CFM Files

Draft Peace Treaty With Finland19

Preamble

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, Australia, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Czechoslovakia, India, New Zealand, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Union of South Africa, as the States which are at war with Finland and actively waged war against the European enemy states with substantial military force, hereinafter called the Allied and Associated Powers, of the one part, and Finland, of the other part;

Whereas Finland, having become an ally of Hitlerite Germany and participating on her side in the war against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and other United Nations, bears her share of responsibility for this war;

Whereas, however, Finland on September 4, 1944, entirely ceased military operation against the U.S.S.R., withdrew from the war against the United Nations, broke off relations with Germany and her satellites, and, having concluded on September 19, 1944, an Armistice with the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom,20 acting on behalf of the United Nations at war with Finland, loyally carried out the Armistice terms; and

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Whereas the Allied and Associated Powers and Finland are respectively desirous of concluding a treaty of peace which will form the basis of friendly relations between them and settle questions still outstanding as a result of the events hereinbefore recited; thereby enabling the Allied and Associated Powers to support Finland’s application to become a member of the United Nations and also to adhere to any convention concluded under the auspices of the United Nations.

Have therefore agreed to declare the cessation of the state of war and for this purpose to conclude the present Peace Treaty and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21a who, after presentation of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:

Part I. Territorial Clauses

Article 1

The frontiers of Finland, as shown on the map annexed to this Treaty (Annex 1), shall be those existing on January 1, 1941, except as provided in the following Article.

Article 2

In accordance with the Armistice Agreement of September 19, 1944, Finland confirms the return to the Soviet Union of the province of Petsamo (Pechenga) voluntarily ceded to Finland by the Soviet State under the Peace Treaties of October 14, 1920, and March 12, 1940.21 The frontiers of the province of Petsamo (Pechenga) are shown on the map annexed to the present Treaty (Annex 1).

Part II. Political Clauses

Section I

Article 3

In accordance with the Armistice Agreement, the effect of the Peace Treaty between the Soviet Union and Finland concluded in Moscow on March 12, 1940, is restored, subject to the replacement of Articles 4, 5 and 6 of that Treaty by Articles 2 and 4 of the present Treaty.

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Article 4

1.
In accordance with the Armistice Agreement the Soviet Union confirms the renunciation of its right to the lease of the Peninsula of Hangö, accorded to it by the Soviet-Finnish Peace Treaty of March 12, 1940, and Finland for her part confirms having granted to the Soviet Union on the basis of a 50 years lease at an annual rent payable by the Soviet Union of 5 million Finnish marks the use and administration of territory and waters for the establishment of a Soviet naval base in the area of Porkkala-Udd as shown on the map annexed to this Treaty (Annex 1).
2.
Finland confirms having secured to the Soviet Union in accordance with the Armistice Agreement, the use of the railways, waterways, roads and air routes necessary for the transport of personnel and freight despatched from the Soviet Union to the naval base at Porkkala-Udd, and also confirms having granted to the Soviet Union the right of unimpeded use of all forms of communication between the U.S.S.R. and the territory leased in the area of Porkkala-Udd.

Article 5

The Aaland Islands shall remain demilitarized in accordance with the situation as at present existing.

Articles 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Articles 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10, respectively, of the Draft Rumanian Treaty.]

Part III. Military, Air and Naval Clauses

Article 13

1.
The maintenance of land, sea and air armaments and fortifications shall be closely restricted to those required for meeting tasks of an internal character and local defence of frontiers. In accordance with this principle, Finland is authorised to have armed forces consisting of not more than:
a.
A land army, including frontier troops and anti-aircraft Artillery, with a total strength of 34,400 personnel;
b.
A Navy with a personnel strength of 4,500 and a total tonnage of 10,000 tons;
c.
An airforce, including any naval air arm, of 60 aircraft, including reserves, with a total personnel strength of 3,000. Finland shall not possess or acquire aircraft designed primarily as bombers with internal bomb-carrying facilities.
2.
These strengths will in each case include combat, service and overhead personnel.

Article 14

[Virtually identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 12 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty.]

Articles 15, 16, and 17

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Articles 13, 14, and 15, respectively, of the Draft Rumanian Treaty.]

Article 18

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 16 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty with the following exception: paragraphs 2 and 3 of the Rumanian treaty Article are combined in the single paragraph 2 here and subsequent paragraphs are renumbered accordingly.]

Article 19

[Virtually identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 17 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty.]

Articles 20 and 21

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Articles 18 and 19 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty.]

Part IV. Reparation and Restitution

Article 22

Losses caused to the Soviet Union by military operations and by the occupation by Finland of Soviet territory will be made good by Finland to the Soviet Union, but taking into consideration that Finland has not only withdrawn from the war against the United Nations but has declared war on Germany and assisted with her forces in driving-German troops out of Finland, the parties agree that compensation for the above losses will be made by Finland not in full, but only in part, namely to the amount of 300 million United States dollars payable over 8 years as from September 19, 1944, in commodities—timber products, paper, cellulose, sea-going and river craft, sundry machinery, etc.

The basis for calculation for the payment of indemnity will be the United States dollar at its gold parity on the day of the signing of the Armistice Agreement, i. e. 35 dollars for one ounce of gold.

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Article 23

Finland, in so far as she has not yet done so, undertakes within the time limits indicated by the Government of the U.S.S.R. to return to the Soviet Union in complete good order all valuables and materials removed from its territory during the war, and belonging to State, public and co-operative organisations, enterprises, institutions or individual citizens, such as: factory and works equipment, locomotives, rolling stock, tractors, motor vehicles, historic monuments, museum valuables and any other property.

Part V. Economic Clauses

Article 24

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 68 of the Draft Italian Treaty with the following exceptions: the U.S. proposal in paragraph 4 of the Italian Article appears here as a U.K. proposal; the note appearing at the end of paragraph 4 of the Italian Article, indicating U.K. and French approval of the U.S. proposal, is not included here. The date of June 22, 1941 is used here in place of the date of June 10, 1940 appearing in the Italian treaty Article.]

Article 25

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 25 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty.]

Article 26

1.
Insofar as any such rights were restricted on account of Finland’s participation in the war on Germany’s side, the rights of the Finnish Government and of any Finnish national or legal persons relating to Finnish property or other Finnish assets on Allied and Associated Powers territory shall be restored after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
2.
Any restrictions imposed in respect of any Finnish property in Germany and in other countries which participated in the war on Germany’s side shall be removed after the coming into force of the present Treaty. The rights of any Finnish owners with regard to the disposal of any such property shall also be restored.
3.
Finland shall be entitled to the restitution of any identifiable property removed by force or duress from Finland after September 19, 1944, and now located in Germany.
The restitution of any Finnish property now located in Germany shall be carried out under the direction of the military authorities of the Powers in occupation of Germany.

The U.K. Delegation propose deletion of paragraph 3.

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Article 27

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 29 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty with the following exceptions: the second sentence of paragraph 2 of the Rumanian Article is not included here; paragraph 4 of the Rumanian Article is not repeated here.]

Article 28

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 30 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty with the following exceptions: joint U.K., U.S. and French proposals to paragraph 1 c and paragraph 2 of the Rumanian Article appear here as U.K. proposals; the further addition to paragraph 1 c of the Rumanian Article proposed by the U.S. and supported by the U.K. is not repeated here.]

Article 29

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 31 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Article 72 of the Draft Italian Treaty with the following exception: the U.S. and French propositions at the end of the Rumanian and Italian Articles are not repeated here.]

Articles 30 and 31

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Articles 32 and 33 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Articles 73 and 74 of the Draft Italian Treaty.]

Part VI. Final Clauses

Article 32

1.
For a period not to exceed 18 months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Ministers in Helsinki of the U.S.S.R. and U.K. acting in concert will represent the Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the Finnish Government in all matters concerning the execution and interpretation of the present Treaty.
2.
The two Ministers will give to the Finnish Government such guidance, technical advice and clarification as may be necessary to ensure rapid and efficient compliance with the spirit and terms of the present Treaty.
3.
The Finnish Government undertakes to afford the said Ministers all necessary information and any assistance they may require for the fulfilment of the tasks devolving on them under the present Treaty.
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Article 33

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 36 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Article 76 of the Draft Italian Treaty with the exception that the joint U.K.-U.S. proposal of the Rumanian and Italian Articles appears here as a U.K. proposal.]

Article 34

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Article 38 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Article 78 of the Draft Italian Treaty.]

Annex 1

(See Articles 1, 2 and 4)

Map of Finnish Frontiers21a

Annex 2

(See Article 15)

Definition of Military, Air and Naval Training

[Identical to Annex 2 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Annex 5 B of the Draft Italian Treaty.]

Annex 3

(See Article 16)

Definition and List of War Material

[Identical to Annex 3 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Annex 5 C of the Draft Italian Treaty.]

Annex 4

Special Provisions Relating to Certain Kinds of Property

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Annex 6 of the Draft Italian Treaty and Annexes 4 A and 4 B of the Draft Rumanian Treaty with the exception that the U.S. position specified at the end of A 4 of the Italian and Rumanian annexes is not repeated here.]

Annex 5

Contracts, Prescriptions and Negotiable Instruments

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Annex 5 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty with the exception that the footnote describing the position of the U.S. and French Delegations is not repeated here.]

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Annex 6

Prize Courts and Judgments

[Identical, mutatis mutandis, to Annex 6 of the Draft Rumanian Treaty and Annex 8 of the Draft Italian Treaty with the following exceptions: the U.S. proposal supported by U.S.S.R. under B. Judgments of the Rumanian and Italian annexes appears here as a U.S.S.R. proposal; the French proposal under B. Judgments of the Rumanian and Italian annexes is not repeated here.]

  1. The table of contents and the list of annexes in the source text are not printed here.
  2. For text, see British and Foreign State Papers, vol. cxlv, p. 513.
  3. Ellipsis occurs in the source text.
  4. For text of the Treaty of October 14, 1920, see League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. iii, pp. 5–79. For text of the Treaty of March 12, 1940, see the Department of State Bulletin, April 27, 1940, pp. 453–456.
  5. Map not reproduced.