The Acting Representative in Rumania ( Melbourne ) to the Secretary of State
517. Soviet civilians apparently here to stay, influx continuing. Greatest increase has been noticeable in past year. These civilians divide into three categories:
(1) Top men and technicians in joint Soviet and Rumanian business enterprises aimed at integrating Rumanian economy with Soviets (2) secret police of various types controlling political and security situation. (See Mistel 312 of April 151). (3) Civilians performing auxiliary services for Soviet Army formerly done by troops. It is impossible to estimate exact number of civilians but guess would be 20 to 40,000 concentrated in urban areas of Constanza, Buda, Galatz, Braila, Craiova, Brasov and Calarasi. Military Attaché designate estimates total number Soviet troops in Rumania at 75,000. All civilians bring families, keep together and avoid contact with Rumanians and foreigners. No attempt at disguise made as many wear Soviet military decorations on distinctive badly cut civilian suits. Local attitude is passive as there is little or no contact with Soviet civilians, Soviets acting through Russian [Rumanian?] counterparts. Attitude of local population is latently hostile with Soviets making every effort to avoid friction (reference Deptel 329 June 41).
Constanza is center of activities. Estimate there are 30,000 troops and 4,000 civilians in Constanza area which is troop replacement and reparation shipping center. Number in rest of Dobrudja unestimated. [Page 490] At least 36 primary schools in Constanza and many recreational facilities. There is heavy buying and requisitioning of foodstuffs by Soviet authorities in addition to large-scale requisitioning of housing.
The over-all plan appears to be: Tight control of Rumanian economy, participation in major industries, and maintenance of security police force of type found in Soviet Union for control of political situation in Rumania. The number of Soviet civilians is believed by observers as certain to increase with mounting evidence of long stay in Rumania. It is felt on basis of evidence by this Mission and US Military Mission that Soviets plan to secure dominance in Dobrudja, looking toward eventual annexation.
The Soviet authorities are very interested in and keep close check on all known Armenians and White Russians. Some are used for Communist propaganda or activities. Ten skilled technicians have been forcibly repatriated and a number of Armenians and White Russians have been voluntarily repatriated. Others are allowed to remain here apparently after being cleared by security agents and if not dangerous to Communists.