Mr. Wharton to Mr. Ryan July 18 Imprisonment of Robert C. Work: The papers relating to the case have been received and will be held under consideration. 601
47 Mr. Ryan to Mr. Blaine July 20 Imprisonment of Robert C. Work: Incloses copy of a letter from Mrs. Work, which explains itself. 601
48 Same to same July 22 Claim of Howard C. Walker: States that pursuant to instructions he has addressed a note on the subject to Mr. Mariscal. Incloses copy of the note. 602
61 Same to same Aug. 8 Imprisonment of Robert C. Work: Incloses copy of his letter to Mr. A. W. Gifford, who was president of the Linares Land and Mining Company, of which Mr. Work was superintendent, and copy of Mr. Gifford’s reply, with accompaniments, on the subject. 602
70 Mr. Ryan to Mr. Wharton Aug. 17 Claim of Shadrack White: States that he has addressed a note to Mr. Mariscal on the subject, and incloses copy; synopsis of the note; presence of a squad of Mexican soldiers on United States Territory, without the consent of the United States Government, for the purpose of kidnapping a deserter from the Mexican army; conduct of the soldiers on the legal interference of White, the deputy sheriff; the United States Government, assuming the truth of the alleged facts, has a right to expect full reparation from the Mexican Government. 605
110 Mr. Ryan to Mr. Blaine Sept. 13 Claim of Shadrack White: Incloses copy of a note from Mr. Mariscal on the subject, which states that a full report has not yet been received in relation to the occurrences at Eagle Pass, but that when it shall have been received Mr. Mariscal will be ready to confer with Mr. Ryan. 607
Mr. Whitehouse to Mr. Blaine (telegram). Oct. 8 Claim of Shadrack White: States that Mr. Mariscal informs him that the officers concerned in the attack upon Mr. White at Eagle Pass have been punished, and that Mr. Mariscal is ready to confer with him as to the indemnity to be offered to Mr. White. 608
103 Mr. Blaine to Mr. White-house. Oct. 9 Claim of Shadrack White: Mr. Whitehouse should inform Mr. Mariscal that Mr. Ryan will join him in conference in regard to the indemnity immediately on his return to his post, at such time as may be found mutually convenient. 608
139 Mr. Whitehouse to Mr. Blaine. Oct. 9 Claim of Shadrack White: Incloses copies of a note from Mr. Mariscal and the official documents in the case furnished by the military department of justice concerning the sentences imposed on the offenders at Eagle Pass; asks for instructions. 609
148 Same to same Oct. 20 Claim of Shadrack White: States that, pursuant to instructions, he has informed Mr. Mariscal that Mr. Ryan will confer with him immediately on his return, when convenient to both, in regard to the indemnity to be offered Mr. White; copy of note to Mr. Mariscal inclosed. 611
164 Same to same Nov. 15 Arrest: Of Captain Stilpen, of the American schooner Robert Ruff, at Coatzacoalcos, Mexico; states that the captain was arrested on his return voyage for aiding the escape from justice of one Patton, an American citizen who had boarded the vessel when some distance from port on a previous voyage; as the surrender was demanded 9 miles from land, the captain would appear to be justified; Mr. Whitehouse has left a memorandum of the facts in the case, so far as he knows them, with the request that it be given consideration; copies of papers inclosed. 611
166 Same to same Nov. 16 Arrest of Captain Stilpen, of the American schooner Robert Ruff: States that Mr. Mariscal said that he discountenanced a demand for Captain Stilpen’s extradition, but advised his arrest, as subsequently effected; Mr. White-house’s reply as to the illegality of the demand outside of Mexican waters, and the improbability of the captain’s knowing Patton to be a fugitive from justice when he came on board the vessel; Mr. Mariscal offers to telegraph in regard to the matter Mr. Whitehouse informs Mr. Mariscal that he await instructions. 613
[Page LXX]136 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Ryan Nov. 27 Arrest of Captain Stilpen, of the American schooner Robert Ruff: The facts in the case recited; failure of the officer who demanded Patton’s surrender to board the vessel; the Department is of opinion, upon the facts as stated, that there is no ground for Captain Stilpen’s detention, and that he should be set at liberty without delay; the Robert Ruff, being 9 miles from land, was not in the juristiction of Mexico, but was constructively a part of the territory of the United States, and the captain would have been justified in forcibly resisting the illegal demand made upon him; these views should be brought to the attention of Mr. Mariscal. 614

correspondence with the legation of mexico at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr. Romero to Mr. Bayard 1888. Nov. 12 Wingdams: In process of construction at Paso del Norte for the protection of the Mexican bank of the Rio Grande; purpose of the work having been misunderstood by some of the people of El Paso, Tex.; Mr. Romero sends inclosed copy of an unofficial letter on the subject from Don Ignacio Garfias, the engineer in charge. 615
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Romero Nov. 14 Wingdams: Desires a personal interview for the purpose of showing Mr. Romero certain correspondence on the subject. 616
Same to same Nov. 15 Wingdams: Complaints by people of El Paso, Tex., concerning the work in progress; states that he has suggested the appointment of an engineer officer by the Mexican government to join such an officer appointed by the Secretary of War of the United States in an investigation Of the work, and that he has learned that Mr. Romero has been instructed by telegraph to confer with him on the subject. 616
Mr. Romero to Mr. Bayard. Nov. 26 Extradition: Requests the extradition of Rafael Treviño, ex-revenue collector at Monterey, charged with embezzlement and who has fled from Mexico and taken refuge at Laredo, Tex. 617
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Romero Nov. 27 Extradition of Rafael Treviño: States that when the formalities prescribed by treaty and by the laws of the United States on the subject shall have been complied with, a warrant for the surrender of the fugitive will be granted. 617
Mr. Romero to Mr. Bayard Dec. 6 Wingdams: States that Mexico has named an engineer to join Don Ignacio Garfias and confer with Major Ernst, United States Army Engineers, regarding the questions raised by the works on the Rio Grande at Paso del Norte, and that the three engineers are together in that city. 617
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Romero. Dec. 7 Wingdams: Conference of engineers concerning the works at Paso del Norte; acknowledges receipt of Mr. Romero’s note of the 6th instant on the subject. 61
Mr. Romero to Mr. Bayard Dec. 8 Extradition Of Rafael Treviño: States that the Mexican Government considers it necessary only to ask extradition diplomatically, together with a presentation of the evidence of the commission of the crime to secure the extradition, and that if the President of the United States desires a judicial investigation he should apply to the proper courts, and not to the government asking the extradition. 618
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Romero. Dec. 11 Extradition of Rafael Treviño: Does not concur in the construction given the extradition treaty by the Mexican Government; with exception of frontier cases, the course of proceedings, under the treaty in point, is the same as that pursued by other governments under the laws for the delivery of fugitive criminals; refers to case of Marcus F. Mayer, December, 1886, in which the Department’s views were fully stated in detail, and finally accepted by Mexico. 619
[Page LXXI] Mr. Romero to Mr. Bayard. Jan. 17 Extradition of Rafael Treviño: Reiterates former argument as to what Mexico is required to do in the premises to secure the extradition; does not consider the laws of the United States binding upon Mexico; surrender can not be conditional where there is a treaty—the provisions of the treaty fix the method of demand and surrender; refers to the case of George Benson, and to the cases of Francisco G. Casanova and Francisco Querejasu; Mexico does not consider herself bound to apply to the courts for the arrest or surrender of the delinquent. 619
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Romero. Feb. 19 Extradition: Further discussion of Mr. Mariscal’s views respecting the execution of the extradition treaty between the United States and Mexico, as expressed in the pending case of Treviño; the Department dissents from Mr. Mariscal’s views; laws of the United States for extradition of criminals have been among the statutes since 1848, and they are operative under all extradition treaties alike; their meaning stated; a discussion of their necessity; compliance with their provisions not regarded as onerous by this Government, which observes similar laws in other countries without complaint; the statutes of the United States, as construed in the Benson case, are believed to afford an efficient and liberal method of procedure. 620
Same to same Mar. 1 Wingdams: Transmits copy of Major Ernst’s report on the works at Paso del Norte, giving results of the investigation and submitting protocols of his conferences with Señor Garfias, the Mexican engineer; insists that this Government may be furnished with the corresponding report of the Mexican engineer; no present occasion for further discussion of the subject, in view of its apparent subjection to the river boundary convention of November 12, 1884, and of immediate prospect of the satisfactory close of negotiations for an international boundary commission; assumes that the works will be suspended until a harmonious decision can be reached. 621
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Romero May 13 Cattle: Sanitary regulations concerning cattle in Mexico; states that he is informed that Mexico is without any live-stock sanitary laws; dangers of the introduction of bovine diseases under the present circumstances, and of the spread of such diseases over the Mexican border into the United States; quarantine against Mexican cattle in Arizona; views of Mr. Colman on the subject, as recited by Mr. Rusk; they are still the views of the Department of Agriculture, which has succeeded in eradicating pleuro-pneumonia from all herds in the United States, except a few in Long Island, New York; the expense involved renders it absolutely necessary to take every precaution against a re-introduction of the disease into the United States; the adoption of sanitary regulations for live-stock is therefore urged upon Mexico. 636
Mr. Romero to Mr. Blaine May 13 Cattle: Sanitary regulations concerning cattle in Mexico; reviews Mr. Blaine’s note of the same date, refers to previous correspondence on the subject, and states that he has forwarded copy of Mr. Blaine’s note to his government with request for information, of which he will advise the Department when he receives a reply. 638
[Page LXXII]

the netherlands.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
41 Mr. Thayer to Mr. Blaine 1889. Aug. 26 Monument at Delftshaven to the memory of the “Pilgrim Fathers:” Refers to “Pilgrim Statue,” at Plymouth, Mass., to the interest awakened thereby, and to Holland’s relation to the event then commemorated; Delftshaven and its environs described, and the route of the Speedwell traced; suggests the propriety of a statue to the Pilgrims who left Holland on that vessel, and describes an available site at the port of Delft. 640
72 Same to same Nov. 14 Monument at Delftshaven to the memory of the “Pilgrim Fathers:” Relates substance of an interview with the minister for foreign affairs at The Hague on the subject; incloses copy of a note from the minister for foreign affairs in relation to the erection of such a monument, and copy of his reply thereto. 641

persia.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
305 Mr Pratt to Mr. Bayard 1888. Oct. 22 Financial: The relation of silver to the economy of the Persian Empire: lack of official statistics and difficulty of the task of acquiring information of value on the subject; silver the universal medium of exchange throughout the country; sources of supply for the metal; values, and profit and loss by exchange; amount annually coined; exchange on London; an English firm arranging to import silver in bars from India; could not this be done with greater advantage from the United States? 643
347 Mr. Pratt to Mr. Blaine 1889. Apr. 17 Church at Tabriz: American missionaries desire permission to build a new church, the present one being unsafe for further use; necessity for an order granting permission therefor from the Central Government at Teheran, on account of a general prohibition against the building of Christian churches; suggestion for the co-operation of the British and French ministers; petition of the American missionaries laid, before the first minister of the Shah; the result, an official order granting the desired permission; incloses copy of petition. 644
363 Same to same June 8 Assault upon Messrs. E. W. McDowell and John G. Wishard, American citizens traveling in Persia: The assault complained of was committed in Turkish Kurdistan, territory contiguous to Persia. Mr. Pratt, therefore, sent a note on the subject to the Turkish ambassador at Teheran; states further reason for that course, and incloses copy of complaint and copy of his note. 645
365 Same to same June 18 Assault upon Messrs. McDowell and Wishard: Reports action of the Turkish ambassador at Teheran in the case, and incloses copies of papers and correspondence in relation thereto; hopes that the affair may be satisfactorily settled without the necessity of intervention by United States Government. 646
383 Same to same Aug. 7 Hospital at Teheran: Mr. Pratt reports having laid the cornerstone of the American hospital at Teheran and describes the ceremony. 648
[Page LXXIII]

portugal.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
103 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Lewis 1889. Jan. 29 Claim of Messrs. A. Mudgett & Co., of New York, for the remission of a fine imposed at Delagoa Bay on the American bark Carrie Heckle: The vessel parted her chain at Port Natal and lost an anchor, and was driven into Delagoa Bay by stress of weather without a bill of health; the bill procured by telegraph; the fine of £15 imposed; discusses the situation and hopes that the fine will be remitted; copy of a letter of Messrs. Mudgett & Co., with accompaniments. 649
163 Mr. Lewis to Mr. Bayard Feb. 28 Claim of Messrs. A. Mudgett & Co. for remission of the fine imposed on the American bark Carrie Heckle: Incloses copies of notes to and from Señor Gomez, Portuguese minister for foreign affairs, on the subject. 650
7 Mr. Loring to Mr. Blaine Aug. 9 Claim of Messrs. A. Mudgett & Co.; Incloses copy of note from the minister for foreign affairs, stating that the fine will be returned to the captain of the Carrie Heckle or his representative. 651
11 Mr. Adee to Mr. Loring Aug. 30 Claim of Messrs. A. Mudgett & Co.: The owners have been notified of the remission of the fine and their direction regarding its repayment requested. 651
12 Same to same Sept. 10 Claim of Messrs. A. Mudgett & Co.: Mr. Loring requested to collect the amount of the fine and remit it to Messrs. Mudgett & Co., through the Department. 652
11 Mr. Loring to Mr. Blaine Oct. 15 Illness of the King, Luiz I: The King’s life in danger after a protracted illness; his character and position. 652
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Loring (telegram). Oct. 18 Illness of the King, Luiz I: Express President’s deep concern at his Majesty’s illness and his earnest hopes for recovery. 652
Same to same (telegram) Oct. 19 Illness of the King, Luiz I: Suitably express President’s sincere condolences upon his Majesty’s lamented death. 652
13 Mr. Loring to Mr. Blaine Oct. 19 Death of the King, Luiz I: Announces the death of the King; lament of the Portuguese people thereat; states that he has endeavored to perform all the required duties of his position on the occasion. 653
14 Same to same Oct. 21 Death of the King, Luiz I: Department’s message of condolence suitably communicated; incloses copy of his own note and copy of note announcing the death of Dom Luiz I and the accession of Dom Carlos to the throne; also copy of a proclamation of His Majesty Dom Carlos, and copy of a proclamation of the prime minister. 653

siam.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
80 Mr. Child to Mr. Blaine 1889. June 30 Riot: The lower part of the city of Bangkok held for three days by a party of rioters, two Chinese clans; fighting checked by soldiery; examination of prisoners and probable punishment of ringleaders; incloses clippings from the Bangkok Gazette. 656
82 Same to same July 30 Hospital: Donation of property for the establishment of a hospital by the American Presbyterian Mission at Ratburi; incloses note from the minister for foreign affairs announcing the signing of an agreement and the conveyance of the property. 657
[Page LXXIV]

spain.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
27 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Belmont. 1889. Feb. 20 Fines imposed on American vessels in Cuba and Porto Rico by Spanish colonial customs officials: Unjust and vexatious customs regulations; complaint of Messrs. James E. Ward & Co., of New York, agents of the New York and Cuba Mail Steam-ship Company; two different causes of complaint; reference to former correspondence on the subject; first complaint of Messrs. Ward & Co. is in relation to a fine imposed on the steamer Manhattan, at Matanzas, for shortage of cargo; technical objections of the Cuban authorities to a consideration of the case; history of the case; second complaint of Messrs. Ward & Co. is in regard to the steamer Cienfuegos for using the word “drugs” in the manifest, as too general a term in its significance; requirement of the Spanish law that the manifest, while conforming in all respects to the bills of lading, shall have in addition a minute description of the articles shipped, both in generic and specific terms; objection to such acquirement; former discussion of this subject, at Madrid in 1883, referred to; action of the Spanish Government at that time in the adoption of a more equitable rule; that rule does not appear to have been applied in the case of the Cienfuegos; discusses the complaint of the captain of that vessel; principle of reciprocity recognized in the existing modus vivendi; the wisdom of further extending that principle; instructs Mr. Belmont to present the matter to the attention of the Government at Madrid; quotes the draught articles 9 and 10 of Mr. Foster’s proposed treaty between the United States and Spain; as these propositions have received the full assent of the Spanish Government, there would appear to be no objection to their incorporation in the existing modus vivendi advisability of adding to them some provision for prompt and equitable disposition of cases on appeal, and for explanation of delinquency; incloses copies of correspondence. 658
31 Same to same Mar. 1 Fines imposed on American vessels in Cuba and Porto Rico by Spanish colonial customs officials: Refers to former instruction and particularly to the case of the fine imposed upon the steamer Cienfuegos. Incloses copy of a dispatch from the United States counsel at Santiago de Cuba, in relation to Captain Colton’s protest, and commenting upon the recent case of the schooner H. J. Cottrell. 677
12 Mr. Belmont to Mr. Blaine. April 10 Fines imposed on American vessels in Cuba: Incloses copies of notes to and from the legation at Madrid on the subject, and states that orders have been given to the customs authorities of the Island of Cuba to pay strict attention to the terms of the existing modus vivendi, and that the excess of tonnage dues collected from the schooner Uranus will be refunded. 678
13 Same to same April 10 Finesimposed on American vessels by Spanish colonial customs officials: Reports an interview with the minister of foreign affairs on the subject, and states that he left a memorandum at the foreign office of the articles proposed to be incorporated in the existing modus vivendi. Views of the minister; consultation of Spanish cabinet on the subject; objections to the proposed addition as involving too great a change in methods of administration. 680
39 Mr. Blaine to Mr Belmont. May 1 Fines imposed on American vessels in Cuba: Expresses gratification at the action of the Spanish Government in giving orders to make an end of discrimination in Cuba against American vessels. While only the case of the Uranus is mentioned in the note of the Marquis de la Vega for refund, the orders appear to be sufficiently broad to cover all similar cases. Mr. Belmont instructed to inquire as to this point. 681
[Page LXXV]8 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Palmer May 27 Tonnage dues exacted from the American brig J. W. Parker at Zaza, Cuba; Incloses copy of letter from John W. Kane, master of the vessel, in relation to his claim for remission of the excess collected. Department will be glad to hear what has been done in the matter, 681
4 Mr. Palmer to Mr. Blaine June 21 Tonnage dues exacted from the American brig J. W. Parker: States that nothing having been heard from the Spanish government on the subject, Mr. Palmer has sent a note to the minister of state requesting action on the cases. When a reply is received copy of the entire correspondence will be forwarded to the Department. 682
8 Same to same July 11 Claim of Calixto Lopez & Co: For remission of excess duties imposed at Havana on coffee. Mr. Palmer sent a note on the subject to the foreign office, and has received note from the minister for foreign affairs, anticipating Mr. Palmer’s note, and communicating a royal order for the return of the amount of excessive duty in question. Copies of correspondence inclosed. 682

switzerland.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
224 Mr. Winchester to Mr. Bayard. 1888. June 30 Naturalization treaty: Favorable aspect of the question; report Of the Swiss federal council on the subject; quotes the report of a commission on the “right of citizenship”; copy of the report of the commission sent under separate cover. An amendment to the Swiss constitution will be required as precedent to the negotiation of such a treaty, but the question is in much better shape than at any time heretofore. 685
144 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Winchester. July 26 Naturalization treaty: Expresses gratification at the disposition of the Swiss government to consider the question, and to bring about such an amendment of the municipal code as will enable it to negotiate such a convention. Mr. Winchester instructed to testify to the Swiss Government the interest of the United States Government on the subject. 686
236 Mr. Winchester to Mr. Bayard. Dec. 1 Death of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein. Announces the death and its cause; sketch of Mr. Hertenstein as a public man. Quiet current of the daily history of Switzerland; solicitude of the diplomatic corps at Berne during Mr. Hertenstein’s illness. Mr. Winchester’s course in the matter; states that Mr. Hammer, the vice-president, succeeds to the presidency; the federal assembly will elect a new president this month, whose term will begin on January 1. 1889. 686
152 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Winchester. Dec. 18 Death of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein: The news of his death and its cause was communicated to the Department by the Swiss minister at Washington. Mr. de Claperède’s note answered and a telegram of condolence sent to the chancellor of the Swiss Confederation at once; copies of correspondence inclosed. 687
241 Mr. Winchester to Mr. Bayard. Dec. 19 Death of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein: High appreciation of the message of condolence from the United States legation, and of the presence of the United States minister at the obsequies. 688
242 Same to same Dec. 22 Citizenship: Necessity for a naturalization treaty with Switzerland, and evils resulting from its absence. Detention of property by Switzerland from native born Switzers naturalized in the United States; contention of the Swiss Government in the premises. Appeal of the case of Carl Heinrich Weber, of Zurich, through the efforts of United States Consul Catlin at that place; copy of the judgment of the Swiss federal court in the case inclosed. 688
[Page LXXVI]157 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Winchester. Jan. 10 Citizenship: Expresses interest in the case of Carl Henirich Weber and gratification at the result of Mr. Catlin’s efforts in his behalf; hopes that the decision of the federal council in the case will tend to the conclusion of a naturalization treaty between the two governments. 691
254 Mr. Winchester to Mr. Bayard. Jan. 24 Emigration: Cable synopsis of the report of the Immigration Investigation Committee of the House of Representatives states that the report adduces evidence of the persistent shipping of criminals by Swiss officials from Switzerland to the United States; expresses his surprise at the statement and his ignorance of such conduct on the part of the officials mentioned; refers to former corrsepondence on the subject, showing an earnest desire on the part of Switzerland to suppress the shipping as emigrants of all objectionable classes; the statute in the case fully as adequate as that of any other country; believes the officials are disposed to enforce it in good faith; the Swiss not an emigrating people; character and value of those going to the United States; the Swiss Government does not desire to see the people emigrate; Switzerland is not overcrowded; much general comfort in the country, and but a small idle and vicious class; Switzerland’s obstruction to emigration by refusing to negotiate naturalization treaties; asks for copy of the committee’s report. 692
259 Same to same Feb. 1 International unions: The peculiar and advantageous position of the neutral state of Switzerland with regard to all such unions; genius of the Swiss for the administration of offices; the first step towards the establishment of international bureaus taken in 1863; meeting of a committee at Geneva to draw up a plan for the protection of the wounded in battle; the institution of national aid societies then establised; Geneva convention of August 22, 1864, signed by sixteen governments; at present it has been accepted by thirty-three States; the Society of the Geneva Red Cross; its purposes and works; its badge the Swiss flag with the colors reversed; Clara Barton; her services; her influence in securing the adherence of the United States Government to the treaty in 1882; The International Telegraph Union, 1865; an account of that union; the Postal Union, 1874; international conventions for the eradication of Phylloxera, and for the regulation of the transport of goods by railways; union for the protection of industrial property; the last international union was for the protection of literary and artistic property; advantages to Switzerland growing out of these unions; the arbitration of the Alabama Claims at Geneva; project for a permanent high court of arbitration; the principle dismissed. 693
280 Mr. Winchester to Mr. Blaine. Apr. 15 Emigration: Information from United States consul Gifford at Basle, of forty assisted emigrants, among whom is one criminal, about to leave Switzerland for the United States; Mr. Winchester’s report of a communication to the Swiss Government on the subject; note in reply, from the Swiss foreign office, quoted; no such complaint made heretofore during the past four years; prompt intervention of the Swiss authorities accorded when desired for the purpose of prohibiting undesirable persons from emigrating to the United States. 698
[Page LXXVII]

correspondence with the legation of switzerland at washington.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Mr de Claperède to Mr. Bayard. 1888. Nov. 24 Illness of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein: Quotes a telegram from Berne on the subject. 700
Mr. Bayard to Mr. de Claperède. Nov. 26 Illness of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein: Conveys the sympathy of the President of the United States, and his hone that Mr. Hertenstein is rapidly recovering. 700
Mr. de Claperède to Mr. Bayaid. Nov. 27 Death of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein: Announces the fact, and asks that it be communicated to the President of the United States. 700
Mr. Bayard to Mr. de Claperède. Nov. 28 Death of the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. Hertenstein: Has communicated by telegraph to chancellor of the Swiss Confederation the condolence of the people of the United States. 701
Mr. de Claperède to Mr. Blaine. 1889. May 17 Contract laborers: Five Swiss immigrants refused permission to land at Castle Garden upon suspicion of having been engaged by contract; the names of three given who were sent back from the United States before; the other two unknown; requests as full information as may be obtainable regarding the reasons for the forced return of the five persons to Europe; law of Switzerland prohibiting the shipment of emigrants to countries where the laws prevent their landing; important that the Swiss Government should be fully informed; the Swiss consul at New York should be informed of each case as it arises to facilitate the disposition of it. 701
Mr. Blaine to Mr. de Claperède. May 27 Contract laborers: Inquiries concerning the five Swiss contract laborers refused permission to land at Castle Garden have been made in the proper quarters and replies will be communicated to Mr. de Claperède when received. 702
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Kloss June 18 Contract laborers: Five Swiss immigrants refused permission to land at Castle Garden; Mr. de Claperède’s note on the subject will be considered by the board of commissioners of immigration at its next meeting. 702
Mr. Wharton to Mr. Kloss Aug. 5 Contract laborers: Case of the five Swiss immigrants refused permission to land; incloses copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury showing why permission to land was refused the five persons described; the Swiss consul will hereafter be advised of similar cases as they arise. 702
Mr. Kloss to Mr. Blaine Aug. 13 Contract laborers: Case of the five Swiss immigrants refused permission to land; asks that his thanks be conveyed to the Secretary of the Treasury for his interest in the case and his instructions in the premises. 703
Mr. Wharton to Mr. Kloss Aug. 19 Contract laborers: Case of the five Swiss immigrants refused permission to land; Mr. Kloss’s thanks have been communicated to the Secretary of the Treasury.

turkey.

No. From and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
147 Mr. Strauss to Mr. Bayard 1888. Dec. 3 Archaeological excavations: Petition of the trus tees of the University of Pennsylvania for permission to make such excavations in the vilayet of Bagdad; the desired permission finally obtained after some difficulty; the manner in which it was secured: Department’s attention invited to an error in translation of article 18 of the law on excavations; incloses copy of the iradé granting the permission. 705
151 Same to same Dec. 22 Bible tracts in Turkish: An order granting permission to print them secured. 706
[Page LXXVIII]156 Mr. Strauss to Mr. Bayard Jan. 10 Diplomas of physicians and surgeons: Repeats the substance of a report on the subject of licensing physicians and surgeons who have American diplomas to practice in the Turkish Empire by the council of administration of civil medicine; unless the applicant presents the diploma of a State medical institution he must undergo an examination before receiving his license; incloses correspondence and report on the subject. 707
161 Same to same Jan. 21 Bible in Turkish: Incloses copy of a note from the Porte giving permission to print it. 709
180 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Strauss Jan. 21 Petroleum, storage of at Smyrna: Complaint of Messrs. La Forme & Frothingham, of Boston, that the municipal authorities are considering a plan for the compulsory storage of all importations of refined petroleum there in a public warehouse at a heavy expense. States this to be a revival of a question finally settled on a previous occasion and refers to a former and similar complaint in 1882. Appearance of another attempt to establish a monopoly in the storage of petroleum. Permission having been granted private persons at Smyrna and other Turkish ports to erect private warehouses, there would appear to be no justification of the present plan. The question discussed, and Mr. Strauss instructed to bring the matter to the attention of the Turkish Government. Reference to former correspondence. Incloses copy of letter from Messrs. La Forme & Frothingham. 710
183 Same to same Jan. 31 Diplomas of physicians and surgeons: The minister can not certify officially to the standing of the American institutions issuing the diplomas, although the governors of States in the United States may do so. Copies of Mr. Strauss’s dispatch will be sent to the Secretary of the Interior and to the Commissioner of Education. 712
172 Mr. Strauss to Mr. Bayard. Feb. 8 Petroleum, storage of at Smyrna: Complaint of Messrs. La Forme & Frothingham; refers to the question as having arisen in 1888, and recites his action at that time in bringing it to the attention of the Turkish Government, and discussing it with the minister for foreign affairs; promised measures of that minister. Incloses copy of his note to the Porte on the subject. 712
186 Mr. Bayard to Mr. Strauss Feb. 13 Diplomas of physicians and surgeons: Thanks of the Secretary of the Interior and the Commissioner of Education for the information on the subject conveyed by Mr. Strauss’s dispatch, number 156, of January 10, 1889. 713
178 Mr. Strauss to Mr. Blaine Mar. 15 Schools of American missionaries in Turkey: Closing of several such schools by the authorities in the vilayet of Van, although it is stated that the managers had complied with all necessary regulations. Mr. Strauss has brought the matter to the attention of the Grand Vizier, who has telegraphed the authorities to permit the schools to re-open. Probable evasions by the managers of the schools. Incloses copy of a memorandum on the subject by the Rev. H. O. Dwight. 713
187 Same to same Mar. 28 Schools of American missionaries in Turkey: Measures taken by the mayor of Baalbek to close such schools in the towns of Ras-Baalbek, Tulia, Shelifa, Beit-Shama, Deir-ul Ghazal, Rusaa, and Burdei. One school already reported closed in the village of Istubigo, near. Latakia, in the vilayet of Beirut. The local authorities claim that they are acting under stringent orders from the governors-general of their respective provinces. Two grounds for their action given. Defense of the managers recited. Mr. Strauss’s conference on the subject with the Grand Vizier reported; views of the Grand Vizier and instructions given by him in the case, repeated to Mr. Bissinger, United States consul at Beirut; incloses copy of Mr. Bissinger’s [Page LXXIX]reply; probability that the anticipated closing of the schools and further interference with them will be prevented, and that the schools referred to in Mr. Bissinger’s letter as having been closed will be re-opened. 715
191 Same to same Apr. 20 Exclusion of Jews from Palestine: Memorial on the subject from the Jerushalaim Lodge of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith at Jerusalem. Action of the United States legation and of the English and French embassies has removed the restriction. Mr. Strauss has informed the memorialists that his action in the matter was in strict compliance with Department’s instructions. Copy of memorial inclosed. 716
194 Same to same May 10 Robert College: Application of the president of the college to the Ottoman Government for permission to erect additional buildings; additional buildings enumerated and described; specifications and plans filed; the necessary iradé of the Sultan issued and the formal papers granting the desired permission to be delivered to the college authorities within a few days. 717
195 Same to same May 18 Citizenship of George Meimar: Refusal of the Ottoman Government to recognize the American citizenship of Meimaraghlon Yorghi, naturalized under the name of George Meimar, and sued in Smyrna by an Ottoman subject; action of the United States at Smyrna, reported in Mr. Emmet’s dispatch to the consul-general (No. 90) of March 22, 1889, was approved by Mr. Strauss, and his reasons for such approval communicated to the Porte in reply to its request that he refrain from interference in the case; judgment against Meimar, who has no property and fears execution against the property of his father, who was co-defendant; should his American citizenship be recognized by the Ottoman Government the judgment would be vacated; Mr. Strauss, on a request for an answer to his note, informed of the Ottoman law prohibiting change of citizenship without permission of the Sultan, which permission the minister for foreign affairs alleges Meimar not to have obtained; the Ottoman Government has consented to a naturalization treaty with the United States; necessity for such a treaty; reference to former correspondence; awaits instructions; incloses copy of Consul Emmet’s dispatch. 718
196 Same to same May 27 Schools of American missionaries in Turkey: Cause of interference with such schools by the local authorities as stated by the missionaries; complaints of the missionaries set forth in a letter from Beirut, Syria, April 9, 1889, from Rev. Dr. H. H. Jessup and Rev. George A. Ford, copy of an extract of which is inclosed; Mr. Strauss’s observations confirm the statements of the letter; he has repeatedly brought the matter to the attention of the Porte; vizierial order issued, and copy sent to consul at Beirut; its execution will doubtless be delayed, but the missionaries will be afforded opportunity to defend themselves: copy of the order inclosed. 720
214 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Strauss May 29 Robert College: Expresses the Department’s gratification at the intelligence of the grant of permission to erect additional college buildings. 722
215 Same to same June 5 Citizenship of George Meimar: Expresses Department’s approval of Consul Emmet’s action in the case, and instructs Mr. Strauss to make energetic remonstrance against any action of the Porte tending to abridge his rights as an American citizen. 722
201 Mr. Strauss to Mr. Blaine June 13 Schools of American missionaries in Turkey: Those lately closed in the vilayet of Van are reported re-opened by a letter from the Rev. Henry O. Dwight, copy of which is inclosed. 722
217 Mr. Blaine to Mr. Strauss June 14 Schools of American missionaries in Turkey: Expresses Department’s congratulations to Mr. Strauss upon the success of his efforts in their behalf, and hopes for a more liberal cause of treatment in the future. 723
[Page LXXX]202 Mr. Strauss to Mr. Blame June 17 Johnstown flood: The Sultan’s sympathy with the sufferers from the recent flood at Johnstown and his desire to contribute a sum of money to their relief. 723
Mr. Strauss to Mr. Blaine (telegram). June 18 Johnstown flood: The Sultan donates £200 Turkish for the relief of the flood sufferers. 723
Mr. Blaine to Mr. Strauss (telegram). June 19 Johnstown flood: Expresses the grateful appreciation of the President and Government of the United States for the Sultan’s generous contribution to the relief of the sufferers from the flood. 724
33 Mr. King to Mr. Blaine Oct. 12 Military service of cavasses and dragomans employed by foreign consulates: Such persons are liable to service, but there is ambiguity in the text of the regulation requiring it; incloses copy of the Porte’s note on the subject of the reply of the British embassy and of his proposed note verbale on the subject. 724
34 Same to same Oct. 16 Murderous attack upon two American Missionaries, the Rev. Mr. Knapp and the Be v. Dr. Raynolds, by Moussa Bey: These outrages have become a subject of discussion in the English Parliament and much information in relation thereto may be found in a British publication upon the condition of the population in Asiatic Turkey; Moussa Bey caused to appear at Constantinople to answer charges; his arrival; his petition; witnesses against him; description of him; disposition of the case unsatisfactory; the British ambassador secures a second trial on the charges, which is not yet completed; desire of the missionaries that he be punished for his attack upon Mr. Knapp and Dr. Raynolds; Mr. King’s efforts to re-open the particular case; copies of Moussa Bey’s petition and of Mr. King’s note to the Porte on the subject inclosed. 725
27 Mr. Blaine to Mr. King Nov. 8 Murderous attack upon two American missionaries, Mr. Knapp and Dr. Raynolds, by Moussa Bey: Expresses the Department’s approval of his cause in re-opening the case against Mouse a Bey, and the hope that he may be justly punished. 728
29 Same to same Nov. 8 Military service of cavasses and dragomans employed by foreign consulates: Expresses the Department’s approval of his proposed note to the Porte on the subject, and the hope that the exemption sought, not being claimed as a right, may be conceded as a favor. 728