Code of laws of the Russian Empire, edition of 1857.

Vol. 15, the Penal Code, book third of crimes against the state.

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Art. 293. If any Russian subject in time of peace attacks with open force the inhabitants of neighboring or other states, and through that exposes his country to danger of rupture with a friendly power, or, at least, to a similar attack on the part of subjects of that power on Eussian territories, for this crime against national law, (the law of nations,) he himself and all participating in it of their own will with knowledge of the crime and of the unlawfulness of his undertaking are condemned:

To deprivation of all civil rights and to exile with hard labor in a fortress for a period of from 8 to 10 years; and if they are not exempt by law from corporal punishment, to punishment by whipping by the executioner in the measure fixed in Art. 21 of this code for the fifth degree of punishment of this kind with branding.

Complete collection of laws, (vol. xxxiii, p. 757, 1858, June 16, 33302,) of the measure of punishment for crimes against the security of powers friendly to Russia.

[571] If one of the crimes mentioned in Articles 275, 276, *277, 283, 248 and 287, of the penal code, shall be committed against a foreign state, with which, on the basis of treaties or published laws or decrees, there is established a reciprocity in this respect, or against the supreme power of that state, those guilty, provided there is added to this no crime meriting a greater punishment, are condemned:

To loss of all civil rights and privileges and of all personal and class distinctions, and to exile in the government of Tomsk or Tobolsk; or if they are not exempt from corporal punishment, to delivery over to the companies of disciplinary arrest of the civil authorities for a period of from one and one-half to two and one-half years, or of from one to one and one-half years.

When the crime has been committed with aggravating circumstances, then to loss of all rights and to exile as a colonist in Siberia, in the not most distant places.

Code of laws, &c, vol. xv, book iv, chap. vii.

Art. 367. Any one who, leaving his country, enters into the service of a foreign power, without the permission of the government, or becomes a subject of a foreign power, is liable for this breach of his duty of subjection and his oath of allegiance:

[572] *To loss of all civil rights and étérnal exile from the limits of the empire; or, in case of his voluntary return to Eussia, to exile in Siberia.