The Ambassador in China (Stuart) to the Secretary of State
[Received July 6—3:05 a.m.]
1466. Second of 4 telegrams.36 Mackiernan’s trip (Tihwa’s 287, June 27, 4 p.m.):
“Following evidence observed of Soviet activities and influence:
Russian military matériel captured from Mongolians include: OBK single shot, 50 caliber, anti-tank rifle; several Degtyarev submachine guns; 30 caliber light machine guns; fragmentation grenades; and first aid kits.
No evidence Russian personnel actually directing Mongolian operations. Planes which bombed and strafed Chinese positions reported to have been single engine bi-planes with the insignia on wings and fuselage, Red Star with hammer and sickle thereon. (The addition of the implements on the regular Soviet star might have been imagined on analogy of captured Mongolian cap insignia thus marked as reported my telegram 267, June 15,36a since the planes were bombing from a height and were not observed during strafing owing to personnel being busy seeking cover and planes flying fast. Five planes bombed on June 5, 3 and 2 on succeeding days, on 8th plane reconnoitered but without bombing. On 17 June another plane was heard but unseen.
Soviet mining expedition of about 200 men, according to Osman, Kazak chieftain, entered Ashan zone May 1946 through Fuwen and Ining by truck accompanied by Red Army guards and established airfield at Chenghua. Expeditions still in Ashan working mines near Chenghua and Fuwen for four types of minerals, called by Russians: ‘Wolumbyet, beryl and spodumene,’ fourth unidentified. Russians pay biggest price in cloth for first to Kazak natives. Chinese claim it [Page 568] is wolfram but specific gravity as determined on return to Tihwa is 6.3 while wolfram is 7.5 (samples follow with despatch).
Coordinates of foregoing places mentioned as follows: Koktobai also called Fuwen 47 degrees 13 minutes north, 89 degrees 38 minutes east, Chenghua also called Aertai also called Sharasume 47 degrees 50 minutes north 88 degrees 7 minutes east.
Sample expedition Osman claims furnished materiel including mortars and light artillery to his Kazak opposition under general direction of Talihan, usurper of Osman’s position but under the field direction of Bai Talihan, brother of former and this March Mongolians provided them some 100 rifles.
Soviet propaganda work performed by about 20 Kazak families, according to Kapaz. Russian born Karak, Ahung, a Muslim religious leader educated in Egypt, now working for Osman on counter-Soviet propaganda among Kazaks in (?) zone. They are now based on Chingho (90 degrees 30 minutes east by 46 degrees 30 minutes north) but operated from Peitashan to Chenghua. Kapaz declares his own appeal to Muslim faith provides effective counter-Soviet propaganda. Paxton.”