780.5/9–2853: Telegram

No. 153
The Ambassador in Turkey (Warren) to the Department of State


332. Reference: Embtel 291, September 17, 1953.1 General Ayub and Major General Mirza guests in Istanbul at dinner party given for Kyes and Nash2 with whom they had lengthy conversations. Next day Mirza returned to Karachi and Ayub flew to US arriving New York 27th for three weeks tour American military installations guest Department Army.3 Nash told him he would see him Washington after he and Kyes returned Defense Department October 8.

Ayub and Mirza told me they were impressed with ability of Turkish training and attitude of American teaching staff many of whom they met during tour of Turkish installations that included visits to Fifth Armored Brigade, Signal School, Air Force School, Air Technical School, Communications School, First Army Headquarters [garble] Staff School and Cavalry School. They also saw some maneuvers including tanks and were impressed generally with Turkish military posture.

Ayub told me at private luncheon he had brought Mirza along with him to Turkey in event there should be some indication from Turks of an interest in Pakistani participation in Western defense scheme. The only Cabinet member he met was new Minister of Defense who did not impress him. He said Minister was obviously a stop-gap appointment who was holding down portfolio until after next year’s election. He found no disposition on part of Turks to talk about substantive matters of area defense. He did not meet President, Prime Minister or Foreign Minister all of whom were not available at places he visited.

He had one criticism of Turkish attitude. He said he had not seen their mountain troops but he did have impression they trying place too much emphasis on armor which in his opinion would be of little use to them in event of hostilities except possibility in Thrace and would require adequate air cover. He thought use of armor on Anatolian Plateau without air cover was to make their forces there sitting ducks for Soviet air attack.

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General Shephard who attended dinner in Istanbul informs me Ayub answered question put to him by Frank Nash as to guarantees Pakistanis might offer that they would not use a reinforced military establishment against India by saying he was prepared to give any guarantees that might be suggested by US.

  1. Supra.
  2. Circular airgram 830, Aug. 18, not printed, gave details of a proposed trip by Deputy Secretary of Defense Roger M. Kyes. (102.202/8–1853)
  3. For documentation on U.S. relations with Pakistan, including the question of military assistance, see vol. xi. Part 2, pp. 1818 ff.