This volume was prepared under the direct supervision of S. Everett Gleason, Chief of the Foreign Relations Division, assisted by Fredrick Aandahl.

Ralph E. Goodwin, and former staff member Marvin W. Kranz were responsible for the documentation on European economic recovery (the Marshall Plan), and on other aspects of United States foreign economic policy.

David H. Stauffer compiled the documentation on United States policies with respect to Iceland, Canada (including Newfoundland), India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir dispute.

Former staff member, Howard M. Smyth, prepared the materials on Italy, and on the disposition of the former Italian colonies. He also compiled the documentation on the peace treaties with Italy, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary.

Documentation on United States policies with respect to Portugal, Spain and France was the work of former staff member Owen Sappington, in the last mentioned instance in collaboration with Mr. Aandahl. Mr. Aandahl was also responsible for the compilation on the publication by the Department of State of Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939–1941.

Rogers P. Churchill compiled the materials on American concern over Soviet demands on Norway with respect to Spitsbergen and Bear Island.

William Slany prepared the documentation on arrangements with Denmark for the defense of Greenland.

The Publishing and Reproduction Services Division (Jerome H. Perlmutter, Chief) was responsible for the technical editing of this volume.

William M. Franklin

Director, Historical Office
Bureau of Public Affairs
[Page IV]

Principles for the Compilation and Editing of “Foreign Relations”

The principles which guide the compilation and editing of Foreign Relations are stated in Department of State Regulation 2 FAM 1350 of June 15, 1961, a revision of the order approved on March 26, 1925, by Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, then Secretary of State. The text of the regulation, as further amended, is printed below:

1350 Documentary Record of American Diplomacy

1351 Scope of Documentation

The publication Foreign Relations of the United States constitutes the official record of the foreign policy of the United States. These volumes include, subject to necessary security considerations, all documents needed to give a comprehensive record of the major foreign policy decisions within the range of the Department of State’s responsibilities, together with appropriate materials concerning the facts which contributed to the formulation of policies. When further material is needed to supplement the documentation in the Department’s files for a proper understanding of the relevant policies of the United States, such papers should be obtained from other Government agencies.

1352 Editorial Preparation

The basic documentary diplomatic record to be printed in Foreign Relations of the United States is edited by the Historical Office, Bureau of Public Affairs of the Department of State. The editing of the record is guided by the principles of historical objectivity. There may be no alteration of the text, no deletions without indicating where in the text the deletion is made, and no omission of facts which were of major importance in reaching a decision. Nothing may be omitted for the purpose of concealing or glossing over what might be regarded by some as a defect of policy. However, certain omissions of documents are permissible for the following reasons:

To avoid publication of matters which would tend to impede current diplomatic negotiations or other business.
To condense the record and avoid repetition of needless details.
To preserve the confidence reposed in the Department by individuals and by foreign governments.
To avoid giving needless offense to other nationalities or individuals.
To eliminate personal opinions presented in despatches and not acted upon by the Department. To this consideration there is one qualification—in connection with major decisions it is desirable, where possible, to show the alternatives presented to the Department before the decision was made.

[Page V]

1353 Clearance

To obtain appropriate clearances of material to be published in Foreign Relations of the United States, the Historical Office:

Refers to the appropriate policy offices of the Department and of other agencies of the Government such papers as appear to require policy clearance.
Refers to the appropriate foreign governments requests for permission to print as part of the diplomatic correspondence of the United States those previously unpublished documents which were originated by the foreign governments.