Marshall Mission Files, Lot 54–D270

Memorandum by General Marshall to the Secretary of State

OSE 569

Recently I called upon the U. S. Commissioner at Peiping94 to give me his estimate of the extent to which the effectiveness of teams and Executive Headquarters had been limited by the ill will and suspicion generated by Communist propaganda.

Attached is a paraphrased message and his report95 on this subject.

G. C. Marshall
[Page 498]

Lieutenant General Alvan C. Gillem, Jr., to General Marshall

10787 [Paraphrase]. 171596 is reference. Ill will and suspicion against American officers in the field, in my opinion, has reached the point where it would not destroy the usefulness of the teams but it would retard their work in Communist Party territory. Remaining largely unimpaired is the civilian confidence, in Communist areas, in the personal integrity and intent of the individual American officers assigned to Field Teams. The rank and file of the Communist Party army, on the other hand, are antagonistic, under the surface, as a result of the vicious propaganda. These rank and file regard conciliation with a tongue in cheek attitude. With a reversal in the controlled Anti-American propaganda, such could change overnight, I believe.

A complete lack of spontaneity appears to be the common denominator for all Communist inspired demonstrations. American witnesses unanimously indicate that such demonstrations as they have seen are supervised by the Communist Army authorities, deliberately staged, and attended by the people on order. Except when pressurized, the Anti-American campaign in liberated areas has been apparently unproductive as concerns the people and soldiers in the non-formal Army. There remains a doubt that the distrust and feeling of antagonism on the part of the formal army and the usual petty officials with whom, unfortunately, the teams are in frequent contact, has been intensified by the campaign. Taking the changes in the attitude of usual contacts as a gauge, the effectiveness of the field teams therefore has been adversely affected.

In the event of successful negotiation leading to cessation of hostilities, the effectiveness of our teams in Communist Party territory, will therefore be improved in direct proportion to the positive action by senior Communist Party authorities, endorsing our efforts as mediators, in instituting measures which will reverse the current propaganda which is Anti-American.

Will send more complete information by letter.

  1. Lt. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, Jr.
  2. Report dated November 6, not printed.
  3. Not printed.