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Sources

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. Many of the sources consulted in the preparation of this volume have been declassified and are available for review at the National Archives and Records Administration.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All the Department’s indexed central files through July 1973 have been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland (Archives II). Many of the Department’s decentralized office (or lot) files covering the 1969-1976 period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have been transferred or are in the process of being transferred from the Department’s custody to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Nixon and other White House foreign policy records, including tape recordings of conversations with key U.S. and foreign officials. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries and the Nixon Presidential Materials Project at Archives II include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

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Access to the Nixon White House tape recordings is governed by the terms of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act (P.L. 93-526; 88 Stat. 1695) and an access agreement with the Office of Presidential Libraries of the National Archives and Records Administration and the Nixon estate. In February 1971 President Nixon initiated a voice activated taping system in the Oval Office of the White House and, subsequently, in the President’s Office in the Executive Office Building, Camp David, the Cabinet Room, and White House and Camp David telephones. The audiotapes include conversations of President Nixon with his Assistant for National Security Affairs Henry Kissinger, other White House aides, Secretary of State Rogers, other Cabinet officers, members of Congress, and key foreign officials. The clarity of the voices on the tape recordings is often very poor, but the editors make every effort to try to verify the accuracy of the conversations. Readers are urged to consult the recordings for a full appreciation of those aspects of the discussions that cannot be fully captured in a transcription, such as the speakers’ inflections and emphases that may convey nuances of meaning, as well as the larger context of the discussion.

Research for this volume was completed through special access to restricted documents at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project. While all the material printed in this volume has been declassified, some of it is extracted from still-classified documents. The Nixon Presidential Materials Staff is processing and declassifying many of the documents used in this volume, but they may not be available in their entirety at the time of publication.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, Volume III

In preparing this volume, the editor made extensive use of Presidential papers and other White House records at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project. The bulk of the foreign policy records at the Nixon Project are in the National Security Council Files. Within the National Security Council Files, the Agency, Country, and Subject Files proved to be of particular value. The editor also made use of the White House tapes recordings, especially for the high-level conversations concerning the formulation and implementation of the New Economic Policy. The editor selected for publication short extracts of three audiotapes of President Nixon’s discussions dealing with international monetary policy and identified other relevant conversations in footnotes and editorial notes.

The records of the Department of State were another important source. The Department’s central files contain the cable traffic recording U.S. economic relations with Japan and major West European countries; [Page XIII]memoranda of diplomatic conversations; and memoranda proposing action or providing information. Many important documents are found only in the Department’s lot files. The conference files maintained by the Executive Secretariat contain briefing materials as well as records of conversations. Documentation on initiatives that were not approved is often found only in desk or bureau files.

Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of the Treasury at the Washington National Records Center, particularly the records of the Secretaries of the Treasury, as well as Treasury Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries.

Almost all of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of the agencies mentioned, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration. In addition, John H. Taylor, Executive Director of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation, facilitated access to relevant tape recordings of the Nixon White House.

The following list identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume. The declassification and transfer to the National Archives of the Department of State records is in process, and many of these records are already available for public review at the National Archives. The declassification review of other records is going forward in accordance with the provisions of Executive Orders 12958 and 13142, under which all records over 25 years old, except file series exemptions requested by agencies and approved by the President, should be reviewed for declassification by 2003.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • Lot Files. These files may be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland, Record Group 59.
      • S/S Files: Lot 73 D 153
        • Daily and afternoon summaries of incoming and outgoing cables concerning crisis information and foreign policy, 1969-1971
      • S/S Files: Lot 82 D 126
        • National Security Council, Council on International Economic Policy, and Under Secretaries Committee Miscellaneous Files, 1969-1977
    • Memoranda of Interviews. Conducted by the Staff of the Office of the Historian.
      • C. Fred Bergsten, August 25, 1997
      • Richard N. Cooper, November 14, 1997
      • Viron P. Vaky, January 20, 1998
      • Helmut Sonnenfeldt, January 22, 1998
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
      • Subject-Numeric Indexed Central Files
        • E 1: General economic policy, plans
        • E 1 US: General U.S. economic policy and plans
        • FN 10: Foreign exchange
        • FN 10 FR, Foreign exchange, France
        • FN 10 IMF: Foreign exchange, IMF
        • FN 10 EEC: Foreign exchange, EEC
        • FN 10-1: Exchange rates
        • FN 12 GER W: Balance of payments, West Germany
        • FN 12 US: Balance of payments, U.S.
        • FN 13: Capital movements
        • FN 16 GATT: Revenue, taxation, GATT
        • FN 16 US: U.S. revenue and taxation
        • FN 17: Money, currency
        • FN 17 UK: Monetary policy, United Kingdom
        • FN 17 US: Money, currency, U.S.
        • FN 17-1: Monetary policy and reform
        • FN 19: Gold
        • POL UK-US: General policy between the U.K. and the U.S.
        • POL 7 US/VOLCKER: Visits, Meetings of Paul A. Volcker
      • Lot Files
        • E/CBA/REP Files: Lot 70 D 467, Current Economic Developments
          • Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Current Economic Developments for 1945-1969, maintained in the Bureau of Economic Affairs
        • S/S Files: Lot 71 D 175
          • National Security Council and Senior Review Group meetings, 1969-1970
        • S/S Files: Lot 72 D 220
          • Briefing books, fact books, President’s and Secretary’s visits and conference books, Secretary’s and Under Secretary’s appearances before Congressional committees, 1969-1971
        • S/S Files: Lot 73 D 288
          • Cabinet, National Security Council, National Security Council Under Secretaries, and Senior Review Group miscellaneous memoranda, 1969-1972
        • S/S Files: Lot 74 D 164
          • President’s evening reading items and Secretary-President luncheon meetings, 1964-1969, and Kissinger-Irwin meetings, 1970-1972
        • S/S Files: Lot 80 D 212
          • National Security Study Memoranda (NSSMs) and related papers, 1969-1976
        • S/S Files: Lot 81 D 309, NSC-U/SM
          • National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee study memoranda, 1969-1976
        • S/S Files: Lot 83 D 276
          • National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee memoranda, 1969-1977
        • S/S Files: Lot 83 D 305
          • National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDMs), 1969-1976
  • Nixon Presidential Materials Project
    • National Security Council Files
      • Agency Files
      • Back Channel Files
      • Country Files
      • Name Files
      • Presidential/HAK Memcons
      • President’s Trip Files
      • Subject Files
      • VIP Visits
    • Transitional Task Force Reports
    • White House Central Files
      • President’s Daily Diary
      • President’s Office Files
      • Federal Government Organizations
    • White House Special Files
      • Haldeman’s Notes
    • White House Tapes
  • National Security Council
    • Records of the National Security Council
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • Record Group 56, Records of the Department of the Treasury
      • Office of the Secretary of the Treasury: FRC 74 A 4
        • Secretary Connally’s Correspondence, 1971-1972
      • Office of the Secretary of the Treasury: FRC 80 A 1
        • Records of Secretary Shultz, 1972-1974
      • Office of the Secretary of the Treasury: FRC 74 A 7
        • Memoranda and Correspondence, 1966-1970
      • Office of the Secretary of the Treasury: FRC 74 A 17
        • Secretary’s Memoranda, 1971
      • Office of the Under Secretary of the Treasury:FRC 79 A 14
        • Files of Frederick L. Deming and Paul A. Volcker, 1963-1969
      • Office of the Under Secretary of the Treasury:FRC 79 A 15
        • Files of Under Secretary Volcker, 1969-1974
      • Office of International Monetary Affairs: FRC 77 A 68
        • Records of the Office of International Monetary Affairs, 1970-1975
      • Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs: FRC 83 A 26
        • Files of the Deputy to the Assistant Secretary, and Secretary of the International Monetary Group, 1947-1977
      • Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs: FRC 75 A 101
        • Records of the Deming Group, Advisory Committee on International Monetary Affairs (Dillon Committee), and Cabinet Committee on the Balance of Payments, 1963-1970
      • Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs: FRC 76 A 108
        • Records pertaining to the balance of payments, 1966-1971
      • Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs Central Files: FRC 86 A 24
        • Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Central Files and World Files, 1959-1979
      • Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs: FRC 86 A 30
        • Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Central Files and Volcker Group Files, 1969-1974
    • Record Group 286, Records of the Agency for International Development
      • AID Administrator Files: FRC 75 A 13
        • Executive Secretariat files, 1968-1973

Selected Published Sources

  • De Vries, Margaret G., The International Monetary Fund 1966-1971: The System Under Stress, Volume I: Narrative (Washington, D.C.: The International Monetary Fund, 1976)
  • ——, The International Monetary Fund 1972-1978: Cooperation on Trial, Volume I: Narrative and Analysis (Washington, D.C.: The International Monetary Fund, 1985)
  • The Economic Report of the President, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971, 1973, 1974, 1975).
  • Haldeman, H.R., The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the White House (New York: G.P. Putnam Sons, 1994)
  • ——, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House, the Complete Multimedia Edition (Santa Monica, CA: Sony Electronic Publishing, 1994)
  • Kissinger, Henry, White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979)
  • ——, Years of Upheaval (Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1982)
  • NATO Final Communiques 1949-1974 (Brussels, NATO Information Service, 1975)
  • Nixon, Richard M., RN, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1978)
  • Peterson, Peter G., The United States in a Changing World Economy, 2 Volumes (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972).
  • Safire, William, Before the Fall: An Inside View of the Pre Watergate White House (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975)
  • Shultz, George P. and Kenneth W. Dam, Economic Policy Beyond the Headlines (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977)
  • Solomon, Robert, The International Monetary System, 1945-1976: An Insider’s View (New York: Harper and Row, 1976)
  • U.S. Department of State, Department of State Bulletin, 1969-1972.
  • U.S. Foreign Policy for the 1970’s: A New Strategy for Peace, A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, February 18, 1970
  • U.S. Foreign Policy for the 1970’s: Building For Peace, A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, February 25, 1971.
  • U.S. Foreign Policy for the 1970’s: The Emerging Structure of Peace: A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, February 9, 1972.
  • U.S. Foreign Policy for the 1970’s: Shaping a Durable Peace, A Report to the Congress by Richard Nixon, May 3, 1973.
  • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973)
  • United States Foreign Policy, 1969-1970, 1971, 1972: A Report of the Secretary of State (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971, 1972, 1973)
  • Volcker, Paul A. and Toyoo Gyohten, Changing Fortunes: The World’s Money and the Threat to American Leadership (New York: Times Books, 1992)